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BIOL 562 Exam III Study Guide

by: Kathryn Chaffee

BIOL 562 Exam III Study Guide BIOL 562

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > BIOL 562 > BIOL 562 Exam III Study Guide
Kathryn Chaffee

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About this Document

Covers the information that will be on the third exam.
Neural Systems
Dr. Sahley
Study Guide
Neural Systems; Biology; Psychology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Chaffee on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 562 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Sahley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Neural Systems in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Material for this exam is focused on the auditory system and language. Auditory System: Parts of the system Functional Anatomy of the Auditory System:  Ear collects sound waves from the surrounding air  Converts mechanical energy into electrochemical neural energy  Routed through the brainstem to the auditory cortex  Transduction of sound waves into neural activity takes place in the hair cells - 3500 inner hair cells (auditory receptors) - 12,000 outer hair cells (alters stiffness of tectorial membrane)  Movement of the basilar membrane stimulates the hair cells via bending and shearing action  Movement of cilia on hair cells changes membrane potential and alters neurotransmitter release Hair cells – sensory transducing organ of the brain  Specificity  Intensity *Cases in which the hair cells are damaged Outer Ear (ear canal)  Protects the ear canal & middle ear  Amplifies sound pressure  Creates cues for sound localization Middle Ear  Serves to match the impedance between the air-filled ear canal (low impedance) and the fluid filled cochlea (high impedance)  Works to increase the vibrations by a factor of 22:1 - Decreased surface area - Lever ratio - Buckling motion of the tympanic membrane  Ossicular Chain (bones of the middle ear) - Malleus, incus, stapes  Middle Ear Cavity - Air filled - Connects to the nasal pharynx via the Eustachian tube  Eardrum is connected to the malleus, incus, and stapes Inner Ear (cochlea)  Fluid-filled snail shaped structure  Cochlea connects to the footplate stapes via the oval window  Primary sense organ for hearing  Divided into 3 divisions - Scala Vestibuli – filled with perilymph - Scala Media – filled with endolymph  The organ of Corti is within this division - Scala Typmpani – filled with perilymph Tonotopy  The spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequency are processed in the brain  Tones close to each other in terms of frequency are represented in topologically neighboring regions in the brain  Tonotopy in the auditory system begins in the cochlea  Each hair cell corresponds to a specific frequency  The hair cells are organized so that high frequencies are at the base of the cochlea (closest to the oval window) and low frequencies are at the apex (farthest from the oval window)  Narrow base and wider apex  Auditory stimulus representation is tonotopic How is sound encoded?  The auditory nerve represents the output of the cochlea and the input to the central nervous system - Any information used for normal auditory perception passes through the auditory nerve  The sound frequency induces a change in the basilar membrane that activates an auditory nerve fiber that sends the signal to the central nervous system  Auditory nerve fibers “phase lock” to the oscillations in the sound wave  The population of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers provide information to the brain in terms of both - Discharge rate (# of spikes) vs. place (fiber CF) - Spike timing  Various types of information (neural codes) are available in the population of AN fibers - Within-channel  Rate (number of spikes)  Timing - Across-channel (spatiotemporal)  Spatial (relative BFs)  Temporal (relative timing across fibers) Hair cells and sensorineural hearing loss:  High sensitivity and sharp tuning are characteristics of normal hearing that are damaged with sensorineural hearing loss  High sensitivity - allows soft sounds to be detected  Sharp tuning – allows useful spectral features to be discriminated  Damage to hair-cell function is a major component of sensorineural hearing loss  Inner hair cells [red] transduce basilar membrane motion to electrical impulses in auditory nerve (AN) fibers  Arranged in a linear formation  Outer hair cells [green] are small motors that increase the amplitude and frequency selectivity of basilar membrane  Arranged in an arc formation  Afferent information, information going into the brain, comes from inner hair cells  Outer hair cells are amplifiers by pulling up on the basilar membrane when it goes up and pushing down when it moves down  Damaged stereocilia are common with noise-induced hearing loss, and can impair the functionality of intact hair cells  Damage to the Stria Vascularis is common with age-related hearing loss  Stria Vascularis damage reduces the “battery” that powers both inner and out hair cell function Language - Review in your text: Box 27A – Speech Organs that produce speech:  Lungs – reservoir of air  Larynx – source of the periodic stimulus quality of “voiced” sounds  Pharynx  Oral and nasal cavities and their included structures (tongue, teeth, and lips) – modify (filter) the sounds that emanate from the speaker General operation of the vocal apparatus: Air expelled from the lungs accelerates as it passes through a constricted opening between the vocal cords called the glottis, thus decreasing the pressure in the air stream. As a result, the vocal cords come together until the pressure build-up in the lungs forces them open again. The ongoing iteration of this process results in an oscillation of sound wave pressure, the frequency of which is determined primarily by the muscles that control the tension on the vocal cords. The fundamental frequency of these oscillations is the basis of the power in voiced speech sounds. The larynx is important in the production of all vocalizations. For the vocal tract, the natural resonances that modulate the air stream generated by the larynx are called formants. Formants are peaks of power in the spectrum of a vocal sound stimulus. In any given language, the basic speech sounds are called phones and the percepts they elicit phonemes; different phones are produced as the muscles of the vocal tract change the tension on the vocal fold and the shape of the resonant cavities above the folds. Phones make up syllables in speech, which are then strung together to create sentences. Consonant sounds are categorized according to the site in the vocal tract that determines them (the place of articulation) and the physical way in which they are generated (the manner of articulation). Source-filter model of speech production: 1. Airstream from lungs to larynx 2. Vibrating vocal cords (source) 3. Vocal tract (filter) 4. Output sound Aphasias: Damage to specific brain areas can compromise essential language functions while leaving the sensory and motor infrastructure of verbal communication intact. Aphasias diminish or abolish the ability to comprehend and/or to produce language as a vehicle for communicating meaningful statements, while sparing the ability to perceive the relevant stimuli and to produce intelligible words. These patients are unable to recognize or employ the symbolic value of words correctly, thus depriving such individuals of the linguistic understanding, grammatical and syntactical organization, and/or appropriate intonation that distinguishes language from nonsense. Broca suggested that language abilities were localized in the ventroposterior region of the frontal lobe. Broca’s Aphasia: 1. Production of language impaired – such as speaking 2. Other aspects of language preserved 3. Prevents person from forming intelligible words or sentences but can understand others 4. Can’t transform their thoughts into words 5. Some individuals can say a few words but use telegraphic speech to communicate 6. Because stroke is near the motor area, Broca’s aphasia is often accompanied by hemiparesis or hemiplegia, agraphia Wernicke’s Aphasia: 1. Language comprehension 2. Can’t understand others or even themselves when speaking 3. Their speech is incomprehensible 4. Produce sentences in which words are arranged randomly 5. Speakers feel that they are being understood – lack of awareness of impairment Conduction Aphasia: 1. Characterized by a poor ability to repeat speech 2. Patients are aware of their errors 3. Due to a disconnect between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas frequently caused by stroke Apraxia: 1. Patients impaired in ability to coordinate speech movements but the ability to perceive speech sounds is preserved Know distinction between Broca’s Aphasia, Wernicke’s Aphasia, Conduction Aphasi and Apraxia. Broca’s Aphasia  Lesions of the left frontal lobe in Broca’s area affect the ability to produce language efficiently  Also referred to as motor or expressive aphasia  Distinguished by dysarthria, which is the inability to properly move the muscles of the mouth, tongue, and pharynx that mediate speaking  The deficient motor-planning aspects of Broca’s aphasia accord with complex motor functions of the posterior frontal lobe and its proximity to the primary motor cortex  The patient cannot express himself fluently because the organizational aspects of language have been disrupted Wernicke’s Aphasia  Damage to the left temporal lobe causes difficulty understanding spoken language, a deficiency also referred to as sensory or receptive aphasia  Generally reflects damage to the auditory association cortices in the posterior temporal lobe, a region referred to as Wernicke’s area  Difficulty in putting together objects or ideas and the words that signify them  Speech is fluent and well structured, but makes little or no sense because words and meanings are not correctly linked Conduction Aphasia  Arise from lesions to the pathways connecting the relevant temporal and frontal regions, such as the arcuate fasciculus in the subcortical white matter that links Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas  Interruption of these pathways may result in an inability to produce appropriate responses to heard communication, even though the communication is understood Mapping language functions - Nina Dronkers work  “A new brain region for coordinating speech articulation”  MRI and CT scans on 25 patients with disorder with motor planning (Apraxia) and 19 patients without the disorder  She did computer reconstructions of the brains using CT and MRI scans and superimposed the images to determine if there was one spot in the brain unique to apraxia – double dissociation in which only the patients with apraxia has the lesion in the insula, 100% of apraxia patients had the lesion and 0% of the patients without the disorder had the lesion  Insula – located within the precentral gyrus; multifunctional cortical tissue that contains regions related to language, to the perception of taste, and to the neural structures underlying social cognition Two research talks: Please be prepared to discuss the research presented for both Dr. Heinz and Dr. Weber Dr. Weber 1. Area of research One of the domains we are studying is language; within this domain, they are studying how functional neural systems for language processing may differ between preschool CWS and typically fluent peers. They are also interested in determining if these systems may differ for children who have recovered from stuttering and those who persist. Finally, they are examining whether neural functions for language at age 4-5 years may help predict eventual recovery or persistence in stuttering. 2. Methods used They recruit 4-5 year olds with and without stutters (122 with and 66 without) and follow for 5 years. All the children have a normal non-verbal IQ, normal hearing, normal vision, no history of neurological impairments, and do not take medications that may interact with neural/motor functions. They record EEG while the child watches and listens to child friendly words, sentences. The EEG are then time-locked and averaged according to particular stimuli of interest in contrasting conditions. 3. Be able to describe 1 of their experiments in detail including what was found and conclusions. They record EEG while the child watches and listens to child friendly words, sentences. The EEG are then time-locked and averaged according to particular stimuli of interest in contrasting conditions. All of the stimuli are naturally spoken, with normal prosody and rate. They may show a video that contains several different language anomalies and their control sentences. The results show that the amplitude of the P600 for the control and phase structure violation conditions was significant over the left hemisphere for the typically developing preschool children, and while the CWS show a robust effect, it is significant only over the right hemisphere. Remember, in the group of 27 CWS, we expect about half to recover, so this includes those who will eventually recover and those who will persist. The differences are fairly subtle, however, it provides evidence that preschool CWS may have atypical right lateralization of neural functions for at least some aspects of language processing. Tripartite synapse refers to the functional integration and physical proximity of the presynaptic membrane (axon), postsynaptic membrane, and their intimate association with surrounding glia as well as the combined contributions of these three synaptic components to the production of activity at the chemical synapse. Glia are not merely passive neuronal support cells but, instead, play an active role in the integration of synaptic information through bidirectional communication with the neuronal components of the synapse as mediated by neurotransmitters. Hair Cells Ear produces sounds: otoacoustic emissions  With a microphone in the ear canal, you can record sounds that are different than what you put in (or in the absence of sound)  Non-invasive measure of cochlear function in humans  Outer hair cells create a new sound after sound input When inner hair cells are damaged, damage is most severe to the tallest cilia. When outer hair cells are damaged, cilia are fused and/or detached. There is a correlation between different types of hair-cell damage and changes in auditory-nerve fiber tuning.  Normal AN-fiber tuning curves have excellent sensitivity and sharp tuning  Outer hair cell damage/loss results in loss of sensitivity and broadened tuning  Inner hair cell damage results in loss of sensitivity without broadened tuning Damage to the stria vascularis is common to age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).  Stria vascularis damage reduces the “battery” that powers both inner and outer hair cell function  Thus, both noise damage and age-related hearing loss are likely to be caused by a mixture of IHC and OHC damage  Ototoxic drugs typically cause damage to either OHCs or IHCs


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