BIOGEOGRAPHY GEOG 167
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 167 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/226991/geog-167-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Study guide for Midterm 11 lectures 10 16 Study tips Study guide for Midterm II Form study groups Go through each slide being able to explain to yourselfand others the main point Re read or skim over the relevant chapters of the book take note of bolded words and major concepts Lecture 1 0 Disturbance 39 Dendrochronology O O cross dating tree rings why is cross dating useful What is the impact of aseasonality in the tropics on dendrochronology 39 Fire physical O O 0 What are a few fire adapted ecosystems How do ground and canopy fires di er in intensity What are some key controls on re 39 Fire adaptations O O O O O O 0 What does it mean a conifer tree cone is serotinous What is an example of a tree species that has serotinous cones What are some ecological bene ts of seed dispersingsprouting post re Explain what it means a seed requires scarification prior to germination Give an example of a plant species that requires scari cation by re in CA think of Chaparral plants Sequoia trees are good examples of what kind of adaptation to fire Explain how re suppression a ects damage to Sequoia crowns A plant s ability to sprout from its trunk or branches after a fire is called List two trees that do this one is native to CA the other is invasive A lignotuber is what What plants in SoCal possess these lignotubers Human impact of re history Lecture 11 Disturbance Fire and Biomes 39 Fire 0 What is the potential fate of a grassland not maintained by re What is thicketization Where and why does it occur Ignition limited vs substrate limited fires Is the Sahara ignition or substrate limited How so What is the fire return interval What ecosystem is most a ected by fires in Africa Why Sources of ignition Abram paper fire coral die o What is the take home message Be able to explain the sequence of events described in the paper Biomes o Biome vs community vs ecotone o Equivalence of latitude and altitude o Holdridge life zones how are they organized OOOOOOO Lecture 12 Communities and Biomes Explain to a friend the di erence between PET ALT and the Deficit and why it is helpful to consider these terms when discussing plant community distributions Be able to sketch the distribution of biomes as a function of deficit ac axis and actual evapotranspiration y axis How do forests and woodlands di er structurally Scrub and shrubland Compare andcontrastthe stats for each biome covered in class e g Area Avg temp Precip NPP Biomass Soil type 0 Tropical rainforest I Is the DTR in a tropical rainforest large or small I Where are the emergent trees in the canopy structure I How does RH light and temperature change as you move from the understory to the top of the canopy I Why is biotic dispersal of seeds important in a tropical rainforest I Why does the name corpse flower help you remember an important aspect of its natural history I How do the water sources ofhemi epiphytes change over the course of its lifedevelopment How are stable isotopes used to distinguish the use of di erent water sources I What is an epiphyte I How does a strangler fig kill its host tree 0 Tropical savanna I In the dry season is precipitation greater or lesser than evaporation What is the relationship between ALT and PET in the dry season I Where are savannas in the world I Why is the I TCZ important for the seasonality in this biome I Are C3 or C4 grasses dominant in this biome 0 Desert I How does the relationship between P and 13 define a desert I Explain the significance of pulsey rainfall in the desert with respect to plant reproduction Why is the area east of the Sierra Nevada a desert What are the four major deserts in the US What are major di erences between them Besides being a physiological adaptation to an arid climate why does the Cholla cactus have spines Lecture 13 Communities and Biomes Changing continents and climates 0 Mediterranean I Be aware ofthe di erence between mean and median when describing annual rainfall amounts I Where are Mediterranean biomes located in the world I Why is the summer brown and winter green in Med biomes I Would you describe the interannual variation in rainfall on Santa Cruz Island to be low or high over time I Instead of summer rain what ambient moisture exists during summertime months I What are a few key plant adaptations to drought conditions in this biome I What plant characteristics indicate that they are fire and drought adapted o Temperate grassland I Where are temperate grasslands and what are their di erent names I How does the structure and productivity of prairie grasslands change from west to east starting from the eastern foothills of the Rockies What drives this change I Since there is enough total precipitation in the tallgrass prairie to support trees why then don t they invade I Why are mollisols valuable soils for agriculture I Explain the significance of stolons and rhizomes in response to grazing and fire I What is the greatest threat to the persistence of the Great Plains grassland 0 Geology and plate tectonics I What is the theory of continental drift Describe the lines of evidence used by Wegener to support this theory I What keen observation by Alfred Wegener lead to this theory I What were some problems geologists had with this theory I When and how were the geological community convinced that Wegener was right How do paleomagnetic data constrain past movements of continental plates How can past continental movement be inferred from paleomagnetism Explain how mantle convection drives plate movement I What is a subduction zone Is the sea oor younger or older at the mid ocean ridge At the subduction zone Lecture 14 Changing continents and climates I Biogeography informing plate tectonics O O 0 How can the disjunct population of Torrey Pines be explained by plate tectonics Thefrog examples I Indiafrog What is the bioticferry hypothesis Why is India thought to have been a bioticferry How does the discovery ofthe newfamily offrog in India support this hypothesis I Madagascar frog How could it be that the fossil remains of the giant fossil frog from hell found in Madagascar is closely related to a South American clade Explain the formation of the Hawaiian Islands Why is there a kink in the Hawaiian island chain Which island is the oldest and which is the youngest I Quaternary climate change 0 0 How many years are in the Quaternary period What 2 geologic epochs are included in it When was the most recent glacialperiod Did sea level rise or drop during the glacialperiod Why How do we know Isotopes I Is 016 the heavy or light isotope between 016 and 018 Is ice formed at the poles more enriched in 018 greater 018 than 016 or less enriched less 018 than 016 During the last glacial period was the ocean more or less enriched with 018 When did the Last Glacial Maximum occur What is the 0 significance of the word maximum 0 What 39 f quot aboutr 39 quot is 39 J in ice cores 0 What are forminifera How do they carry the signature of the ocean with them What is the significance of this in reconstructing sea surface temperatures in the past 0 What is unique about C14 compared to C13 and C12 0 How can C14 be used to date organic material Lecture 15 Changing continents and climates cont 39 The Quaternary Period includes the and Epochs hint see page 1 94 in text for the geologic timescale When did the Quaternary period begin Do we live in the Quaternary period Why were the ice sheets during the last glacial period concentrated in the northern hemisphere and not the southern hemisphere About how thick was the Laurentide ice sheet during the LGM Who is Alfred Wallace and what is the Wallace line What does this line separate What are two pieces of physical evidence that an area was once glaciated hint think about what happens when glaciers move What is the Earth s average temperature today and how much cooler was it on average in the ice age Was it cooler by the same amount in the tropics How did the amount ofdust in the air change during the glacialperiod Where is the answered to this question stored What is unique about the climate in the Great Basin compared to the overall world climate during the LGM What is apluvial lake Where is one in the US What do models suggest was the impact of the Laurentide ice sheet on the jet stream How did vegetation in the western LLS respond to the change in the jet stream What is palynology Be able to explain how this science is used in reconstructing past climate and vegetation communities How can the pollen record be checked today as a good recorder of the past 39 For the LLS and Europe how did the vegetation changefrom the LGM to present If you were asked to plot this vegetation shifts based on pollen records and C14 analysis you should be able to do so 39 Why is there no analog in the past of communities we see today 39 In Europe was there more or less carbon in the soil during the LGM than modern day interglacial period Why 39 How did the vegetation at the edge of the retreating ice sheets over North America respond to melting How would we go about figuring this out 39 What are the two sides of the argument of how the tropical forests responded in the LGM 39 What do plankton cores in the ocean reveal about changes in sea surface temperature during the LGM relative to today Explain 39 Colinvaux expedition Know the study and outcome Did tropical forest tree canopy change during the LGM What types of trees dominated the tropical forest based on what we know about these trees today Explain how the current distribution of the Podocarp and the adiabatic lapse rate of 4 6 degrees C inform us how much cooler the rainforest was during the LGM 39 Chapter 8 beginning 0 What is dispersal 0 Give examples of passive and active dispersal What is the point ofthe wings on Maple tree seeds 00 0 Lecture 16 Dispersal and Colonization cont 39 Be able to describe in your own words the difference between dispersal and vicariant events 39 Are anemoch ores things winddispersed only plants What are nonplant and animal anemochores 39 How did the Hawaiian H appyface spiders get to the Hawaiian islands in the rst place 39 True or false A ballooning spider is and example of active dispersal Why 39 What is the tradeo quot of an anemochore being light for dispersal i e Do they have lots of energy stored once they arrive to the site of dispersal 39 Why do island plants lose winged seeds and birds become ightless 39 What is the advantage of a mangrove seed germinating before detaching from its parent tree 39 How does a coconut disperse 39 What is a good explanation of how rattlesnakes got to Santa Catalina Island 39 A Cholla propagule is dispersed by what mechanism 39 A theoretical model of dispersal rates was presented in class I dentijy the curves as passive or active dispersal and think about examples of passive dispersers that may follow the active dispersal curve
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