Period, Style, and Form 2nd Mid-Term Study Guide
Period, Style, and Form 2nd Mid-Term Study Guide THFM 4600
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashleigh Schneider on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to THFM 4600 at Bowling Green State University taught by Margaret McCubbin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Period, Style, and Form in Theatre at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
PERIOD STYLE AND FORM EXAM STUDY GUIDE Slide Hints 0 HibernoSaxon HS 0 Interlaced designs I Celticlooking 0 Primarily manuscript illumination 0 Romanesque Rom 0 Rounded arches 0 Church nave tunnellike 0 Figures are distorted and twistedbentstretched to fit into area I Rarelyfreestanding sculpture I Folds in clothing at and stylized 0 Gothic 0 Pointed arches Elaborate and lacelike stone work Flying buttresses Large stained glass Windows Figures more fully developed but not completely realistic I Clothing more realistic as well 0 0 0 0 I Perspective off 0 Renaissance Ren Northern Southern 0 Figures generally very naturalistic may be heroic in South 0 Age of portraits 0 Architecture tends to be symmetrical With GrecoRoman detailing and strong stringer course 0 Northern I Saturated colors oil painting I Great detailing I Women generally more covered up I Buildings have pitched roofs and sometimes mirror Gothic decoration on Windows or roof edges 0 Southern I More classical GrecoRoman allusions I Blond tonality in some paintings I Full control of perspective 0 Mannerist Man 0 Distortions 0 Theatrical 0 Odd lighting 0 0 Odd metallic colors Uncomfortable 0 Baroque Traditional French Dutch 0 Much art done as propaganda for church or state 0 Grandeur 0 Compositional diagonals 0 Asymmetrical 0 Cavalier clothing 0 Traditional I Theatrical I Strong diagonals I Lush colors I Inclusion of an invisible element Wind for example or invisible viewer or actor I Architecture 0 Prefers ovals and curves in both ground plans and exteriors 0 Common use of super columns or super pilasters 0 Maintains Greek and Roman vocabulary 0 French I Architecture 0 Common use of super columns or super pilasters 0 Maintains Greek and Roman vocabulary but more squared off 0 Often incorporates the style of a podium level of the Roman temple as the first oor 0 Painting more serene 0 Major landscapes With small figures 0 Peasants as noble serene figures 0 Dutch I Civic paintings Guard units regents guild members I Landscapes With Windmills port scenes I Domestic interiors of middle class life I Still lifes and owers 0 Rococo 0 Primarily interior design furniture clothing and painting 0 White or pastel walls With light frivolous decorations and tall mirrors 0 Cabriole leg on furniture 0 Georgian clothing With White Wigs 0 Porcelain figures HibernoSaxonRomanesque Key Terms O Lantern tower tower built at the crossing of the transept and nave 0 Lvmpanum a semicircular space above the main portal of the church door Key Concepts 0 HibernoSaxon 0 About HibemoSaxon I Had a strong in uence on Romanesque I Classical tradition broken down because of Christianity 0 Artwork I Formalized set of rules centered around keeping style separate rhythmic movement and symmetry I Artists maintained only the 4 Evangelists symbols 0 Romanesque 0 About Romanesque I The period of the crusades 0 Brought a sense of nationalism I Wealth power and respectability became piety and religious foundations 0 Went on pilgrimages and acquired holy relics 0 Architecture I Most buildings left are religious 0 Used the Latin cross shape 0 Sculpture I No more freestanding figures I Sculptural style 0 Figures move in a mystical dance 0 Every space is filled with patterning 0 Bodies are contorted to fit the field of composition I Giselbertus 0 One of few who signed his work and whose work is still extant 0 Worked on the church of St Lazare in France 0 Painting I A way of writing with pictures I Majority of work is done as manuscript illumination I Extant work is intensely dramatic with firm outlines and a strong sense of pattern Gothic Key Terms 0 The Light Divine a mystical revelation of the Spirit of God I Exoskeleton skeletal architecture on the exterior of buildings Key Concepts 0 Architecture 0 No Gothic cathedral was ever completely finished I Primarily urban 0 Characteristics I Light and graceful weightless I ying buttresses I Verticalism I Everything is integrated in an orderly manner 0 English Gothic I Apse behind alter is at not round I Steep curve to the nave roof 0 Italian Gothic I Kept many features of both Romanesque and ByzantineEarly Christian I Gargoyles I Used to shoot rain out so it doesn t seep into the foundation 0 Protectors of the church I Sculpture 0 Many more appear on exterior of buildings 0 A new sense of order I Figures are erect and tense not spontaneous and twisting 0 Visitation Group I Pairs of jamb statues that enact narrative scenes I Unknown before early Gothic 0 Annunciation Group I Two distinct styles O 0 Virgin is in severe classical style 0 Angel is in elegant style 0 English Gothic I Developed a singular type of tomb sculpture of figures of knights in full armor 0 German Gothic I Figures overpower their architectural framework 0 Stained glass and painting 0 Early on stained glass became the major form of expression 0 Subject matter has the full range of medieval knowledge 0 Manuscript illumination became popular again 0 Best known work is by the Limbourg Brothers I Figures cast visible shadows 0 Painting I They were painted in tempura 0 Uses egg yolk as a vehicle for pigment Early Renaissance Key Terms 0 Umbra shadow 0 Penumbra partiallylit shadow Key Concepts 0 About the Early Renaissance 0 Characteristics of the Renaissance 0 A belief in the importance of the humanities O A readiness to question traditional beliefs and practices 0 Painting 0 Netherlands painting I The center of the earliest development of the Northern Renaissance I Master Flemalle I Work produces the sensation of looking into a picture with depth and completeness I Creates a real world through intensity of physical details I Two goals of realism and symbolism are interdependent and not in con ict I Jan van Eyck 0 incorrectly Credited with the development of oil painting I Rogier van der Weyden 0 Created dramas with intense detailing and technical mastery 0 Italian painting I Man rose from his barbaric state through inventions and discoveries I Visual arts became part of the liberal arts rather than the mechanical arts I Two types of artists emerged 0 The man of the world 0 The solitary genius I Sculpture 0 Attitude toward the body is similar to classical antiquity I In the beginning unclothed bodies are classical and are devoid of sensuous appeal I Afterward nudes are frankly sensuous High Renaissance Key Terms 0 M a traditional Gothic tomb sculpture of a nude corpse Key Concepts 0 About High Renaissance O The view of the artist as a genius made artists work on ambitious projects most of which were never finished 0 There were a few individual artists who dominated the era 0 Leonardo da Vinci 0 Not many famous works because he spread his talents among many different things I Sculpture is an inferior art 0 Esteemed as an architect 0 Donato Bramante 0 Started out as a painter but first appeared as an architect in 1485 and he is remembered most for this 0 Most famous work is the Tempietto little temple 0 Commissioned by the Pope to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter s in Rome 0 Michelangelo 0 David I Became the civicpatriotic symbol of the Florentine Republic 0 Sistine Chapel I Commissioned by the Pope against his wishes but the Pope told him to paint what he liked 0 He was very welleducated 0 Raphael 0 The central painter of the High Renaissance 0 His masterpiece is The School of Athens 0 High Renaissance in the North 0 Constant competition between North and South styles 0 Grunewald 0 Relatively unknown outside of Germany 0 Trained as an architect and engineer before painting 0 Little is known about him 0 Greatest work is Isenheim Alterpiece 0 Albrecht Durer 0 Considered to be the founder of the High Renaissance in Germany 0 Painted many self portraits 0 Devoted his last years to the study of the theory of art 0 Altdorfer 0 Painted the earliest pure landscape 0 Hans Holbein 0 One of the greatest portraiturists who ever lived 0 Set the style for British work 0 Architecture 0 France I A style that combined Italian Renaissance and French Gothic I Used the Italian superimposed orders and pedimented window frame I Some Mannerist styles appear 0 England I Fortresses became halls 0 Spain I Escorial palace Mannerism 0 About Mannerism O A reaction to the norms and ideals of the High Renaissance and insecurities from the sack of Rome 0 Artwork 0 Characteristics I Lighting is dramatic and weird I Paintings are done with metallic colors I Figures are elongated and have a strained elegance I CounterReformation 0 Decided that any image that suggested false doctrine was forbidden 0 Complete nudity no longer tolerated in Church doctrine Baroque Key Terms 0 Barogue irregularly shaped or grotesque 0 Lines of Force threedimensional linear patterns that linked figures to each other and to space Key Terms 0 About the Baroque period 0 Age of Science begins I Too complex for artists to share 0 All aspects of Baroque architecture were done for maximum emotional effect 0 Painting 0 Separate groups I Function I Technical 0 Linear approach 0 Painterly approach I Stylistic approach 0 Classical approach I Naturalism 0 Characteristics of painting I Enormous depth I Complexity I Lack of symmetry I Emphasis on receding diagonals 0 Italy I Caravaggio I Had a strong in uence on Northern and Spanish painters I Went out of his way to shock people with his paintings I Artemisia Gentileschi 0 The daughter of a painter who followed Caravaggio 0 The first woman in Western art to make significant contribution to the art of her time 0 Most surviving works are biblical or mythological with strong female figures I Carracci artists who painted in the Baroque style 0 Combined parts of Michelangelo Raphael and Titian I Work includes architecture and pagan nudes 0 Pietro da Cortona 0 Relied heavily on trompe d oeil 3D in his frescoes 0 France I Art and literature are classic 0 Of highest achievement 0 Suggest qualities of balance and restraint I Classicism was important because of Nicolas Poussin 0 His taste set the official style of France even though he lived in Rome I Won international fame thanks to his severe intellectual style Charles Le Brun I Started as a court painter but became supervisor of all the King s art projects I Founded The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648 0 Became director 0 Devised a theory for ranking all past and present artists Claude Lorrain 0 A major French landscape artist who lived in Italy I Was not interested in narrative 0 Paid others to paint the people in his works 0 His romantic view of nature in uenced 19th century English landscape artists Louis Le Nain I Not a classicist 0 In uenced by Northern traditions 0 Painted scenes of peasant life with quiet reverence Georges de La Tour I Not a classicist I In uenced by Northern tradition 0 Flanders I Baroque becomes a play between human passions and destiny I Peter Paul Rubens 0 Broke down barriers between North and South by combining both styles in his work 0 Physical quality of his work is overwhelming I Anthony van Dyck 0 Known for his portraits of the English court 0 Started a tradition of the aristocratic portrait 0 Spanish I Diego Velazquez 0 A Spanish court painter who did mostly royal portraits I Barolome Murillo I Used a shifting patter of light shade and color with an easy sense of weightlessness I Sculpture 0 Characteristics of Baroque sculpture I Fluid modeling I Movement I Special effects like wind blowing I A focused stare 0 Gianlorenzo Bemini I Created a union of body and spirit and a sense of drama I Cornaro Chapel 0 One of his major pieces 0 Puget I Represented a vivid Baroque realism 0 Francis Girardon I Created a new type of freestanding tomb I Made a large amount of official and decorative sculpture for the King Architecture 0 Preferred curves over straight lines ovals to circles and complex forms rather than simple 0 A tendency to treat facades like sculpture 0 Most architects liked to work on a large scale 0 Italy I Bernini 0 Designed The Baldacchino at St Peter s as well as the Piazza outside I Maderno 0 Designed the final church facade for St Peter s I Borromini 0 Worked specifically in architectural forms with a controlled geometric system I Guarini 0 Designed the dome of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud 0 France I Mansardt 0 One of the most important architects in France 0 In uenced the combination of the French Renaissance architectural tradition with the Italian Baroque I Perrault 0 Designed the east front of the Louvre 0 This style helped define the French palace architecture for a century I VauX Le Vicomte 0 First major French Baroque building 0 English I Almost skip over the Baroque and work in the Palladian tradition I Inigo Jones I Credited with introducing Palladian theories to England I Sir Christopher Wren 0 A mathematician scientist astronomer and architect 0 His most famous work is St Paul s Cathedral 0 Spanish I Architectural style is similar to the Italian but highly elaborate in detailing Dutch Baroque Key Terms 0 Duchesse beds two poster partial canopies 0 Camera Obscura a device which projects images Key Concepts 0 About Dutch Baroque 0 The artist was a craftsman pursuing a job not an intellectual I Produced works for the market I Collectors were the main means of support 0 Paintings 0 Dutch artists realized too many details detract from the truthfulness of the scene I Two approaches came from this 0 Realism I Naturalism 0 Attracted to Caravaggio s work rather than classicism I Moving toward a photographic realism 0 The age of the portrait and selfportrait 0 Frans Hals I Recognized today as one of the most brillian portraitists I Main interest was the human face and figure 0 Rembrandt I Strongly in uenced by Caravaggio and Ruben I Spirituality and truth describe his approach I Most famous work is The Night Watch 0 Jan Vermeer I Created a still life world with hardly any narrative I An original genius who was not valued until a century ago 0 Jacob Van Ruisdael I One of the greatest Dutch landscape painters I Had a great awareness of the forces of nature 0 Pieter de Hooch I Depicted the harmonies of the middleclass Dutch life 0 Jan Steen I A tavern keeper who was interested in the comic aspects of human life and its accompanying mistakes I Able to handle figures as well as his more staid contemporaries 0 Pieter Claesz I One of the chief still life artists of the time I Works were intended to appeal to the eye and palate at once 0 Judith Leyster I Painted a broader variety of subjects than many of her contemporaries I Married the successful artist Jan Molenaer 0 Gerard ter Borch I Known for the subtlety of psychological nuance in his work 0 Aelbert Cuyp I Landscape artist in uenced by Italian styles 0 Furniture 0 Furniture is elaborately carved and heavy in appearance 0 Chinese art begins to appear 0 England I Italian styles are considered too ornate 0 Foreign architecture I American furniture is usually simplified versions of English work Rococo Key Terms 0 Fetes Galantes elegant entertainments I Veduta characteristic scenes collected by visitors as remembrances Key Concepts 0 About Rococo 0 Refers specifically to interior design furniture and painting 0 This style works on a smaller scale and in a more intimate setting 0 This style is most consistent and strongest in France and Germany I Almost skipped England entirely 0 Painting 0 Figures are loosely scattered throughout the picture 0 Stock Commedia figures are common subjects 0 France I Watteau I The best of all the Rococo painters 0 Originally trained as a set designer and painter I Boucher 0 Emphasis was on lighthearted eroticism 0 His work epitomizes the pleasureloving aspect of Rococo 0 The favorite painter of Madame de Pompadour a great patron of the arts I Fragonard 0 Similar subject matter to Boucher 0 His work shows an energetic spontaneity 39 J eanB aptisteSimeon Chardin 0 Chose to paint intimate interior moments 0 Was held in low esteem by his contemporaries but his work is prized in modern times
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