Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC-1000-02
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Date Created: 10/22/15
EXAM ll Study Guide Chapter 6 Learning De nitions Learning relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience 0 Excludes situational variables ex being upset in the moment and maturational variables developmental 0 Typically repeated experiences with the environment 0 In uenced by motivation of subject Conditioning process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses learning Associations we learn by making associations 0 Condition stimulus and unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning o Behaviorconsequence in operant conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus NS becomes paired associated with an unconditioned stimulus UCS unlearned response to elicit a conditioned response CR learned response 0 Stimuli occur before responses 0 UCS associated with UCR re ex arc 0 CS associated with CR learned response 0 No crosstalk UU and CC Pavlov39s Contribution o Studied digestion physical re exes o Noticed that dogs would salivate to a white lab coat changed his research to study this phenomena Psychic Secretions Basic form of learning that occurs with or without our awareness o Taps into re exes which can occur without out awareness Neutral Stimulus NS stimulus that before conditioning doesn t naturally bring about the response of interest 0 Ex Lab coat in Pavlov s experiment lab coat would not typically cause a dog to salivate Unconditioned Stimulus UCS stimulus that elicits an UCR occurring without previous conditioning 0 Food Unconditioned Response UCR unlearned reaction to a UCS occurring without prior conditioning o Salivation Conditioned Stimulus CS previously NS that through repeated pairings with an UCS not causes a CR 0 White lab coat Conditioned Response CR learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS o Salivation Acquisition the phase in the process in which initial learning occurs rst phase 0 When the UCS is paired with the CS 0 In CC acquisition occurs through the association between the USC and the CS 0 quotDuring conditioningquot Order or Paring UCS and CS Delayed Conditioning most effective NS presented before UCS and remains until UCR begins 0 Tone presented before food Simultaneous Conditioning NS presented at the same time as UCS 0 Tone and food presented simultaneously Trace Conditioning NS presented and then taken away or ends before USC presented 0 Tone rang but food presented only once the sound stops Backward Conditioning least effective USC presented before NS 0 Food presented before the tone 0 Ex Pushing a begging dog away from food before saying quotNoquot Studies often report that approximately 12 a second is the optimal time between the NS which becomes the CS and UCS parings Classically Conditioned Emotions Conditioned Emotional Response CER Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus NS Watson and Rayner created a fear of rats a CER in his baby Albert 0 Watson s experiments were the rst to systematically show a learned fear response Paired a loud sound with a white rat appearing Learned to cry in response to the rat appearing would originally only cry from the sound of the cymbals Subsequent studies have indicated that emotional responses can be conditioned to words objects or symbols UCS cymbals CS white rat UCR amp CR cryingfear Conditioninq s Basic Principles Not speci c to any type of conditioning Stimulus Generalization learned response to stimuli that are similarto the original conditioned stimuli CS 0 Generalized responses taper off as we decrease similarity from original stimulus 0 Ex quotAll snakes are bad Occurs in both classical conditioning and operant conditioning Stimulus Discrimination learned response to a speci c stimulus but not to other similar stimuli 0 With continued training the subject responds only to stimuli very similar to original stimulus 0 Ex quotOnly some snakes are bad Acquisition gt Generalization gt Discrimination Extinction gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response CR CCCS repeatedly presented without USC OC withhold reinforcement 0 Active process where you learn to not respond 0 The response of an animal salivating with a white lab coat will discontinue if a person in a white lab coat continually comes in without the meat in classical conditioning o Opposite of a learning curve Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response with additional training CR 0 After some extinction the learned response comes back when meat is brought back in HigherOrder Conditioning Neutral stimulus NS becomes a conditioned stimulus CS through repeated pairing with a previously conditioned stimulus CS Operant Conditioning lnvolves voluntary behavior and not necessarily linked to re exes Future occurrence of behavior is linked to consequences 0 Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences good consequences increase behavior while 39bad consequences reduce behavior immediate outweighs distant associations between behavior and response 0 Thorndike39s Law of Effect behaviors followed by a pleasurable state of affairs tend to be repeated behaviors followed by an unpleasant state of affairs tend to not be repeated o Skinner39s Contribution Reinforcement and Punishment de ned based on occurrence of the behavior Schedules of reinforcement strengthening a response as evidenced by an increase in behavior 0 Primary Reinforcers normally satisfy an unlearned biological need ex Food 0 Secondary Reinforcers normally satisfy a learnedvalue ex Money praise Real world reinforcement vs Experimentation Many experimental studies use primary reinforcement while much of human behavior is motivated through secondary reinforcement o Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles Positive Reinforcement adding or presenting a stimulus which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur ex Candy or praise pressing a lever to get food Negative Reinforcement taking awayor removing a stimulus which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur ex Headache removed after taking an aspirin pressing lever turns off shock Avoidance of the stimulus is common in anxiety disorders and is reinforced through negative reinforcement Neatiee Reinfnreement Talkea away a and strengthens beh aei nrl Positive Reinfnreement Adds tn 3 and Strengthens behavi nr Yen de the diehee and your ranrnrnate etepe yelling Yen in a fever For a friend and EihE buye and lunch Primary in return Reinfereere quotReillfbreers Yen wash ynur friend 39quot5 ear and She hugs gnu Yen increase pre teand receive 213quot a henna stud a gee grade en ynnur exam 1 reeeieequot Tern take an aspirin fer yeur headaehe wl39lieh takes Emilia the pain rafter yam bngg SEES yen went here tn week an weekends PEGEESSDI eeye yen 39wnn t have in take the final exam because yen lea Well an exams Schedules of Reinforcement Determines when we give a reinforcer 1 Fixed Ratio FR Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses the ratio number or amount is xed a FR1 is called continuous reinforcement b Best for starting a behavior 2 Variable Ratio VR Reinforcement occurs unpredictable the ratio number or amount varies 3 Fixed Interval Fl Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed the intervatimes is xed 4 Variable Interval VI Reinforcement occurs unpredictably the intervatime varies Partial reinforcement is any other schedule than FR1 and has a greater resistance to extinction Definitions Response Rates Examples 39rFIXed rabid Reinforcemth Erbdluce39siaihjgh Parentsppay a ch dl1l ga ter occuisafter at rate o39fr s b ee he wasting 2713315 i a39 A ked n lb rbf but a briefdrop off laboratqqr Hat seceives a 1 g I quotafter fortidl Pal ti39a ter 39pre i 39g the E r e lt39lfortement bar e W 9 5 a Variabie R inforeemem 39Hifghrespome ratesg Slot maeh es ante eeighed 3 DECle unpre nd pause after rtcipay But after maveraige g dictabljg the feii ford mem and huf ber if respo sesflimaybe ratio timer very re stamt to every 391D39t iimes i 39ltmit any one and amomt exti ctifori machine quotmay 0113f 4011 the 39Vat39iiiesa er the tesp meg then seventh TESPOIEE is made then the lame nti th Behavioral response effects of Schedules Ratios produce faster rates than do intervals FRPost reinforcement pause Fl Scalloping Operant Conditioning in the real world Shaping Reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response 0 Shaping by the Method of Successive Approximations o Necessary in real world applications Punishment weakeninga response 0 Informs us of what NOT to do 0 Positive Punishment adding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur exShouUng 0 Negative Punishment taking awayor removing a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur ex Restriction time out Side Effects of Punishment 0 Can result in a brief increase in behavior followed by the expected decrease in behavior 0 Can lead to increased aggression passive aggressiveness avoidance behavior modeling temporary suppression learned helplessness CognitiveSocialTheoryLearning o Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior development of cortex o Kohler39s chimps demonstrated insight learning sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution mastery of task thereafter Very different nding when compared to rats highlights working with different species 0 Tolman39s rats built a cognitive map a mental image of a 3D space They also displayed latent learning hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs Latent Learning Two groups of rats one trained with food reward other trained with no obvious reward I Group trained with food reward performs better than other group When nonfood group is switched to a food reward performance quickly improves to exceed the equal other group 0 Results indicate that both groups learned maze but the nonfood group was lacking incentive to reveal learning We measured performance Observational Learning Learning new behaviors or information by watching others Bandura39s Famous Bobo Doll study Involves four processes 1 Attention 2 Retention 3 Motor Reproduction 4 Reinforcement Neuroscience and Learning When we learn something we experience the creationstrengthening of synapses and alteration s in many brain structures receptors 0 Long Term Potentiation cellular model of learning hippocampus glutamate and aspartate Biology Evolution and Learning Conditioned Taste Aversion classically conditioned negative associations of food to illness Biological Preparedness builtin innate readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses Instinctive Drift conditioned responses shift or drift back toward innate response pattern Conditioning and Society Classical Conditioning can be seen in 0 Marketing 0 Prejudice 0 Medical Treatments 0 Phobias Racial prejudice can be classically conditioned with or without a child s awareness A popular theory of emotion states that we have a cognitive assessment following physioogicaarousal If this arousal is paired with one race then the CC can occur Operant Conditioning can be seen in o Prejudice o Biofeedback o Superstitions CognitiveSocial Theory can be seen in o Prejudice 0 Media In uences Chapter 7 Memory The Nature of Memorv Memory an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience Memory is a constructive process in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed stored and retrieved 0 When we are missing memories we ll it in with what we expected to have happened Four Memory Models Information Processing Approach Memory is a process analogous to a computer where information goes through three basic processes encoding storage and retrieval 0 Hippocampus is essential in this process Parallel Distributed Processing Model Memory is distributed across a wide network of interconnected neurons located throughout the brain When activated this network works simultaneously in a paralefashion to process information Levels of Processing Approach Memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered Traditional ThreeStage Memory Model Memory required three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time Three Stage Memory Model Selective attention determines what gets encoded Eaborative Rehearsal is deep processing and is more likely to make a long term memory LTM Maintenance Rehearsal is shallow processing and is best for short term memory STM Sensory Memory brie y preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information icon and echo 0 Large capacity but information only lasts for a few seconds Stimulus frent the 139 lEriviferment Furpt39se theltls Furpese holds Purpaae relatively EE39 SDEFjgf inferrnatien perceptions fur permanent steragge Duratian lasts up analysis Duratian arelatriur39elyr ta if far visual Duratien a up ta 3i perm anent 24 see far auditaiy withaut rehearse apaatty relatively Eapaei ty large 39 Capacity limited unlimited 5 9 items Infarm atian net llnlfermlatien net i mister i eat transferred is last is last 0 Selected information is sent on to shortterm memory 0 Sperling39s Experiment when ashed an arrangement of 12 letters for 120th of a second most people can recall 4 or 5 Attempted to isolate the sensory memory People have access to the whole stimulus display but it decays extremely rapidly When a buzzer sounded indicating which row he wanted the subject to report back top middle or bottom subjects were able to Partial Report ShortTerm Memory STM temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to longterm memory LTM o STM can hold 59 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten Miller s Magical Number 7 2 0 Capacity can be increased with chunking related items brought together and viewed as one recalled completely based on meaning based on meaning and duration improves with Rehearsal continual processing ex chess experiments Chess games have meaningful chunks that experts would be able to recognize better than new players LongTerm Memory LTM relatively permanent storage with an unlimited capacity 0 Forgetting is retrieval failure can be affected by disease drugs aging o Stored across the Cerebral Cortex Amygdala emotional memory Cerebellum Nondeclarative memory Hippocampus Declarative memory Vonie il of LonigeTerm l39lltlerlii39iiiorr395r l t Implicit twentleclara39tivel Memory Mom or with Perteniiorg withnut conscious recall conscious recall i l Procedural Memoirf Eh 39m awltmmd Priming Memory Facts and general Personal experiences Motor skills anti habits Conditioned responses Enrl ier exposure knowledge ag and Events Lee bow to tlriye 1 tor lo oiir leliiiorietl 5 irmli facilitates retrieval benti rials are yellow teer your high school brush your feeds ride e g lill ioituite sortie leg lieighlene lean l 2 months in a year graduation the birth a hike aspects of garejurlicer spiders have eight legs and otherattitudes of your first child after reading 1 scary Itoml Improving LongTerm Memory LTM can be improved with 0 Organization 0 Elaborative Rehearsal o Retrieval Cues Recognition retrieval cue is in front of you and you have to recognize it ex Multiple choice exam Recall ex Essay question It s an ACTIVE process LTMs accessed in a hierarchical process Elaborative Rehearsal Better than maintenance rehearserepeating material over and over without linking to other material Involves linking new material to previously learned material Less subject to interference and produces better recall 0 Research shows that people are much better at recognizing photos of classmates than they are at recalling their names photo is cue for memory Recognition for pictures is initially better than smells but recognition of the smells was better than pictures when tested years later Forgetting Ebbinghaus found 0 Forgetting occurs most rapidly immediately after learning 0 Relearning takes less time than initial learning attens the forgetting curve Why Do We Forget Five Theories 1 Decay memory degrades with time 2 lnterference one memory competes interferes with another a Retroactive interference new information interferes with old b Proactive interference old information interferes with new 3 Motivated forgetting we are motivated to forget unpleasant painful threatening or embarrassing memories Encoding Failure information in STM is not encodedin LTM Retrieval Failure memories stored in LTM are momentarily inaccessible tipofthetongue phenomenon U39Ilgt Overcoming Problems with Forgetting Serial Position Effect the beginning and end of the list is remembered better than the material in the middle primary and recency effects Spacing of Practice distributed practice is found to be superior to massed practice 0 Increased number of shorter study sessions Level of Processing Deeperprocessing results in better recall than shallow processing 0 Link new info to what is already learned Biological Bases of Memory Biological changes in neurons facilitate memory through long term potentiation LTP which happens through repeated stimulation of a synapse This results in o Increasedecrease in neurotransmitter release 0 Increasedecrease in sensitivity of receptor to neurotransmitter Where Are Memories Located Memory tends to be localized and distributed throughout the brain hippocampus and cortex 0 Karl Lashley suggested that even after removing parts of the rat brain the animal retains memory of the maze Lesioned cortex with different size lesions Could not localize memory loss only correlation with overall size of lesion not location dependent Biology and Memory Loss Injury and Disease Amnesia memory loss from brain injury and trauma Retrograde amnesia old memories lost Anterograde amnesia new memories lost The case of Henry Molaison 0 Removed part of hippocampus as treatment for seizures 0 Experienced anterograde amnesia for many things 0 Some new memories were able to be retained procedural Important case because it redirected experimentation to localization of memory function hippocampus Alzheimer39s Disease AD progressive mental deterioration characterized by loss of Cholinergic neurons and severe memory impairment Memory amp Criminal Justice Two memory problems with signi cant legal implications Eyewitness Testimony very persuasive but can be awed Repressed Memories considerable debate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed Why do we distort our memories We need to maintain order and consistency Bartlett Loftus Memories if recalled incorrectly will tend to be consistent with the subjects expectations reconstruction 0 quotLeading questionsquot Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory Tips for Memory Improvement 1 Pay attention and reduce interference 2 Use elaborative rehearsal techniques 3 Improve your organization title 4 Counteract the serial position effect 5 Manage your time spaced practice 6 Use the encoding speci city principle 7 Employ selfmonitoring and overlearning attens the forgetting curve 8 Use mnemonic devices ex Method of loci pegword substitute word word associations Chapter 8 Thinking Language and Intelligence Introduction Thinking language and intelligence are often studied under the larger topic of cognition mental activities involved in acquiring storing retrieving and using knowledge Thinking processing cognitive building blocks Processes are distributed throughout the brain especially in the frontal lobe Three components 1 Images 0 Mental Images mental representations of a previously stored sensory experience visual auditory etc object permanence begins around 36 months of age Condruitv Effect subjects respond faster to questions that agree with the stimuli choose smaller of two small numbers or choose larger of two large numbers Distance Effect reaction times are faster when comparing more different stimuli is rat larger than a mouse or is an elephant larger than a mouse Picture Superiority Effect subjects have better recall for pictures over words in experiments 2 Concepts 0 Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics How do we learn concepts Arti cial Concepts are formed by logical speci c rules Natural ConceptsPrototvoes are formed by our experiences in everyday life Hierarchies help us group concepts into subcategories within broader categories 0 Members of a concept to not equally represent the concept some are better than others robin better than penguin for concept of birds Prototype 3 Language 0 Language a form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to speci ed rules Thinking Problem Solving Step 1 Preparation identifying separating and de ning Step 2 Production generating possible solutions hypotheses by using algorithms and heuristics Step 3 Evaluation judging hypotheses in Step 2 against the criteria in Step 1 Five Key Barriers to Problem Solving 1 Mental Sets persistence in using strategies that have worked in the past a To overcome you must quotthink outside the boxquot 2 Functional Fixedness thinking of an object as only functioning in its usual way a To overcome you must think of the objects all functioning in new ways 3 Con rmation Bias preferring information that con rms preexisting positions or beliefs while ignoring contradictory evidence 4 Availability Heuristic judging the likelihood of an event based on how readily available other instances are in memory 5 Representativeness Heuristic estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match or represent a previous prototype When people overestimate the dangers of ying is it an example of the availability heuristic or the representativeness heuristic crashes than of Its availability because we have more examples of reported reported safe ights Thinking Creativity Creativity ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way UNI l Three elements of creativity Originality Seeing a unique or different solution to a problem Fluency Generating a large number of possible solutions Flexibility Shifting with ease from one type of problemsolving strategy to another Divergent thinking ability to produce many alternative or ideas 0 Linked to creativity ex Reordering letters to form many new words Convergent thinking attempting to nd one correct answer 0 Linked to conventional noncreative thinking ex 22 Language Three Building Blocks 1 Phoneme smallest unit of speech or sound 2 3 Grammar rules specifying how phonemes morphemes words Morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language and phrases should be combined to express thoughts a Syntax rules for word order b Semantics system of using words to create meaning Language Deve0pment Prelinguistic Stage crying cooing and babbling Linguistic Stage single utterances telegraphic speech and learning the rules of grammar Theories of Language Development The Nature Perspective language is an inborn capacity and develops primarily by maturation o Chomsky s language acquisition device LAD o The Nurture Perspective language develops from a complex system of rewards punishments and imitation Intelligence global capacity to think rationally act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment hypothetical abstract construct Historical Views 0 Single ability or general factor called quotgquot Spearman 0 Multiple abilities Thurstone and Guilford 0 Single ability with two types of g uid and crystallized intelligence Cattell 0 Multiple abilities Gardner and Sternberg Measuring Intelligence 0 StanfordBinet and Wechsler most widely used individual intelligence tests Both tests compute an intelligence quotient IQ which compares the deviation of a person s test score to norms for that person s age group Original version of StanfordBinet IQ MACA x 100 0 Three scienti c standards for psychological tests Standardization establishes norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test Reliability measure of the consistency and stability of test scores over time Validity the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure 0 Mental Disability IQ below 70 0 Mental Giftedness IQ above 135 Intelligence Controversy Explaining Differences Is it the brain All mental activity including intelligence results from neural activity in the brain Is it genetic or environmental in uences Heredity and environment are important inseparable factors in intellectual development Are IQ Tests Culturaly Biased Some ethnic groups score differently on IQ tests but there are numerous contributing factors including stereotype threat Racial differences decrease as we make the IQ test more culturally fair Chapter 11 Gender and Human Sexuality Terms Sex biological male or female sex organs including chromosomal sex also sexual behavior Gender psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex Gender Identity selfidenti cation as either a man or woman Gender Role societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior Sexual Orientation primary erotic attraction toward members of the same sex 0 Homosexual gay lesbian o Bisexual Heterosexual both sexes Transsexual gender identity does not match gonads genitals or internal accessory organs Transvestite individuals who crossdress for emotional andor sexual grati cation 0 Trans to change 0 Vestre clothing Androgyny combining characteristics typically male assertive athletic with those considered typically female yielding nurturing o Andro male 0 Gyn female Male and Female lnternaSex Organs Early in development humans have an undifferentiated gonad and both the undeveloped male internal system Wol an and the undeveloped female internal system Mullerian The testis secretes both testosterone and MIS The testosterone causes development of the Wol an system and the MIS causes the Mullerian system to wither Thus the male system is developed while the female system goes away in a typical male First the genetics then the gonad then the organs Female by default Male and Female External Sex Organs Early in development humans have undifferentiated external sex organs The testis secretes testosterone which is metabolized into dihydrotestosterone in the external sex organs This causes masculization and development of male structures Without the testosterone and MIS from the testicles development is female Testosterone and Masculine Development In hyenas circulating testosterones are elevated during development and are believed to masculize the female brain and clitoris In humans testosterone crosses into the brain and there is aromatized to estrogen so it is actually estrogen that masculizes the male brain Females have high levels of Alphafetoprotein which binds circulating estrogen in the female preventing it from crossing into the brain Male and Female Sexual Behavior Early exposure to testosterone can cause adult female rats to act like male rats show mounting behavior Early castration of males results in adult males behaving like female rats lordosis behavior 0 Results dependent upon critical period 0 Arnold A Gerall Rodent sex behavior is tightly 39controlled by hormones Human sex behavior is quotin uencedquot by hormones and social factors play a greater role in humans than in rats 0 Humans have the greater cortex which may account for this Gender Role Development SocialLearning Theory suggests gender roles develop as children 0 Receive rewardspunishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes 0 Watch and imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others 0 Behavior starts through imitation or reinforcement and as it becomes ampli ed it gets increasing reinforcement CognitiveDevelopmental Theory suggests children form gender schemas mental images or behaviors that is correct for boys versus girls Sex Differences Physical Anatomy height weight body build reproductive organs Functional and Structural Brain Differences o Hypothalamus 0 Corpus callosum bridge joining two halves of the brain larger in women women can more easily perform more than one task simultaneously 0 Cerebral hemispheres o Levay and homosexuality Gender Differences Cognitive Abilities 0 Women score higher on verbal skills 0 Men score higher on math and visuospatial skills Aggression 0 Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness 0 Women supposedly higher on relational aggression but no clear differences Earlv Misconceptions of Human Sexualitv Masturbation and nocturnal emissions were unhealthy o Spermatic Truss 1876 designed to make erections impossible by binding the genitalia down Then changed to allow an erection but adding spikes Havelock Ellis among the rst physicians to scienti cally study human sexuality 0 Found that nocturnal emissions were not dangerous 0 Emphasized reliable and accurate sex information Study of Human Sexuality Alfred Kinsey among the rst to use surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs 19401950 0 Dif cult because many people think it s awkward to talk about Masters and Johnson among the rst to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle 19501960 0 Excitement increasing levels of arousal and engorgement male and female Plateau leveling off of high arousal Orgasm pleasurable release of tension Resolution return to nonaroused state Most males will have orgasm by the age of 20 many females do not have an orgasm until after the age of 20 0000 Gender and Sexual Behavior Why are men commonly believed to have greater sex drive interest and activity than women Two theories 1 Evolutionary Perspective Provides adaptive value Men with multiple partners maximize their genes changes for survival and a woman s genes chances for survival increase with a good protector and provider 2 Social Role Approach Sex differences re ect cultural roles and division of labor Men are protectors and providers women are child bearers and homemakers a Occurs more where women have less reproductive freedom and educational equality Sexual Orientation Myths of Homosexuality o Seduction Theory gays and lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of the same sex 0 quotBy defaultquot Theory gays and lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex 0 Poor Parenting gay men domineering mothers weak fathers lesbian women weak or absent mothers 0 Modeling Theory children imitate gay or lesbian parents Current Research on Homosexuality o Genetics twin studies suggest genetic in uence on sexual orientation 0 Prenatal Hormones affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation Ultimate causes of sexual orientation unknown but genetics and biology are believed to play dominant roles Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Behavior arousal of peripheral sex organs and nervous system spinal cord and brain Activity within any of these areas may impair sexual function Sexual Arousal activation within barasvmbathetic nervous system which allows blood ow to sex organs Sexual Orgasm activation of the sympathetic nervous system Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions Negative Gender Role Training men aggressive and independent women passive and dependent Double Standard male sexuality encouraged and female s discourages rule of 3 0 Men increase of partners women decrease Unrealistic Sexual Scripts socially dictated appropriate behaviors limit sexual relations Performance Anxiety fear of not meeting partner s sex expectations Sexual Dysfunctions Male Sexual Problems 0 Erectile Dysfunction inability to maintain an erection rm enough for intercourse o Premature Ejaculation rapid ejaculation beyond the man s control Female Sexual Problems 0 Orgasmic Dysfunction inability or dif culty in reaching orgasm o Vaginismus painful contraction of the vaginal muscles MaleFemale Problems 0 Dyspareunia painful intercourse o Inhibited Sexual Desire apatheticdisinterested in sex 0 Sexual Aversion Avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety Sex Therapy Masters and Johnson39s sex therapy program founded on four principles 0 Relationship focus 0 Integration of physiological and psychosocial factors 0 Emphasis on cognitive factors 0 Practice with speci c behavioral techniques Sexually Transmitted Diseases Women are more likely to be infected HIV Positive being infected by the human immunode ciency virus HIV AIDS Acquired Immunode ciency Syndrome HIV destroys immune system s ability to ght disease
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