Midterm 2 Study Guide (Ch. 8-10)
Midterm 2 Study Guide (Ch. 8-10) BIO 120 35
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Neil on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 120 35 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Jennifer Winther in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Wednesday October 14 2015 BIO 120 Chapter 10 Photosynthesis 6002 12H20 Light gt CeHmOe 602 6H20 Requires energy Anabolic and endergonic reaction Energy comes from light Two major parts 1 Energy transduction reactions light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADH takes place in the grana 2 Carbon fixation reactions dark reactions synthesize simple sugars from 002 using ATP and NADPH from the light reactions takes place in the stroma Only takes place in chloroplasts Photosynthetic Pigments Substances that absorb visible light known as pigments Plant pigments Chlorophyl a green Chlorophyl b green Carotenoids yellow Anthocyanins red not involved in photosynthesis So what happens when the pigments absorb light as electrons fall back down to their original state energy is released Photosystems and Linear Electron Flow PSland PSll Wednesday October 14 2015 PS ll comes before PS occur simultaneously convert light energy into chemical energy Differ in chloroplast molecule PS II is P680 PS I is P700 Linear electron flow 39PSI Light comes in and is absorbed by chlorophyl Chlorophyl transfers that energy to P700 and then P700 loses an electron The electron goes to the primary electron acceptor Electron travels down an electron transport chain NADP is reduced to NADPH 39 PSII light comes in and is absorbed by chlorophyl chlorophyl transfers that energy to P680 and P680 loses an electron Than electron goes down an electron transport chain to P700 where P700 is reduced with it Electron goes from P8 II to PS I because P700 is the most electronegative molecule P680 is reduced by the electrons in the splitting of water Occurs in the Oxygen Evolving Complex OEC Thus creating the oxygen we breathe Chloroplasts Membrane bound organelles Originated via endosymbiosis Wednesday October 14 2015 Th ATP made in the chloroplast is only used in the chloroplast Pans lnner and Outer membrane stroma thylakoids grana Site of photosynthesis What makes a plant green The green color comes from the pigment chlorophyll that is in the thylakoid membranes Most chloroplasts are found in the leaf cells Therefore most photosynthesis occurs in the leaves Leaf structure supports photosynthesis Thin Gas exchange stomata allows 002 in and 02 out Large surface area Light Reaction Transforms light energy into chemical energy of ATP and NADPH Occurs in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts Light energy photons must be absorbed by the pigments in the membrane and transferred to chemical energy electrons Linear electron flow Whole point is to make ATP and NADPH used in the calvin cycle oxygen is merely a byproduct of the light reaction Dark Reaction The Calvin Cycle 39 Occurs in the stroma Wednesday October 14 2015 Uses the NADPH and ATP made in the light reaction Carbon enters at 002 and leaves as a sugar Three Phases Carbon Fixation Cycle must be completed three times to produce a sugar Binding of the carbon in 002 to the 5carbon molecule produces 2 3carbon molecules Uses the enzyme Rubisco Considered to be the most abundant protein on the planet Stands for Ribulosef 5bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase Reduction Uses ATP and NADPH electrons transferred to a 3carbon molecule 3 002 molecules requires to generate 1 3carbon sugar 2 of the 3carbon sugars are required to make glucose 6 CO2 in total required to make one glucose molecule Regeneration of CO2 acceptor Uses ATP In a complex set of the 5 remaining 3 carbon molecules rearranged to form 3 molecules of Rubisco Can now attach three more 002 molecules Photorespiration Decreases the efficiency of photosynthesis Bad for plants because they are making less sugars decreasing their ability to survive and it is wasteful Consumes O2 releases CO2 Wednesday October 14 2015 Uses ATP and NADPH Enzyme rubisco can bind to 002 or 02 lf 002 binds you get carbon fixation 39 If 02 binds you get photorespiration In high 002 environments Rubisco is 90 effective in low 002 environments only about 50 04 and CAM Plants Use and enzyme to turn 002 into an acid and transport it to where photosynthesis is taking place 0C4 Very efficient Does well in warm temps and low concentration of 02 First 002 is fixed to a 4carbon molecule not 3carbon 002 is fixed by the enzyme PEP carboxylate in the cytosol of mesophyll leaves Fixed 002 is converted to malate Malate is then transferred to bundle sheath cells where malaria is decarboxylated and 002 enters the normal calvin cycle 2 types of cells 0AM Stands for 0rassulacean acid metabolism Stomata only open during the night because they would dry out during the day At night PEP carboxylase fixes 002 into malate Malate stored in vacuole in cells During the day when the stomata are closed the stored malate is fixed into sugars 0AM is more widespread that 04 Typically found in water limited environments A way to conserve energy and decrease the amount of photorespiration Wednesday October 14 2015 Does not require special structures or adaptations
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