Art History ARH 253
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matthew Gambril on Wednesday January 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Blount Tucker in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 309 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art II in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/14/15
Gambril 1 Matthew Gambril Instructor Jenny Tucker ARH 253002 Study Guide Exam 3 11 March 2013 Works Neoclassical l Coronation of Napoleon JacquesLouis David 1St quarter 19th century commemorates his becoming emperor of FranceItaly through marriage holds his own crown Pope sits behind him Josephine kneels in front crowning his wife as Pope Pius VII watches underscores power of state over church crowned in Notre Dame not Rheim Cathedral paid to have his mother painted in noblemen in left third Napoleon middle clergy right imperial iconography builds Napoleon up 2 Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Ja a AntoineJean Gros student of David 1St quarter 19th century unique neoclassical piece darker palette and imagery anticipates Romanticism fascination with exotic details of Near East and the emotions other soldier covering his mouth while Napoleon touches the sick and breathes freely in full confidence suggests he is immune powerful possesses healing powers imperial iconography commissioned to cover Napoleon s bad press from ordering plague stricken soldiers to be poisoned Romanticism 3 The Nightmare Henry Fuseli 18th century incubus demon believed to pretty sexually on sleeping women ghostly horse with aming eyes moves in from behind the curtain among the first to depict the dark terrain of the human subconscious 4 The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Francisco Goya 18th century from Los Caprichos Goya fell asleep while writing owlbats folly and ignorance it around him imagination comes alive when logic and reason go to sleep dismissal of Enlightenment Gambril 2 5 Third of May Francisco Goya 1St quarter 19th century French soldiers execute Spanish peasants in retaliation encourages empathy for peasants by showing horror and anguish which endows them with a humanity not seen in the French Goya s most famous painting peasant about to be shot is shown in contrasting bright yellow and white and throws his arms out similar to the Jesus about to be crucified shown as a martyr for the Spanish 6 Raft of the Medusa Theodore Gericault 1St quarter 19th century a real historical event the Medusa wrecks only 15 of 150 survive 12 days at sea suffering hallucination death cannibalism Jean Charles the lone black survivor ags down a ship from atop the pile of suffering and dead white men theatricality 7 Insane Woman Theodore Gericault 1St quarter 19th century red eyes confused vacancy romantic artists fascinated with horrors of mental health institutes and the effects of irrational states of mind on the face 8 Death of Sardanapalus Eugene Delacroix he is a colorist 2nd quarter 19th century inspired by a poem by Lord Byron the Assyrian king sits back gloomily and watches as his place is prized possessions are destroyed and slaves horses and women are killed and committing suicide on his orders repeated red color in pockets 9 Liberty Leading the People Eugene Delacroix 2nd quarter 19th century depicting the July 1830 Revolution eyes drawn to Lady Liberty allegory for liberty and bare breasted freedom her scarlet Phrygian cap symbol of a freed slave in antiquity reinforces the struggle s urgency Notre Dame in the background 10 Abbey in the Oak Forrest Caspar David Friedrich 1St quarter 19th century a solemn requiem a funeral procession bears a coffin into the ruins of a Gothic church based on the remains of Eldana Abbey Gambril 3 death symbols desolate season leaning crossestombstones skeletal trees destruction of the church through time black worn by the people deep emotion 11 The Slave Ship J Turner 2nd quarter 19th century ship is small and hard to notice sublime captain has the deaddying slaves thrown overboard to collect on insurance the sun ocean and the elements overwhelm your attention eerily beautiful scene for such a horrific event powerful emotional overwhelming color 12 Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains California Albert Bierstadt 3rd quarter 19th century Hudson River School to underscore the almost transcendental nature of the scene Bierstadt depicted the sun s rays breaking through the clouds overhead which suggests a heavenly consecration of the land reinforced Manifest Destiny Realism 13 The Stone Breakers Gustave Courbet 2nd quarter 19th century copy the original was destroyed in the Dresden bombing laborers working class poor dirty ragged clothes older man and younger boy relatable to everybody cannot see their faces they are anybody and nobody unimportant scene but they are depicted up close and large making them seem monumental 14 The Gleaners JeanFrancois Millet 3rd quarter 19th century up close gleaners at work cannot see their faces 15 Rue Transnonain Honore Daumier 2nd quarter 19th century depicts the terrible quiet aftermath of the slaughtering of civilians in the building powerful because of its factual accuracy 16 Luncheon on the Grass Le Dejeuner sur L Herbe Edouard Manet Gambril 4 3rd quarter 19th century shown at 1863 Salon de Refuse or Salon of Venuses funky proportions at figures people hated this painting nude woman s model was Victorine Meurend she is unabashed at ease making eye contact with viewer light is the main actor of this work 17 Olympia Edouard Manet 3rd quarter 19th century mocking Venus 0f Urbino at very pale Victorine as the model again Olympia is slang for hooker she is a well kept prostitute scandalous painting suggests sexual indifference with the eye contact and suggestive placement of the hand on her leg the black cat is a reference to a risque Paris night club black maid brings her owers from a client she represents racial divisions PreRaphaelitism 18 Ophelia John Everett Millais 3rd quarter 19th century Ophelia Hamlet s lover drowned mysteriously in a river probably suicide from a broken heart Elizabeth Siddal was the model laid in a tub for hours so Millais could be accurate with details Photography 19 Still Life in Studio LouisJacquesMande Daguerre 2nd quarter 19th century daguerreotype 1 of his first successful plates every detail is captured inspiration comes from vanitas still life Impressionism 20 Impression Sunrise Claude Monet 3rd quarter 19th century quick brushstrokes lack of detail painted within a day eeting moment of sunrise industrialization of steamships a critic applied the derogatory term of impressionism to it and it stuck Gambril 5 2l Rouen Cathedral The Portal in Sun Claude Monet 4th quarter 19th century part of a series of 40 Views in different light shows Monet s study of light true subject of the painting is the light sun 22 Le Moulin de la Galette PierreAuguste Renoir 4th quarter 19th century scene of leisure catches the action at a popular Parisian dance hall eeting moment 23 Bar at the F oliesBergere Edouard Manet 4th quarter 19th century Victorine as the model disinterested or lost in thought removed from her patrons and the Viewer proportions are off most likely to better show the interaction of the barmaid and the man she is talking too who is seen in the mirror re ection blank stare indicator of modernity as a whole isolation anonymity loneliness in big cities 24 The Rehearsal Edgar Degas 3rd quarter 19th century Japonisme diagonal lines draw Viewer into the scene figures arranged randomly open oor makes the Viewer feel part of the scene 25 The Bath Mary Cassatt 4th quarter 19th century Japonisme interior domestic scene kind of scene Cassatt had most access to shows genuine sentiment of relationship between mother and child PostImpressionism 26 At the Moulin Rouge Henri de ToulouseLautrec 4th quarter 19th century similar to impressionism application of paint and subject matter of eeting moment of leisure mask like faces peculiar green hue distortions suggest the corruptness of the times 27 A Sunday on La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat 4th quarter 19th century Gambril 6 subject is consistent With impressionist recreational themes captures public life on Sunday a gathering of all social classes strangely rigid and remote pointillism eXperiments With light color shape 28 Night Cafe Vincent Van Gogh 4th quarter 19th century eXperimenting with emotions of color eXpresses anger and oppressive atmosphere through distortion isolation color red impasto technique thick brushstrokes 29 Starry Night Vincent Van Gogh 4th quarter 19th century one of his final paintings vieW from his room of the mental hospital he checked himself into dizziness depression sadness and depression expressed through the deep blues vastness of the world compared to humanity village huddled beneath the sky 30 Mont SainteVictoire Paul Cezanne 20th century gives structure to the landscape similar to Seurat With juxtaposition of certain colors Symbolism 31 Jupiter and Semele Gustave Moreau 4th quarter 19th century subjectivity over objectivity Jupiter reveals his body to Semele Who dies because it overwhelms her 32 The Scream Edvard Munch 4th quarter 19th century investigating the modern psyche uses color line and figural distortion to evoke a strong emotional response from the v1ewer FindeSiecle 33 Burghers 0f Calais Auguste Rodin 4th quarter 19th century bronze sculpture 9 Gambril 7 not well received antiheroic fear worry small pedestal 6 leading citizens of Calais offered their lives in return for the English king s promise to lift the siege and spare the rest of the people despair resignation quiet defiance Terms Lithograph printmaking technique in which oilbased crayon is drawn directly on stone plate Water is then wiped on the stone followed by ink which only adheres to crayon A print is then made onto paper Daguerreotype photograph made by an early method on a plate of chemically treated metal Modernism A movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves the artist39s critical examination of the premises of art itself Plein Air approach to painting specific to Impressionists in which artist sketches outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light air and color Local Color object s true color in white light J aponisme French fascination with all things Japanese Pointillism devised by Seurat Achieved by separating colors and then applying to the canvas in tiny dots points The image then becomes comprehensible only from a distance when dots have blurred Fin De Siecle Literally means end of the century refers to small movements of art that occurred during the late 19th century The Sublime feelings of awe mixed with terror First suggested by Edmund Burke Concepts Be able to identify each work by artist title date by quarter century periodstyle location if architecture Important Be able to identify date of slides by quarter century For example 1840 is the 24 of 19th century Another example 1812 is the 14 of 19th century One more example 1868 is the 34 of the 19th century Here is the breakdown of the dates 18001824 is 14 of 19th century 18251849 is 24 of 19th century Gambril 8 18501874 is 34 of 19th century 18751899 is 44 of 19th century Know overarching themes and concepts for ALL periods we ve studied Neoclassical Romanticism Realism Photography Impressionism PostImpressionism Symbolism Finde Siecle Questions 1 Who was Napoleon Bonaparte leader of France 2 What are the major milestones in his career 1799 becomes 1St Consul of France 1804 becomes emperor of First Republic 1812 invades Russia but has to retreat 1815 defeated by the British at Waterloo ees France dies 6 years later 3 How do we characterize the art made during Napoleon s rule Neoclassical art imperial iconography 4 What does it mean to be imperial iconography art made to mold the improve and build up the public opinion in this case of Napoleon came across as almost mythical and god like in power 5 Why did Napoleon choose J acquesLouis David as the court painter personal skill ability to create inspiring patriotic images Neoclassicism Napoleon embraced all links with the classical past as symbolic sources of authority 6 What is Romanticism and how does it differ from Neoclassicism Neoclassicism rationality reinforced enlightenment though Romanticism a desire for freedom of thought feeling action etc changes from reason to feeling calculation to intuition objective to subjective nature 7 What shift occurs between the two reason to feeling calculation to intuition objective nature to subjective nature 8 What are the characteristics of Romanticism all kinds of emotion darkness nightmares the grotesque the insane the sublime feelings of awe mixed with terror painful thrilling and awe inspiring emotions and events conscious decision to examine the human subconscious interest in medieval period 9 What is the typical subject matter of Romanticism often chose landscapes as an ideal subject to express the romantic theme of the soul unified with the natural world sublime grotesque insane macabre etc 10 Who were the early Romantic artists Henry Fuseli William Blake Francisco Goya Theodore Gericault 11 How does dark imagery invade the Romantic movement sublime nightmare insane macabre grotesque etc 12 How do Romantic landscapes fit into the Romantic movement Gambril 9 often chose landscapes as an ideal subject to express the romantic theme of the soul unified with the natural world used nature as an allegory commented on spiritual moral historical or philosophical issues 13 What are the characteristics of Romantic landscapes transcendental images of the natural world images of the picturesque 14 What is the Picturesque the pleasurable aesthetic mood that natural landscape inspired made it worth of being painted 15 What paintings are an example of The Picturesque Am0ng the Sierra Nevada Mountains Abbey in the Oak Forest 16 How does tourism fit in with American Romantic Landscape painting increasing tourism which came courtesy of improved and expanded railway systems both in Europe and America contributed to the popularity of landscape painting 17 What does The Sublime mean feelings of awe mixed with terror wild nature first suggested by Edmund Burke 18 What paintings are an example of The Sublime The Slave Ship 19 Who was the leading Realist Gustave Courbet 20 What did Gustave Courbet famously say I ve never seen an angel Show me an angel and I ll paint one 21 How does Courbet s statement relate to Realism he will paint what he sees and what pertains to reality 22 How does it serve as a reaction to academic painting he is rebelling and painting what is applicable to reality rather than what is seen as academic 23 What is academic painting the art the established art schools such as the Royal Academy of Painting promoted 24 What is a salon exhibition annual exhibitions put on by the academies to exhibit art 25 What is the typical subject matter of Realism mundane everyday things trivial scenes working class laborers and peasants 26 What is lithography prints using stone oil crayon is applied water added ink rolled on then pressed to paper to make the print 27 Who was a famous lithographer during the Realist movement Honore Daumier 28 Who was LouisPhilippe King of French accepted crown after 1830 Revolution 29 What was the first type of photography Daguerreotype 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Gambril 10 Who was it named after LouisJacquesMande Daugerre Why is the subject matter a still life motionless objects Why is the earliest photographs still lifes long exposure time so things need to be still What were the initial reactions to photographyspecifically from Charles Baudelaire They did not see photography as art to begin with it was seen as practical but not really useful for art What is PreRaphaelitism PreRaphaelite Brotherhood refused to be limited to the contemporary scenes strict Realists portrayed They chose instead to represent fictional historical and fanciful subjects but with a significant degree of convincing illusion outraged by the state of the world during industrialization Realism they wanted simpler more beautiful times focused on spirituality idealism artisanship sincerity Who were some of the founders of PreRaphaelitism John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti What was their art reacting to the state of the world during industrialization How does the term PreRaphaelitism describe their artistic interests refers to the moralizing art before made before Raphael What is Impressionism the art of industrialized modernized Paris attempt to capture eeting moments of life urban life a reaction to the brutal chaos of modern life What is typical subject matter of Impressionism urban life eeting moments in time Who is Baron Haussmann civic planner commissioned by Napoleon III to modernize Paris What is Haussmannization creative destruction of something for the betterment of society Haussmann tore down and completely remodeled and reorganized Paris How did Industrialization affect Paris urbanization What is modernism A movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves the artist39s critical examination of the premises of art itself What did Charles Baudelaire say about modernism 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Gambril ll modemity is the transitory the fugitive the contingent What important article did Baudelaire write The Painter of Modern Life What is plein air approach to painting specific to Impressionists in which artist sketches outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light air and color How is light important to Impressionists important in capturing an instantaneous representation of the atmosphere and climate Why did Impressionist artists complete many studies of objects in different lighting it permitted the Impressionists to present images that truly conveyed a sense of the momentary and transitory How do some Impressionist artists brushstrokes re ect the style itself they did achieve remarkably brilliant effects with their characteristically short choppy brush strokes which so accurately caught the vibrating quality of light What is Japonisme French fascination with all things Japanese Why did PostImpressionists called Impressionism a blind alley it lacked depth and substance wanted to get back to the formal qualities of art What did they desire for their art get back to the formal qualities of art How did they PostImpressionists react to Impressionism same subject matter with a different approach Who were the PostImpressionists Vincent van Gogh Paul Gauguin Georges Seurat Paul Cezanne What is Expressionism artists use of formal elements such as brighter colors and bolder lines increased the impact of the images on observers What is pointillism devised by Seurat Achieved by separating colors and then applying to the canvas in tiny dots points The image then becomes comprehensible only from a distance when dots have blurred Who employed pointillism Georges Seurat What is the FindeSiecle Literally means end of the century refers to small movements of art that occurred during the late 19th century What does it mean end of the century What art does it encompass small movements of art that occurred during the late 19th century How does Symbolism connect with literature Gambril 12 symbolists wished to purge literature and art of anything utilitarian to cultivate an exquisite aesthetic sensitivity and to make the slogan art for art s sake into a doctrine and a way of life Symbolists were both artists and writers
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