Introduction to Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Introduction to Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 111
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by AHegerman on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Practice questions for Exam 2 some of these questions are easier than what will be on the exam but good practice on the topics Spring 2016 Module 21 Psychologists define learning as the process of A adapting to the environment B responding to external stimuli C reinforcing behavioral responses D acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors The acquisition of mental information by observing events watching others or through language is called A classical conditioning B cognitive learning C partial reinforcement D shaping Last year Dr Moritano cleaned Natacha39s skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol A negative reinforcement B classical conditioning C observational learning D operant conditioning In classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called an A unconditioned stimulus B secondary reinforcer C neutral stimulus D primary reinforcer In Pavlov39s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs the US was A a tone B salivation to the sound of a tone C the presentation of food in the dog39s mouth D salivation to the food in the mouth A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food In this case the tone is called an A unconditioned stimulus B primary reinforcer C conditioned stimulus D immediate reinforcer Researchers condition a atworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light With electric shock The stage in Which the atworm39s contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called A discrimination B acquisition C generalization D spontaneous recovery A geometric figure is most likely to trigger sexual arousal if presented shortly A after an appropriate UR B after an appropriate US C before an appropriate UR D before an appropriate US Makayla developed an intense fear of ying five years ago When she was in a plane crash The fact that today she can again y Without distress indicates that her fear has undergone A spontaneous recovery B extinction C generalization D discrimination The reappearance after a time lapse of an extinguished CR is called A generalization B spontaneous recovery C secondary reinforcement D higherorder conditioning Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles This best illustrates A generalization B secondary reinforcement C stimulus predictability D spontaneous recovery After learning to fear a White rat Little Albert responded With fear to the sight of a rabbit This best illustrates the process of A secondary reinforcement B generalization C acquisition D spontaneous recovery Module 22 Laurie39s thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb This best illustrates the process of A generalization B classical conditioning C latent learning D operant conditioning An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is an A conditioned stimulus B unconditioned stimulus C reinforcement D operant behavior Shaping is an procedure A latent learning B operant conditioning C classical conditioning D observational learning Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family39s breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car In this instance washing the car is an A positive reinforcer B unconditioned response C conditioned response D negative reinforcer Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as is to A positive reinforcer negative reinforcer B primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer C immediate reinforcer delayed reinforcer D reinforcement punishment Any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response is called an A conditioned stimulus B unconditioned stimulus C positive reinforcer D negative reinforcer Primary reinforcers could best be described as A cognitive maps B conditioned stimuli C conditioned reinforcers D innately satisfying stimuli Alex was paid 100 for eight hours of work The money was an A primary reinforcer B spontaneous recovery C conditioned reinforcer D operant behavior Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage Blake prefers working on a schedule of reinforcement A fixedratio B fixedinterval C variableinterval D variableratio Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone Paul is paid 100 for every five calls he makes while Michael is paid 100 for every subscription he sells regardless of the number of calls he makes Paul39s telephoning is reinforced on a schedule whereas Michael39s is reinforced on a schedule A variableratio fixedratio B fixedratio variableratio C fixedratio variableinterval D fixedinterval variableratio Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a schedule A fixedinterval B variableinterval C fixedratio D variableratio Taking away the driver39s license of a reckless teen driver is intended to serve as a A negative reinforcement B positive reinforcement C negative punishment D positive punishment Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is A negative punishment B positive punishment C negative reinforcement D positive reinforcement Module 23 Garcia and Koelling39s studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by A cognitive processes B biological predispositions C continuous reinforcement D latent learning It39s easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to ap its wings for a food reward This illustrates the importance of in learning A primary reinforcers B generalization C spontaneous recovery D biological predispositions After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts This best illustrates the issue of A conditioned reinforcement B latent learning C generalization D instinctual drift After a week at college SuChuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost SuChuan has developed a A cognitive map B discriminative stimulus C law of effect D fixedinterval schedule The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of A shaping B latent learning C extrinsic motivation D online testing Dan and Joel both 4yearolds have been watching reruns of Superman on television Joel39s mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof ready to try ying What best accounts for the boys39 behavior A delayed reinforcement B observational learning C immediate reinforcement D classical conditioning Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed that his older brother does so This illustrates the importance of A respondent behavior B immediate reinforcement C modeling D shaping In a wellknown experiment preschool children pounded and kicked a large in ated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on This experiment served to illustrate the importance of A operant conditioning B respondent behavior C observational learning D spontaneous recovery The tendency to engage in behaviors that we observe others rewarded for performing best illustrates the in uence of A prosocial behavior B partial reinforcement C intrinsic motivation D vicarious reinforcement Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for A the law of effect B spontaneous recovery C observational learning D extrinsic motivation It has been suggested that are activated when a monkey moves a peanut into its own mouth and when a monkey simply observes other monkeys move a peanut into their mouths A prosocial behaviors B intrinsic motives C cognitive maps D mirror neurons Recognizing that one of your friends is feeling angry and that another friend is feeling sad illustrates an ability known as A modeling B latent learning C spontaneous recovery D theory of mind Module 37 The idea that an emotionarousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the A J amesLange theory B relative deprivation principle C twofactor theory D CannonBard theory According to the you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal A CannonBard theory B JamesLange theory C twofactor theory D catharsis hypothesis Research has shown that necklevel spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences This finding supports the A CannonBard theory B adaptationlevel principle C JamesLange theory D catharsis hypothesis According to the twofactor theory SchacterSinger the two basic components of emotions are and A facial expressions a cognitive label B emotionarousing events physical arousal C physical arousal overt behavior D a cognitive label physical arousal Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zaj one that A our thoughts are not in uenced by our emotional states B our normal feelings of love and anger are typically irrational C the twofactor theory of emotion is essentially correct D sometimes emotion precedes cognition Unlike the lowroad brain pathway the high road for emotional responses extends through the A thalamus B cortex C hypothalamus D cerebellum As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class Blair39s heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat These physiological reactions were activated by her nervous system A sympathetic B central C somatic D parasympathetic Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed A somatic B central C sympathetic D parasympathetic Boyd a suspect in a criminal investigation has agreed to take a lie detector test The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his A blood sugar levels B pupil dilation C hormone secretions D perspiration levels The guilty knowledge test is typically used to A evaluate a criminal39s mental health B assess a suspect39s responses to details of a crime C screen potential employees for possible past misdeeds D determine the frequency with which an individual lies Activation of the sympathetic nervous system A increases salivation and increases blood pressure B decreases salivation and decreases blood pressure C increases salivation and decreases blood pressure D decreases salivation and increases blood pressure As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job your heart rate body temperature and breathing rate begin to increase These physiological changes are produced by activation of the nervous system A parasympathetic B sympathetic C somatic D central Module 38 People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to A the way they categorize basic emotions such as fear and anger B their facial expressions of different emotions such as sadness or surprise C the specific states of physiological arousal associated with their feelings of happiness or disgust D how they interpret hand gestures such as the A OK sign Botox paralysis of the frowning facial muscles people39s reading of sadnessrelated sentences and activity in emotionrelated brain circuits A speeds speeds B slows slows C slows speeds D speeds slows The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called A the spillover effect B the feelgood dogood phenomenon C spontaneous remission D the facial feedback effect Module 39 Reducing one39s anger through aggressive action or fantasy is called A catharsis 10 B the spillover effect C spontaneous remission D the diminishing returns phenomenon The feelgood dogood phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they A are more willing to help others B make decisions more effectively C experience a more positive selfimage D report greater satisfaction with their whole lives During the last 50 years the buying power of Americans has and their selfreported personal happiness has A remained almost unchanged decreased B increased remained almost unchanged C remained almost unchanged increased D remained almost unchanged remained almost unchanged People are likely to experience higher levels of if they seek to contribute to their communities rather than simply strive for personal wealth and power A relative deprivation B facial feedback C subjective wellbeing D catharsis Relative deprivation refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily in uenced by A genetics B previous experiences C bodily arousal D others39 success Module 39 People tend to describe their experienced emotions along the two dimensions of A physical and social B clarity and stability C valence and arousal D expressiveness and meaningfulness Reducing one39s anger through aggressive action or fantasy is called A catharsis B the spillover effect C spontaneous remission D the diminishing returns phenomenon 11 Reduced feelings of tension following aggressive outbursts contribute to A spontaneous remission B the adaptationlevel phenomenon C relative deprivation D the reinforcement of aggression Relative deprivation refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily in uenced by A genetics B previous experiences C bodily arousal D others39 success Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test Dante is most likely to want to help after he has A unsuccessfully tried to repair a at tire on his car B received an A on his psychology test C heard that a friend was involved in an automobile accident D been caught cheating on a math test During the last 50 years the buying power of Americans has and their selfreported personal happiness has A remained almost unchanged decreased B increased remained almost unchanged C remained almost unchanged increased D remained almost unchanged remained almost unchanged People are likely to experience higher levels of if they seek to contribute to their communities rather than simply strive for personal wealth and power A relative deprivation B facial feedback C subjective wellbeing D catharsis Relative deprivation refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily in uenced by A genetics B previous experiences C bodily arousal D others39 success Module 40 An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field of 12 A biopsychology B psychoneuroimmunology C cognitive psychology D behavioral psychology Research on stressful life events indicates that A those who live a relatively peaceful monastic life actually suffer a higherthanaverage rate of heart attacks B those who have been recently widowed fired or divorced are more vulnerable to disease C survivors of a natural disaster are immunized against stress and have fewer longterm health problems D all of these statements are true Avoiding stress is LEAST likely to inhibit the progression of in humans A bacterial infections B viral infections C coronary heart disease D advanced cancer The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are A attention comprehension and resistance B alarm reaction resistance and exhaustion C adrenal release cognitive appraisal and stomach ulceration D reactive frustration sympathetic arousal and parasympathetic inhibition A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10 year period They found that were more than twice as likely as to develop heart disease A introverts extraverts B married men single men C Type B personalities Type A personalities D pessimists optimists Module 41 Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as A psychoneuroimmunology B emotionfocused coping C problemfocused coping D spontaneous remission 13 To alleviate the stress of losing her job Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to fulltime employment Alicia39s behavior best illustrates A learned helplessness B a fightor ight reaction C problemfocused coping D emotionfocused coping Vanessa alleviated some of the stress associated with the death of her husband by becoming more actively engaged in her work Her response best illustrates A the faith factor B biofeedback C emotionfocused coping D problemfocused coping Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack A biofeedback B mindfulness meditation C perceived control D Type A personalities Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out well This best illustrates the value of A a Type A personality B spontaneous remission C optimism D the general adaptation syndrome Module 29 Spearman39s 3 factor refers to A the genetic contribution to intelligence B a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks C a highly developed skill or talent possessed by a person with an otherwise limited mental ability D the ability to understand and regulate emotions Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual39s mental capacities A L L Thurstone B Charles Spearman 14 C Howard Gardner D Robert Sternberg Professor Jenkins believes that intelligence cannot be measured by a single intelligence score Rather intelligence should be derived from seven clusters of primary mental abilities Professor J enkins39 view of intelligence most closely resemble that of A Charles Spearman B L L Thurstone C Howard Gardner D Robert Sternberg People with savant syndrome are best described as those who demonstrate A high levels of emotional intelligence B difficulty remembering past experiences C an exceptional specific skill D a lack of numerical ability Robert Stemberg distinguished among analytical practical and intelligence A intrapersonal B creative C spatial D musical Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternberg39s concept of practical intelligence A Jamal a student who quickly recognizes the correct answers to multiplechoice test questions B Gareth a graduate student who generates many creative ideas C Shelley a newspaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources D Cindy a young mother who prefers cleaning her house to supervising her children When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate Professor McGuire39s perceptual skill best illustrates A analytical intelligence B divergent thinking C emotional intelligence D factor analysis Module 30 Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to A provide a quantitative estimate of inherited intellectual potential B distinguish between academic and practical intelligence 15 C identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes D assess general capacity for goaldirected adaptive behavior The distribution of intelligence test scores should form a bellshaped pattern This pattern is called A standardization B a reliability coefficient C content validity D a normal curve To assess mental age Binet and Simon measured children39s A head size B reasoning skills C muscular power D neural processing speed If a test is standardized this means that A it accurately measures what it is intended to measure B a person39s test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group C most test scores will cluster near the ends D the test will yield consistent results when administered on different occasions If a road test for a driver39s license adequately samples the tasks a driver routinely faces the test is said to have A reliability B a normal curve C content validity D testretest reliability For the original version of the StanfordBinet IQ was defined as A mental age multiplied by 100 B chronological age subtracted from mental age and multiplied by 100 C chronological age divided by mental age and multiplied by 100 D mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 Achievement tests are designed to A measure the desire and potential capacity to successfully meet challenges B assess ability to produce novel and valuable ideas C compare an individual39s personality with those of highly successful people D assess learned knowledge or skills 16 In addition to an overall intelligence score the WAIS provides separate scores for such skills as A divergent thinking B factor analysis C working memory D emotional intelligence Block design puzzles are used in one of the subtests of the A WAIS B SAT Reasoning Test C StanfordBinet D GRE A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of A validity B standardization C reliability D the 3 factor It would be reasonable to suggest that the Flynn effect is due in part to A the deteriorating quality of parental involvement in children39s education B increasingly improved childhood health C the decreasing reliance on a single test score as an index of mental aptitudes D the failure to restandardize existing intelligence tests If a test yields consistent results every time it is used it has a high degree of A standardization B prediction C reliability D validity Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception When you receive the test however you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics In this instance you would be most concerned about the of the test A reliability B factor analysis C standardization D validity Module 31 17 Crosssectional research indicated that during early and middle adulthood aging is associated With levels of intelligence Longitudinal research indicated that during this period of life aging is associated With levels of intelligence A increasing declining B declining stable C increasing increasing D stable declining Ian Deary and his colleagues retested 80yearold Scots using an intelligence test the Scots had taken as llyearolds The procedure used in this research best illustrates a A crystallized study B longitudinal study C cohort study D crosssectional study Professor Juarez is interested in measuring the difference in spatial ability between people of different ages He intends to give these individuals a spatial abilities test during the next month Professor Juarez Will be conducting A a cohort study B a longitudinal study C a crosssectional study D the Flynn effect In terms of age intelligence peaks in the 20s and intelligence increases through the 70s A general uid B crystalized uid C uid crystalized D verbal visual The type of basic intelligence that makes learning quick and thorough is referred to as intelligence A uid B crystallized C practical D creative Which of the following statements about uid intelligence is true 18 A It is the accumulation of facts B It is quick and exible C It includes longterm memory for dates in history D It includes the size of one39s vocabulary A crosssectional study is one in which A the same people are retested over a period of years B different age groups are tested at the same time C different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time D the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers Module 32 Which of the following observations provides the BEST evidence that intelligence test scores are in uenced by heredity A Japanese children have higher average intelligence scores than do American children B Identical twins raised together are more similar in their intelligence scores than identical twins raised separately C The intelligence scores of children are positively correlated with the intelligence scores of their parents D Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together The heritability of intelligence refers to A the extent to which an individual39s intelligence can be credited to his or her parenting B the proportion of variation in intelligence among individuals that is attributable to genetic variation C the extent to which the distribution of intelligence scores of a group approximates a normal curve D a general underlying intelligence factor that is measured by every task on an intelligence test Dr Abreu believes that intelligence is determined not by one gene but by many interacting genes Dr Abreu believes that intelligence is A polygenetic B determined by the Flynn effect C a product of experience D determined solely by the familyenvironment effect The importance of environmental in uences on intelligence is provided by evidence that A general intelligence scores predict performance on a variety of complex tasks B the cognitive development of neglected children is often delayed C identical twins reared together have more similar intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together D mental similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families increase with age 19 Women have scored on math tests when no male testtakers were in the tested group and Blacks have scored when tested by Blacks than when tested by Whites A lower lower B higher higher C lower higher D higher lower Babies in an Iranian orphanage who lacked stimulation suffered delayed intellectual development This demonstrates the importance of for intelligence A genetics B stereotype threat C environment D nature Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that A test performance is in uenced by cultural experiences B the validity of intelligence tests is close to zero C the heritability of intelligence is very high D numerical scores of intelligence serve to dehumanize individuals Which of the following individuals is most likely to experience the stereotype threat A John who is taking the SAT with fellow classmates B Miguel who is MexicanAmerican is taking the ACT with his classmates of which 90 percent are MexicanAmerican C Jackie who attends an allgirl prep school is taking the SAT with her classmates D Malik who is the only AfricanAmerican taking the ACT with white students
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