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Western Civilization II

by: Rhianna Rice

Western Civilization II EUH 2001

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > History > EUH 2001 > Western Civilization II
Rhianna Rice
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.6

Lisa Miller

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Lisa Miller
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rhianna Rice on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EUH 2001 at University of Central Florida taught by Lisa Miller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/227513/euh-2001-university-of-central-florida in History at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
a Living space b lla nation s power depended on the amount and kind of land it occupied 840 ll German rearmament a Hitler broke the clauses of the Versailles Peace Treaty by building up his troops and rearming knowing that France and Britain wouldn t stop him l w of Germany a llThe British were starting a policy of appeasement based on the belief that if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers the latter would be content and stability and peace would be achieved in Europe 842 b Britain let Germany build up their army lV Occupation of the Rhineland a Hitler sent German troops into the demilitarized Rhineland knowing that France would not do anything without British support He got away with it V New Alliances a Mussolini grew closer to Hitler after the French and British opposed to him invading Ethiopia there was then an alliance between Germany and Italy called the RomeBerlin Axis b llGermany and Japan concluded the AntiComintern Pact and agreed to maintain a common front against communism 842 VI 39 llz Alquot a Grew closer to Hitler after opposed France and Britain made alliance between Germany and Italy Vll a Depended on heavy machinery for a quick defeat of the enemy a Prime minister of Britain b Believed in appeasement c llmade it known to Hitler that he would not oppose changes in central Europe provided that they were executed peacefully 842 IX Union with Austria a Hitler made sure an Austrian Nazi was in charge of the Austrian government The German troops moved into Austria because of the llnew Austrian chancellor s request for them to assist in establishing law and order 843 then llHitler formally annexed Austria to Germany 843 X Munich Conference a British French Germans and ltalians met and gave Sudetenland to Hitler b Hitler promised this would be his last demand and that everything else could be negotiated Chamberlain believed him c Chamberlain called it llpeace in our time Xl Invasion of Poland a Hitler attacks Poland after he signs a peace treaty Britain had agreed to protect Poland so Britain and France declare war on Germany Xll Japan s Reasons for war a Japan s income depended on the manufacture of heavy industrial goods but the Western nations established tariff barriers to protect their own economies from the effects of the depression therefore devastating Japan a Awinter of waiting b The winter of 19391940 c Nothing really happens a llFrance had built a series of concrete and steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery along its border with Germany 848 and remained in its defensive shell b Germans broke through it liiii liTlll ll quot tr a Where the other British and French forces were trapped after Germany invaded France b Germany was unsuccessful in attacking the armies the armies evacuated and llthe miracle of Dunkirk saved a well trained army to fight another day l T r 4qu l5 ElllllLic a llGerman armies occupied about threefifths of France while the French hero of World War Marshal Henri P tain established an authoritarian regime over the remainder 848 this was known as Vichy France b A Nazi puppet state l 9 a The code name for Germany s invasion of the Soviet Union i Still a bad idea cold and far away XVlll Pearl Harbor a llOn December 7 1941 Japanese carrierbased aircraft attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands 849 the next day The United States declared war on Japan Three days later Hitler declared war on the United States 850 b llJapanese leaders had hoped that their lightning strike at American bases would destroy the US Pacific fleet and persuade the Roosevelt administration to accept Japanese domination of the Pacific 851 a llTokyo declared this encompassing the entire region underJapanese tutelage 850 b They wanted to be top dog c llAsia for the Asians XX Lend Lease a America s way of getting around not being allowed to sell things to other countries they traded them for military bases etc XXl DDay XXII XXIII XXIV XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX a The Allies lllanded five assault divisions on the Normandy beaches on June 6 in history s greatest amphibious invasion I 854 b Eventually liberated Paris by the end of August c Pushed through Germany and finally linked up with the Soviets defeating Germany The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki a llHarry Truman and his advisers became convinced that American troops might suffer heavy casualties in the invasion of the Japanese homeland they made the decision to drop the newly developed atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Japanese surrendered unconditionally on August 14 World War II was finally over 855 JapaneseAmericans interred a llthe forcible relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of approximately 120000 JapaneseAmericans and Japanese residing in the United States camps called llWar relocation Camps in the wake of Imperial Japan s attack on Pearl Harbor httpzenwikipediaorgwikiJapanese American internment The Holocaust a First focused on emigration Jews leaving Europe b The Final Solution was the annihilation of the Jewish People led by Reinhard Heydrick c The solution was discussed at the Wannsee conference talked about llmaking the trains run on time by transporting the Jews d Nazis also killed 9 to 10 million other people who weren t Jews during the holocaust Britain s response at home a 55 of people were in llwar work including many women b They dug their own gardens and planted their own food in a campaign called llDig for Victory I The Soviet Union in WWII a Enormous losses 2 of every 5 people killed in WWII were Russians b Siege of Leningrad 900 days of Seige where they were starving c They moved their factories to the interior WWll Aftermath a 45 million dead b Starvation c Millions of people uprooted d Cities ruined The UN a Roosevelt hoped to ensure the participation of the Big Three powers in a postwar international organization before difficult issues divided them into hostile camps 870 b llAfter a number of compromises both Churchill and Stalin accepted Roosevelt s plans for a United Nations organization and set the first meeting for San Francisco in April 1945 870 The Cold War a Stemmed from mistrust and disagreements between the three allies United States Britain and Germany VI VII VIII a The European Recovery Program b Intended to rebuild prosperity and stability in Europe Blockade of Berlin a llAfter the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948 containment of the Soviet Union became formal American policy b Limit soviet expansion c City blockaded off to everyone because it was part of the Soviet Union food was dropped by airplanes so people could survive The Iron Curtain a llformer British prime minister Winston Churchill declared that llan iron curtain had lldescended across the continent dividing Germany and Europe into two hostile camps 871 NATO a The North Atlantic Treaty Organization b A bunch of pwers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked c Belgium Britain Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxembourg the Netherlands Norway Portugal United States Later West Germany Greece and Turkey The Warsaw Pact a Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East germany Hungary Poland Romania and the Soviet Union organized a formal military alliance Communist win in China a llbrought a new Communist regime and intensified American fears about the spread of communism 880 The Korean War a After Korea was rescued from Japan in WWII it was split between America and the Soviet Union along the 38th parallel b As their relationship deteriorated two different governments developed communist and anticommunist North and South Korea c North Korean troops invaded South Korea d Americans sent troops in e Communist China helps North Korea f Armistice finally signed after years of fighting would not produce a conclusive victory Decolonization a The end of the British Empire they didn t have any more power or money to keep up with their Empire a The firs b Ghandi quit India movement Indians want to be free Granted in 1948 t British colony to be independent c Ghandi did not want separate Indian states and he was right When the states were separated there was a lot of violence and many people killed a New colonies under Great Britain not under direct rule b British common law economically tied by trading they were friends XII Establishment of Israel a quotThe Truman administration approved the concept of an independent Jewish state in Palestine b quotWhen a United Nations resolution divided Palestine into a Jewsih state and an Arab In state the Jews in Palestine acted On May 14 1948 they proclaimed the state of Israe 886 a France West Germany Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Italy signed a Rome Treaty quotwhich created the European Economic Community also known as the Common Market b Eliminated customs barriers for the six member nations and created a large freetrade area protected from the rest of the world by a common external tariff c Encouraged cooperation and standardization in many aspects of the six nations economies d EEC became the world s largest exporter and purchaser of raw materials XIV McCarthyism and the Red Scare a quotthe takeover of China by Mao Zedong s Communist forces in 1949 and Communist North Korea s invasion of South Korea in 1940 led to a fear that Communists had infiltrated the United States 898 b quotA demagogic senator from Wisconsin Joseph R McCarthy helped intensify the quotred Scare with his expos s of supposed Communists in high government positions XV The Cuban Missile Crisis a Fidel Castro overthrows Batista minor Dictator b Failed Bay of Pigs invasion 1961 c Discovery by US of missile bases being built in Cuba d President John F Kennedy orders a blockade of Cuba any soviet ship was stopped e Khrushchev agrees to turn back ships carrying missiles in return for Kennedy s promise not to invade Cuba XVI Lyndon Johnson and The Great Society a Wanted to fix the war on poverty b Civil rights act 1964 race color etc can t matter c Voting Rights Act 1965 got rid of poll taxes amp literacy tests XVII VI VII d quotJohnson s programs included health care for the elderly a quotwar on poverty to be fought with food stamps and the new Job Corps the new Department of Housing and Urban Development to deal with the problems of the cities and federal assistance for education 898 The Baby Boom Birth Control a After the war birthrates began to rise creating a quotbaby boom b Didn t last and the pill was developed as the first oral contraceptive providing a reliable means of birth control that quickly spread to all Western Countries Brezhnev Doctrine a The reverse of the Truman doctrine b Gave the soviet union right to intervene if Socialism was threatened in another socialist state The Vietnam War a North Vietnam communist were on the verge of seizing control of the entire country b quotPresident Lyndon Johnson decided to launch bombing raids on the north and to send US combat troops to South Vietnam to prevent a total defeat of the antiCommunist government in Siagon and keep the Communist regime of the north from uniteing the entire country under its control I 922 The Domino Theory a Worried that if South Vietnam ended up being communist then other countries in Asia would fall like dominoes to communism Richard Nixon in China a quotopened a new door in American relations when he visited China and met with Mao Zedong in 1972 Despite Nixon s reputation as a devout antiCommunist the visit was a success as the two leaders agreed to put aside their most bitter differences in an effort to reduce tensions in asia I 924 b quotin 1979 diplomatic ties were established between the two countries and by the end of the 1970 s China and the United States had forged a quotstrategic relationship I in which they would cooperate against the threat of Soviet intervention in Asia 924 Watergate a quotAs president Nixon was paranoid about conspiracies and began to use illegal methods to gather intelligence on his political opponents attempted bugging of Democratic National Headquarters located in the Watergate apartment and hotel complex in Washington DC I b He resigned Jimmy Carter a During presidency there was stagflation a combination of high inflation and high unemployment b lran Hostage Crisis lran Hostage Crisis a 53 hostages are taken by Iran and the embassy is taken over for 444 days VI VII VIII b Shows Carter as a weak president Ronald Reagan a Reverses the welfare state i llreducing spending on food stamps school lunch programs and job programs b llFostered the largest peacetime military buildup in American history c Supply side economics if they cut taxes people will spend more d Tripled the deficit lran Contra a The idea to sell weapons to Iran at an inflated price and give the extra money to the contras It worked until they were caught Oliver North was the marine who thought of this He went to jail Mikhail Gorbachev a First president of the Soviet Union b Wanted to restructure the Soviet Union c Tore down the wall Perestroika a Restructuring b lla reordering of economic policy as Gorbachev called for the beginning of a market economy with limited free enterprise and some private property 936 Glasnost a quotopennessquot b llSoviet citizens and officials were encouraged to discuss openly the strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet Union 936 End of the Soviet Union a Nobody thought it would happen but it did it was a big event b Started with Ukraine voting for independence in 1991 Vladimir Putin a Replaced Yeltsin b He was in control like a czar Reunification of Germany a Ronald Reagan quotMr Gorbachev tear down this wall b The berlin wall was destroyed united east and west Germany c East Germany first ever free elections Christians won Tony Blair a Elected in 1997 seen as a force of Change b Got too involved with America s war with the middle east so he did not re run European Union European Community changed their name to the European Union Common currency Euro Military force chiefly used for humanitarian and peacekeeping purposes 0951 Problems of national identity still wanted to be individual Xl Xll Xlll XIV XV XVll XVlll XlX 1972 Munich Olympics a quotPalestinian terrorists kidnapped and killed eleven Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972 hundreds of millions of people watched the drama unfold on television 951 b The Age of Terrorism a Acts of Terror by individuals and groups opposed to governments have become a frightening aspect of modern Western Society and indeed of all the world 951 911 and al Qaeda a quotThese coordinated acts of terror were carried out by hijackers connected to an international terrorist organization known as alQaeda quotthe base run by Osama bin Ladin A native of Saudi Arabia bin Laden used an inherited fortune to set up terrorist training camps in Afghanistan under the protection of the nation s militant fundamentalist lslamic rulers known as the Taliban 951 US response to 911 a US president George W Bush vowed to wage a lengthy war on terrorism and worked to create a coalition of nations to assist in ridding the world of alQaeda and other terrorist groups Vatican II a Pope John XXIII sparked a dramatic revival of Catholicism when he summoned the twentyfirst ecumenical council of the Catholic Church Known as Vatican II the council liberalized a number of Catholic practices For example the liturgy of the Mass the central feature of Catholic worship was now to be spoken in the vernacular not in Latin b Pope John Paul II reasserted the traditional Catholic teaching on such issues as birth control women in the priesthood and clerical celibacy John Paul s numerous travels around the world helped strengthen the Catholic Church throughout the nonWestern world Rise of Islam a quotIslam is growing in both Europe and the United States thanks primarily to the migration of people from Muslim countries As Muslim communities became established in France Germany Britain Italy and Spain they built mosques for religious worship and religious education Immigration in Europe a People moved for jobs called guest workers were not welcome Women in today s society and politics a Women are more equal BarakObama a First black president Wow The Age of Progress a Material growth i Steel chemicals electricity petroleum ii Substitution of steel for iron better railwaysshipsetc Electricity Lightbulb Edison Telephone Alexander Graham Bell Radio waves Marconi P94quot Transformed factories a quotconveyor belts cranes machines and machine tools 699 b Internal Combustion Engine i quotproved unsuitable for widespread use as a source of power in transportation until the development of liquid fuels 699 ii Gave Rise to the automobile and the airplane c Automobile i Henry Ford ii Assembly line Model Ts everyone could afford d Airplanes II New Markets a Better wages Europeans could spend more on consumer products i New techniques of mass marketing b Competition i Europeans returned to tariff protection ii Cartels 1 quotIn a cartel independent enterprises worked together to control prices and fix production quotas thereby restraining the kind of competition that led to reduced prices 701 c Precision tools i Had interchangeable parts led to the creation of the assembly line for production lll Depressions of 18731895 a quotEuropeans did experience a series of economic crises during those years 702 b Pattern of Boom depression boom depression N La Belle Epoque a quotFrom 1895 until World War I Europe overall experienced an economic boom and achieved a level of prosperity that encouraged people to later look back to that era as la belle poque a golden age in European civilization 702 b quotThe Gilded Age American response Mark Twain called it this V Second industrial Revolution a All of the above b Germany passed Britian as the industrial leader c Two economic zones VI VII VIII Advance in Great Britian Belgium France the Netherlands Germany western part of the AustroHungarian Emprie northern Italy 1 Where coalironpeople etc are Lagging in southern Italy AustriaHungary Spain Portugal Balkan kingdoms Russia 1 No good railroad Organizing of the working class a Everyone read Karl Marx and decided they needed to organize labor b Social Democratic Party SPD i quotespoused revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for the Reichstag the German parliament 705 ii Became the largest single party in Germany c Effects of the growth of socialist parties i Agitation for an international organization that would strengthen their position against international capitalism ii 1889 leaders of the various socialist parties formed the Second International which was organized as a loose association of national groups Socialism and Nationalism a Socialism quotevolutionary socialism also known as Revisionism i Revisionism wanted to use democracy to move forward wanted to change socialism b Nationalism socialists believed there were no national boundaries i Nationalism had proved a much more powerful force than socialism Urban Reform a Better buildings mass transit in 19 h century London established running water b Edwin Chadwick Rudolf Virchow Solomon Neumann c Legislative acts created boards of health d Building regulations e Ability to bring clean water into the city and to expel sewage from it Social structure of the quotmass society a Upper class middle class white collar lower class blue collar b 5 percent of the population controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth c Aristocracy reliazed business people were the ones with money Role of Women in the 19 h century a Stayed at home taking care of the family while husbands went to work b Marriage the only honorable and available career c Separate spheres the domestic was the woman s sphere of influence outside was the man s sphere d Outside interests allowed charity work church ladies guild e Queen Victoria was the role model for the middle class f Working class women had to work and take care of the family Xl Education in the llmass society a Liberal beliefs about education Want an educated society An educated person is a good person Boys learned history math etc Girls learned French home ec etc iquot Demand for teachers seen as a woman s job iv Growth of newspapers Xll Leisure time in the llmass society a All factories had sports teams developed into professional teams that we have today Xlll Reform in Great Britain Parliament a William Gladstone prime minister that flipped w Disraili conservative b Suffrage extended c Salaries paid to members of the House of Commons d More people could run for office don t have to be rich XIV Reform in france a Universal male suffrage trying again for revolution b Radical republicans formed an independent government called The Commune Fought the government the gov t won c France established the Third Republic democratic XV


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