Study Guide on Evolution (Test #3 for Dr. Partain)
Study Guide on Evolution (Test #3 for Dr. Partain) BIOL 120
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Sobers on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 120 at Towson University taught by Dr. Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Biology 120 Evolution Taxonomy amp Diversity Evolution Darwin Microevolution Diseases HIV amp AIDs Taxonomy amp Diversity Key Terms Homology DNA Comparison Domains Eukarya Bacteria Archea Kingdoms Fungi Plantae Animalia Protista Monera There are 15x10A6 known species today not including extinct species There are 900000 species of insects and 250000 species of plants Scientists agree that all currently living things share a common ancestor Homology is the common structures in different organisms that may have resulted from common ancestry Differences in species arise from chance and different environmental factors The common ancestor is like the trunk of a tree the lower branches of the tree are older species and the higher branches on the tree are the newer species the more closely the branches are together the more closely related the species is DNA comparison is one way to determine how closely related a species is The 3 domains are Eukarya Bacteria and Archea The 5 kingdoms are Fungi Plantae Animalia Protista and Monera Fungi 0 Part of the Eukarya domain Multicellular and can range in size Includes a cell wall Includes a nucleus Does NOT include chloroplast Does not move Nutrition is acquired through absorption of decaying material 0 Examples of Fungi mushrooms yeast rust Plantae OOOOOO 0000000 0 Part of the Eukarya domain Typically reproduce sexually but is able to reproduce asexually Multicellular and can range in size Includes cell walls Includes nucleus Includes chloroplast Typically does not move but some can move with the help of cilia or agella Nutrition is acquired through photosynthesis Animalia 0 Part of the Eukarya domain 0 Typically reproduces sexually but some can reproduce asexually o Multicellular and can range in size 0 Includes a nucleus 0 Does NOT include cell walls 0 Does NOT include chloroplast 0 Can move with the help of cilia agella or muscular organs 0 Nutrition is acquired through ingestion Protista 0 Part of the Eukarya domain 0 Reproduces asexually o Singlecelled and very small in size 0 Includes a nucleus 0 Typically does NOT include cell walls there are some exceptions 0 Some have chloroplast 0 Can move with the help of cilia agella or amoeboid 0 Nutrition is acquired through photosynthesis or ingestions or both 0 Examples of Protista green algae amoebae hdonera o Singlecelled and extremely small smaller than Protista 0 Includes a cell wall 0 Does NOT include a nucleus 0 Does NOT include chloroplast 0 Examples of Monera Salmonella E Coli Testing behavior DNA and physical structures can help to determine of Linnaean classi cations are correct about similarities between organisms Previously there were only two kingdoms Animalia and Vegetabilia and all species were classi ed by there physical similarities Biological classi cation is how today s scientists try to organize biodiversity into discrete and logical categories Evolution Key Terms Evolution Radiometric Dating Fossil Divergence Convergence Vestigial Trait Biogeography Molecular Clock Molecular Clock Hypothesis Evolution is a THEORY Evolution is the process of change in the characteristics of a population over the course of generations Evolution is also an organizing theory that says all current species are descendants of a common ancestor and they represent millions of years of microevolution through natural selection Supporting evidence of evolution Fossils Comparative anatomy Comparative embryology Biogeography Molecular biology Radiometric dating is used to date materials such as rock or carbon based on the comparison of their natural radioactive isotope and decay products Fossils are made when living things are buried degraded and replaced by minerals Fossils are relatively rare because they can only be made under certain circumstance an organism has to be immediately buried in sand mud water or volcanic ash in order for a fossil to be formed It takes thousands of years for an organism to become fossilized Types of fossils Nested eggs Footprints Skeletons Skin impressions Faces Divergence is when comparable body parts become modi ed in different ways in different organisms that have a common ancestor Example bats lions chimpanzees and humans all have arms but they re modi ed in different ways Convergence is when different unrelated organisms have different structures that have similar functions Vestigial traits re ect our evolutionary heritage they are traits that are still around but are no longer useful Example tailbones were useful in primates because they had tails but humans today no longer need a tailbone even though we still have one Biogeography is the pattern of distribution of species on different continents Darwin s observations of mockingbirds on the Galapagos Islands supports bio geographical patterns Species descend from ancestors in the same geographical area Species don t develop separately instead they re similar to other species that are nearby even if their environments are different Plate tectonics relate to biogeography because the Earth s plates drift so places that were originally close to each other can become very far apart over time but they can still have similar animals The molecular clock is used to calculate the time of origin of one lineage in relation to other lineages The molecular clock hypothesis states that the rate of change in some DNA sequences is relatively constant but one application suggests that it take 56 million years for a 1 difference in DNA to be generated Darwin Key Terms AnaXimander Linnaeus The Great Chain of Being J eanBaptiste Lamarck Charles Darwin Hypothesis of Common Descent Fitness Adaptations Anaximander was the rst person to speculate about the origins of animal life in 520 BCE Linnaeus the Father of Taxonomy classi ed species in 1735 Linnaeus believed in the unchanging order of life created by God The Great Chain of Being is the belief that the universe is perfect and change doesn t occur and all species are in order from lowest to highest wormslowest amp humanshighest JeanBaptiste Lamarck wrote Philosophie Zoologique in 1809 which stated that animals evolved from simpler forms Lamarck saw evolution as a goaloriented process that strives for perfection Lamarck believed that acquired traits were inherited Lamarck coined the terms biology and invertebrate Charles Darwin was an English scientist who promoted the theory of evolution in the mid 1800 s Darwin s Voyage of the Beagle helped him conclude that different subspecies on different islands must have evolved from a single ancestral population the most in uential stop on the voyage was the Galapagos Islands Darwin s Hypothesis of Common Descent states that all modern organisms descended from a common ancestor Common descent is very controversial among nonscientists but the hypothesis is widely accepted in the scientific community 4 observations that contributed to Darwin s common descent hypothesis Observation 1 Individuals within populations vary 0 Differences in appearance 0 Differences in the production of chemicals Observation 2 Some variations among individuals can be passed onto their offspring Observation 3 Populations produce more offspring than will survive o The capacity to reproduce is much more abundant than the environmental resources Observation 4 Survival and reproduction are NOT random Fitness is the fact that some variants in a population are more likely to survive and reproduce Adaptations are traits that increase and individuals tness Natural selection causes evolution Individuals with higher tness reproduce more often so their adaptive alleles are passed on more often Microevolution Key Terms Microevolution Gene Pool Bene cial Gene Mutation Harmful Gene Mutation NonRandom Mating Sexual Selection Gene FlowMigration Emigration Immigration Genetic Drift Bottleneck Effect Founder Effect Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection DisruptiveDiversifying Selection HardyWeinberg Equilibriu Arti cial Selection Microevolution is the small changes that occur in a special over a long period of time In microevolution the allele frequencies in a population change over time so the individuals don t change but the entire population changes A gene pool is made of up all of the alleles in a population Populations evolve due to diversity and their environments Ways that diversity arises Meiosis Sexual reproduction Mutations Mate selection Migration Beneficial gene mutation is a mutation that has advantages and may cause higher tness Some mutations are neutral Harmful gene mutation often results in death Organisms can become pesticide resistant when select individuals in the population are resistant and those individuals create a population of resistant organisms Through nonrandom matingsexual selection the alleles for more desirable traits will prevail over generations Females are usually the agent for sexual selection Gene owmigration is the physical ow of alleles between populations that tends to counteract the genetic differences that we expect to arise through mutation and natural selection Gene ow helps keep physically separated populations genetically similar Emigration is the process of alleles moving out Immigration is the process of alleles moving in Genetic drift is when alterations occur by change in a population39s allele frequency The Bottleneck Effect is when disease kills off many members of a population so the individuals that survive create a new population The Founder Effect is when a small part of a population moves to a new area but on brings a small portion of the gene pool The Founder Effect can give rise to dangerous disorders Directional selection is when traits move in a particular direction such as one particular body structure getting bigger and larger over generations Stabilizing selection is when extreme traits are selected against because the average condition is the t condition Disruptivediversifying selection is when the average condition is least t and extreme traits are more desirable According to the HardyWeinberg Equilibrium there will be no change in the allele frequencies if The population is large Mating is random There are no mutations There is no immigration or emigration There is no natural selection In artificial selection humans act as the environment and select what traits will prevail Animals such as domestic dogs are often arti cially selected Macroevolution Key Terms Macroevolution Species Speciation Temporal Isolation Behavior Isolation Ecological Isolation Mechanical Isolation Gamete Isolation Hybrid Inviability Hybrid Infertility Macroevolution involved big changes speciation and covers a very long timespan A species is a group of individuals in nature that can reproduce to make fertile offspring but can t reproduce with other species Speciation is the process of making a new species A single species makes up an impermeable container for its gene pool 3 conditions that must occur for speciation to take place Physical separation of a population into two groups The two distinct groups must be in different environments to cause genetic divergence Development of mechanisms for reproductive isolation To become truly distinct species the diverging populations must be reproductively isolated by either behavior or genetic incompatibility 7 ways a population can be reproductively isolated Temporal Isolation o Mating doesn t occur because breeding takes place in different seasons Behavior Isolation o No mating because there is no mate attraction due to behavior differences Ecological Isolation o Mating doesn t occur because there are different microclimates Mechanical Isolation o Mating is attempted but the reproductive structures are physically incompatible Gamete Isolation o Mating occurs but there is no fertilization Hybrid Inviability o Mating and fertilization occurs but the hybrid won t survive for very long after conception Hybrid Infertility o Mating and fertilization occurs but the offspring will be infertile Human races are not biological groups because there are no racespeci c alleles and races have never been truly separated Diseases Key Terms Conservation Medicine Zoonotic Disease Bacteria Viruses Prions Eukaryotic Pathogens 3 Lines of Immune Defense Asymptomatic Incubation Convalescence Chronic Vaccines Antibiotics HIV AIDS Conservation medicine is how our environmental changes threaten our health and natural communities Zoonotic diseases are infection diseases carried by animals but they can be transmitted to humans Infectious agents and pathogens cause infections diseases 4 categories of infectious agents and pathogens Bacteria o Salmonella strep TB gonorrhea etc Viruses 0 Chicken pox AIDs hepatitis u polio etc Prions 0 Mad Cows Disease kuru scrapie etc Eukaryotic Pathogens o Tapeworm malaria athlete s foot etc Prokaryotic cells are the most common cause of infectious agents The human genome contains more DNA from viruses than from our own genes Viruses may have evolved before the rst cells even existed 3 lines of immune defense First Line nonspecific response from skin and mucous membranes Second Line white blood cells proteins and in ammation Third Line lymphocytes B and T cells A person who is asymptomatic is a carrier of a disease with no symptoms Incubation is when the disease agent multiplies and the individual gets sicker Convalescence is the period when an individual is recovering from an illness When someone is chronic that means they may continue to have the disease and may also be contagious Immune disorders include allergies and autoimmune disorders like Lupus MS and Rheumatoid Arthritis Vaccines Prevent diseases Causes the immune system to recognize disease Wont kill bacterial diseases but can prevent them Antibiotics Treat existing diseases No effect on the immune system Can t eliminate a viral infection When HIV is transmitted the white blood cells engulf the virus but the virus is NOT destroyed the virus enters Tcells reproduces then destroys the Tcells Recent studies suggest that the white blood cells actually help the HIV virus to attack the body HIV turns into AIDs once the HIV virus has destroyed the immune system
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