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U.S. History 1492

by: Bernita Kautzer

U.S. History 1492 AMH 2010

Bernita Kautzer
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.86

Amy Darty

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Amy Darty
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bernita Kautzer on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AMH 2010 at University of Central Florida taught by Amy Darty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 335 views. For similar materials see /class/227592/amh-2010-university-of-central-florida in History at University of Central Florida.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 1 test 1 9 4 V39 9 89 0 o l i l i l l i U A LAN 00 0 When Columbus first sighted land in 1492 he believed he had discovered a new route to India and China The Tainos shared which of the following traits with the Europeans They farmed were accomplished seafarers and held religious beliefs Factors that encouraged exploration and territorial expansion included technological advances in navigational instruments and monarchs who hoped to gain control of marketplaces Some of the scientific and technological advances that aided European explorers by 1400 included the astrolabe and the compass Portugal39s early interest in exploration and expansion stemmed from its desire to expel Muslims from Europe and control the African wheat and gold trade By the 1460s Portuguese used African slaves to work sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands and became the first nation to associate plantation labor and African slavery A sea route 39 39 on Asian marketp a The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494 drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean and that which was west belonged to Spain and that which was east belonged to Portugal Magellan39s circumnavigation of the globe left no doubt that America was separated from Asia by an enormous ocean His voya e 39 39 r that a 39 passage to the East was not a feasible route to Asia impacted Europe in important ways greatly influencing exploration and the 39 Italian 39 had I ces The transatlantic exchange of goods people and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the Columbian exchan e Hernan Cort s was eventually able to defeat the Mexicans in 1521 by enlisting the help of tens of thousands of Indian allies who favored the destruction of MeXIco The largest treasure found in the New World before 1540 was held by the Incas The Spanish introduced encomienda as a way to reward conquistadors who had conquered territory in the New World The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards39 assumption that Spaniards were superior to Indians The gender and number of Spanish settlers who shaped two fundamental features of the society of New Spain were Spanish men who frequently married Indian women and an emerging hierarchical class structure based on ethnicity If you were the progeny of a Spanish man and an Indian woman in the Spanish New World you would be considered part of which social class Mestizos Like many other European colonies in the New World New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which Europeans became a dominant minority in a socIety stratified by race and social origin After fifty years of contact with Europeans in the New World nine out of ten Indians had died primarily from the harshness of colonial policies and diseases inadvertently transmitted by Europeans The first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States was St Augustine Florida In the 1500s the British and French sent explorers into the New World but were unable to sustain thriving colonies Quiz 2 1 Equot 5quot 99 F i t 9 One of the key events that convinced King James 1 upon his ascension to the throne that England should and could colonize in the New World was England39s defeat of the Spanish Armada Powhatan and his people were suspicious of English intentions because the colonists often resorted to Violence in their interactions with Indians The crop that turned Virginia into a stable colony was tobacco Headrights were initiated by the Virginia Company and continued by the royal government as an incentive to encourage settlement in the Virginia colony A headright granted fifty acres of land to every settler that arrived in the Chesapeake A servant labor system in the British colonies was created by the New World39s labor shortage and the poverty of Englishmen who were willing to work Some planters viewed indentured servants as property they sometimes sold The term yeoman planter refers to a farmer who owns a small plot of land that is worked primarily by himself and his family Mercantilism is aan economic policy that places the welfare of the imperial power above the welfare of the colonies Bacon39s Rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over Indian policy and ended as a conflict between the planter elite and small farmers The shift from an indentured servant labor force to a slave labor force occurred for many reasons one was that slavery provided a perpetual labor force New England Puritanism owed its religious roots to the Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century Samoset and Squanto were Wampanoag Indians who befriended the Plymouth settlers and helped ensure the survival of the young colony Early settlers in Massachusetts Bay experienced fewer difficulties with Native Americans than had colonists in the Chesapeake primarily because an epidemic had wipe out thousands of Indians in the region before the English settlers arrived The Puritan doctrine of predestination held that before the creation of the world God had decided who would achieve salvation that nothing one did could alter one39s fate and that very few deserved or would achieve eternal life The New England town meeting brought together a town39s inhabitants and freemen in an exercise of voting and popular political participation unprecedented elsewhere in the seventeenth century In the seventeenth century Puritan churches experienced a growing number of divisions over issues of doctrine and church government The Halfway Covenant was a measure instituted by Puritan leaders in 1662 allowing the unconverted children of Visible saints to become halfway church members a measure meant to keep communities as godly as possible During most of the seventeenth century New Netherland was a Dutch colony whose land was discovered in explorations made by Henry Hudson in 1609 The Navigation Acts of the 1650s and 1660s were designed to regulate colonial trade in order to yield revenues for the crown and English merchants and protect the colonies39 trade from England39s competitors and enemies The northern colonies established in British North America in the seventeenth century demonstrated that faced with the need to grow develop and adapt to a new and hostile environment the English in North America were up to the task Quiz 3 1 N 55quot U H H H0 00 ro i N H H w l l l l l H omummb N O In eighteenthcentury America the main sources of population growth and diversity were immigration and natural increase Because of the colonial New England practice of partible inheritance in land distribution by the eighteenth century lands could no longer be subdivided as the plots had become too small for a family to make a living Partibe inheritance means that lands were subdivided about equally among all the sons in a family The commercial economy of New England was dominated by merchants By 1770 the middle colonies had a uniquely diverse immigrant population the largest number of immigrants were German and ScotsIrish Many Germans without passage money arrived in Philadelphia as redemptioners which were persons who had obtained money for passage from a friend or relative in the colonies or by selling themselves as servants once they arrived In the middle colonies of the eighteenth century slaves The dominant group in eighteenthcentury Philadelphia society in terms of wealth and political power were Quaker merchants Poor Richard sAmanack mirrored the beliefs of its Pennsylvania readers in its glorification of work and wealth The defining feature of the southern colonies in the eighteenth century was slavery The huge increase in the slave population in the South during the second half of the eighteenth century can be attributed to a natural increase and the Atlantic slave trade The purpose of seasoning slaves was to acclimate them to the physical and cultural environment of the southern colonIes The Stono rebellion proved that eighteenthcentury slaves could neither overturn slavery nor win in the fight for freedom Newly imported African slaves usually arrived alone How did they develop kinship relationships in the existing slave communities Established slave families often new arrivals as fictive kin Members of the eighteenthcentury Southern gentry typically gambled entertained lavishly and cultivated a life of leisurely pursults A communication medium that brought the colonies closer together as it evolved was newspapers In eighteenthcentury New England the Congregational Church was supported by taxes paid by all residents In colonial America deists were usually educated and followed the ideas of European Enlightenment thinkers The Great Awakening can best be described as aan revival movement to convert nonbelievers and revive the piety of believers In addition to their competition for land colonial settlers and Indians clashed over the fur trade During the eighteenth century colonists in America thought of themselves as both British subjects and colonIsts


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