U.S. History 1492
U.S. History 1492 AMH 2010
University of Central Florida
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Popular in History
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Exam III Review Pres George Washington 17891797 1 Cabinet 2 Treasury 3 Indian Affairs 4 French Revolution 5 Jay Treaty of 1794 The Cabinet right people for the right job but didn t get along VP Adams not invited to cabinet VP seen as most significant office Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Attorney General Randolph Secretary of Treasury Hamilton Chief Justice John Jay Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury has 2 goals 1 Link the interests of the wealthy with the survival of the new government by the Report on Public Credit Assumption Plan amp Bank of US 2 Report on Manufacturing Tax to pay off debt Report on Public Credit amp Assumption Plan 1 Debt paid off at full face value interest Hamilton believed only the wealthy matter 2 25 million US will assume state debt and now the federal government will be on top to pass plan Hamilton trades votes with Madison amp Jefferson to put the capital in Washington DC Bank ofthe United States to bring money to the federal government it s a challenge to pass Implied Necessary amp Proper Jefferson amp Madison are strict constructionalists and turn down Hamilton to trade votes but Washington liked the idea so it passed did not make enough money to pay off 12 million foreign debt Whiskey Rebellion tax to pay off debt 25 manufacturing tax on whiskey west PA farmers are mad leads to the rebellion in 1794 they terrorize anyone who makes them pay the tax Sam Adams speaks up and says you can t raise up arms anymore Washington amp troops go to stop but no one is there Report on Manufactures encourages manufacturing grants amp subsidies given to manufactures it is a complete failure because of republican virtues independence self reliance Battle of Wabash Nov 4 1791 W Ohioborder of Indiana general Arthur St Clair 1400 men 200 women against the Miami and Shawnee Indians women are jayhawks and take anything of value off the bodies Miami amp Shawnee slaughter St Clair 620 dead and 258 wounded only 3 women survived General Arthur St Clair American general at Battle of Wabash Battle of Fallen Timbers Aug 1794 General quotMadquot Anthony 4600 men to Miami to take out the Miami and Shawnee Indians defeated Indians General Anthony Wayne American general at Battle of Fallen Timbers Treaty ofGreenville 1795 Ohio belongs to the US give 20 million worth of product whiskey amp tobacco to the Indians quotMadquot Anthony makes Indians sign it Washington39s Foreign Problems the French Revolution July 14 1789 Americans are taking credit for Bastille Day US could not help France during their war because we have no money so Washington creates Neutrality Proclamation 1793 Neutrality Proclamation 1 US recognizes French Republic but our alliance is strictly for defensive purposes 2 We continue trading with France Principles of International Law Washington says we re trading with France for 3 principles 1 quotFree ships make free goods neutrality 2 Contraband is limited to war materials 3 Blockade must be enforced 1794 Jay Treaty small American ships may trade with the British West Indies but not molasses sugar coffee and cotton British have 18 months to vacate forts but not trade posts even though not successful it gets us recognized and gives us stature in the world because we have made a treaty with a great empire Federalists Washington figure head amp Hamilton puppet master loose constitution urban manufacturing and support England Jeffersonian Republicans Jefferson figure head amp Madison puppet master strict construction rural agrarian support France Election of 1796 John Adams wins but keeps Washington s cabinet they all support Hamilton Hamilton really wins Jefferson becomes VP different party Feds John Adams amp Thomas Pickney DR Thomas Jefferson amp Aaron Burr John Adams 17971801 1 Election of 1796 2 XYZ Affair 3 Quasi War 4 Alien amp Sedition Acts 5 VA amp KY ResolvesDoctrine of Nullification The XYZ Affair Charles Cottsworth Pinckney John Marshall Elbridge Gerry go to create a treaty with France meet with Charles Maurice Talleyrand in June 1797 and Pierre Bellamy Lucien Houteval Jean Conrad Hottinguer Talleyrand wants a 240000 tip to meet with America and also wants a 12 million grant for France the 3 Americans give notes to congress it is leaked out to press and they call French men X Y amp Z9 hate France Quasi War June 1798Jan 1799 in West Indies fought by privateer proxy quotlegal pirates Letter of Marques legal document turns people against France and turn them profederalists it is a Federalist war ended with Treaty of Montefontaine Adams signs the treaty and makes Hamilton angry The Alien Acts 1798 1 Longer time to naturalize 14 years to become a citizen 2 President has the right to deport dangerous aliens 3 President has right to imprison dangerous aliens Irish immigrants hate England support France The Sedition Act1798 punishes false criticism of the government with jail and fines up to 5 years and 5000 designed to shut up DR even though it went up against Bill of Rights Virginian amp Kentucky Resolutions add Doctrine of Nullification to their state constitution Doctrine of Nullification Jefferson amp Madison say any state can nullify fed def actions if believed unconstitutional created in response to the alien amp sedition acts in 1798 Election of 1800 Feds John Adams CC Pinckney John Jay DR Jefferson amp Aaron Burr Burr amp Jefferson have a runoff in the House of Reps each state gets 1 vote and it s a tie 36 times Hamilton says to give the election to Jefferson 1 12 h Amendment Pres amp VP on separate ballots 2 Hamilton dies in dual vs Burr Role oanron Burr Hamilton Hamilton dies in dual against Aaron Burr The 12th Amendment Pres amp VP on separate ballots Electoral College Thomas Jefferson 18011809 1 Republican Simplicity 2 Slavery 3 Marbury vs Madison 4 LA PurchaseCorps of Discovery 5 Embargo of 1807 Republican Simplicity 83 million debt Jefferson wanted a simpler government and life no need for big Navy or Army Navy has 6 ships used to have 13 amp Army only has 3068 men 1807 debt is 53 million Jefferson wanted to get rid of bank but Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin says it s the only thing bringing in money Albert Gallatin Jefferson s Secretary of Treasury does not want Jefferson to get rid of Bank of US Gabriel39s Rebellion August 1800 Virginia slave Gabriel believed everyone should be equal 1 Kidnap governor of VA James Monroe 2 James Monroe will give Gabriel amp rebels key to armory 3 Rebel No rebellion 27 rebels hung Marbury vs Madison 1803 February of 1801 Judiciary Act creates more clerks and decreases the number of Supreme Court llmidnight judges Repeal ofJA of 1801 William Marbury gets a job and takes executive branch to court takes Madison Secretary of State to court John Marshall creates Judicial Review and says the JA is unconstitutional Judicial Act of 17891801 Adams makes Judicial Acts 1789 says more courts and more marshals 1801 says more justices Judicial ReviewJohn Marshall creates to say that the courts can declare anything unconstitutional ChiefJustice John Marshall creates Judicial Review wins in Marbury vs Madison Louisiana Purchase Robert Livingston and Madison in 1803 are sent to broker a deal and buy New Orleans for 10 million Napoleon doesn t agree but says he will sell all of LA for 15 million Jefferson uses lmplied Powers to override the congress Meriwether Lewis amp William Clark 45 troops go to explore the western territory Toussaint Charbonneau is their guide and Sacajawea is his wife Sacajawea won over by Charbonneau in a card game she is pregnant and is the only reason that they survived she is reunited with her tribe her brother is chief Berlin Decree France puts a blockade on Continental System England and stops all trade with Europe and England Orders in Council England creates a Navigation Act as a response to the Berlin Decree and says any country doing business with Europe ships must 151 pass through England to tax search and seize Milan Decree France responds to Orders in Council and says if you submit to Orders in council ship will be seized by France The Chesapeake lncident USS Chesapeake is in American waters British Leopard ship comes into American waters people jump from their shop and swim to USS Chesapeake Leopard open fires act of war Embargo Act of 1807 US ceases trade with the world hurts America and no one else North is mad they are merchants NonIntercourse Act of 1809 keep embargo against England France and their colonies James Madison 18091817 1 Macon s Bill 2 2 Tecumseh amp Tippecanoe 3 War of 1812 4 Harford ConventionDoctrine of States Rights 5 Treaty of Ghent Macon s Bill 2 1810 we will do business with England or France whoever drops their orders 15 France is the 1st to get ride of orders brings a fleet of British war ships lining up against the American coast amp 2000 more Americans are impressed into the British Navy Treaty of Vincennes gives US South Indiana governor is William Henry Harrison Treaty of Ft Wayne gives US North Indiana governor is William Henry Harrison Tecumseh s Confederacy Tecumseh goes to Harrison and says you can t sell land now they must unite and create pan Indian confederacy leaves brother Tenskwatawa in charge who is an alcoholic and has visions known at the prophet outside of Fort Wayne William Henry Harrison GeneralGovernor of Indiana American General at the Battle of Tippicanoe Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison vs Tenskatawaya General Harrison wins because of quotprophet s I vision Tecumseh comes back to find everyone dead and Indians chose to unite with British War Hawks DemocraticRepublicans Henry Clay from Kentucky for the West and John C Calhoun from South Carolina for the South The War of 1812 US vs British British are allied with the Indians Reasons for war are impressments blockade Indians western trade posts Orders in Council DemocraticRepublicans hate British political war this is called the Republican War Problems with the war militia small army no S NE rich Federalist no Indian allies 1 shipUSS Constitution Detroit Niagara Lake Champlain Ft Malden Horseshoe Bend DC Fort Detroit British General Brock sends note to American General Hull saying the Indians are there Hull terrified and leaves Fort Niagara American General Stephen Van Rensselaer V2 his troops and V2 militia cross Niagra River to Queenston Heights militia does not cross river because they are state militia they will not stay loyal and keep Queenston Heights so it goes back to the British Fort Malden Harrison and Indiana militia cross state line and kill Tecumseh and defeat the Indians in October 1813 Horseshoe Bend March 1814 Andrew Jackson and Tennessee militia beat the Creek Indians in Alabama DC August 1814 siege of Washington DC Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner Financial Support no money Henry Clay General Andrew Jackson Big win against Packenham at Battle of New Orleans Battle of New Orleans January 151815 Andrew Jackson defeats British General Packenham s 10000 troops vs only 2000 American troops Americans only lose 13 men British lose 2000 first time trench warfare is used and battle takes only 2 hours Treaty othent War of 1812 is a tie Americans think they won because it s a tie and we won at the Battle of New Orleans December 241814 The Hartford Convention December 151814January 41815 published in JanFeb 1815 after the Treaty of Ghent Federalists say 1 Bad War 2 State militias are being manipulated 3 War only supports agrarian interest neglects commerce 4 US not defending its coast lines 5 Doctrine of State s Rights any state may declare a lawaction unconstitutional same as Doctrine of Nullification End ofthe Federalists Federalists made themselves look like idiots with the Hartford Convention so they disappear in the next election Doctrine of State s Rights any state may declare a lawaction unconstitutional same as Doctrine of Nullification MerchantCapitalists amp Craftsmen merchant is a capitalist who uses goods as currency merchant pays craftsman in raw materials to make sure that the craftsman relys on merchant Shoebinding merchant gets mom and daughters to help they do shoe binding and he becomes a merchant craftsman Outwork Domestic Manufacturing merchant craftsman will out work in neighborhood and get neighbor to help make product Rise ofthe Factory original merchant will find out what the merchant craftsman is doing and will start own business instead of going to workers houses he will make factories for workers to come where he will have control over quantity and quality Samuel Slater Slater Model invented Spinning Jenny Slater model is immigrants Francis Cabinet Lowell Lowell Model makes Power Loom Lowell model is female workers white modern rural ages 1521 ladies all lived together in boarding houses for 5 years he buys land along Merrinac River and creates many factories Lowell Mills women workers poor working conditions women in boarding houses lots of rules strikes or turning out lead to change to Slater model immigrants working in factories Middle Class platform of the middle class is immigration Gender Spheres males always dominate the females job pub politics fraternal women home kids servants Elizabeth Blackwell 1849 151 female to graduate medical school started a clinic with her sister rejected the doctrine of spheres True Womanhood virgin pure Fem covert male owns married woman James Monroe 18171825 1 Monroe Doctrine 2 Missouri Compromise The Monroe Doctrine still used today more doctrines added on 1 Americas closed to European colonization 2 Try to colonize in US considered a challenge to us 3 US will not try to colonize in Europe The Missouri Compromise Henry Clay writes 1 Missouri will be a slave state 2 Maine will be a free state 3 ln Missouri south of the 3630 latitude line slavery will be permitted DemocraticRepublicans only one party Federalist gone after Hartford Convention John Quincy Adams 18251829 election was too close Adams and Jackson had to go to House of Representatives and Adam s wins with the support of Henry Clay Clay does not want competition for next election 1 Corrupt Bargain 2 American System 3 Scientific Research 4 National University 5 Tariffs The quotCorrupt Bargainquot Secretary of State Henry Clay is corrupt says Jackson Adams refused to use patronage system helped person get presidency he will give them jobs9 all Jackson supporters in office Henry Clay Secretary of State helps Adams get into office wanted to be the next president but could not win against Andrew Jackson so he helped JQ Adams get presidency because he didn t want to go against Jackson next election Tariff of 1828 Tariff of Abomination Maysville Turnpike Bill would have spent tariffs on American system is vetoed by Jackson he won t use it for the American system south calls it the Tariffs of Abomination Andrew Jackson 18291837 1 Election and Kitchen Cabinet 2 Sectionalism 3 Indian Removal Act of 1830 4 Tariffs 5 Bank War Kitchen Cabinet filled with Jackson s friends to remove the elitists from office patronage system Sectionalism US territory is divided up not only politically NE factories love tariffs love infrastructure hot rough boxing SS land South cotton amp tobacco hate tariffs hate infrastructure wrestlingrough boxing cheap to buy but make S selling Westfarm wheat amp corn indifferent indifferent extremely violent boxing freedirt cheap land Trail of Tears lndian Removal Act of 1830 most prestigious accomplishment believed in Americanized Indians governor of Georgia George Troupe in 1827 found gold on Cherokee lndian nation evicts Cherokee from Georgia prime cotton territory Cherokee is the most assimilated Indian tribe and takes Georgia to court where Marshall sides with the Cherokee Gov Troupe turns to Jackson who makes the Removal act and evicts all Indian nations east of the Mississippi South Carolina Convention1832 led by John C Calhoun says that you can t force tariff the new tariff they use the Doctrine of Nullification to nullify tariffs 3rd time doctrine is used in history by VP The Doctrine of Nullification used 4 times in history 1 After Alien amp Sedition Acts Madison amp Jefferson are against them but they are in France so they make up the Doctrine of Nullification any state can nullify federal actions if they believe its unconstitutional Kentucky amp VA add it to their state constitution 2 In Hartford Convention they use Doctrine of States Rights 3 In South Carolina Convention of 1832 led by John C Calhoun they say that the quotNewTariffquot can t be forced on them use DN to nullify tariffs 4 In South Carolina Convention of 1860 agreement to be a part of the union can be nullified using the Doctrine of States Rights Compromise Tariff 1833 Henry Clay says gradually decrease tariff until it reaches 15 so South Carolina secede Bank War Election of 1832 all about the bank of the US Clay supports bank Jackson wants to get rid of bank Election of 1832 platform is the bank wars Martin VanBuren 18371841 1 Economy 2quotd Bank ofthe United States McLane amp Dwane Secretaries of Treasury fired because Jackson wanted to get rid of bank Taney hired get ride of bank Van Buren creates 2nd Bank who hand out sub prime loans Panic of 1837 banks had money from tariffs so they give sub prime loans to anyone speculators buy land and try to flip it cannot sell and now owe money creates the depression Democrats quotJackass Jacksons Whigs National republic Manifest Destiny conquer inferiors William Henry Harrison 1841 1841 gave longest inaugural speech in the cold rain lasted 2 hours and he caught pneumonia died 30 days later John Tyler 18411845 takes office after Harrison dies he was a democrat from Virginia and neither political party supports him so he uses Texas Texas gains independence from Spain in 1821 and promise free land 10 years Mexican catholic Steve Austin wants Mexico to have states rights and holds Texas Convention in 1832 1834 Mexico under President Santa Anna who is a dictator and puts Austin in jail 1835 Texas Mexican War and in 1836 Texas declares independence now the Texas Republic Republic of Texas US recognizes Texas as a republic under Martin Van Buren Tyler later annexes Texas The Alamo 1836 189 rebels Santa Anna lays siege on the Alamo and it is a horrible loss for Texas General Sam Houston Battle of San Jacinto is Santa Anna vs Houston Emily puts Anna into quotrelaxedquot state and Houston took this opportunity to get Santa Anna to sign Texas independence Santa Anna James K Polk 18451849 1 Manifest Destiny 2 Oregon 3 Mexican War Mexican War Polk does not want to go to war with Mexico John Slidel to make treaty to buy New Mexico Arizona and California but Mexico does not agree War on Mexico 1846 General Zachary Taylor goes to Corpus Christie and waits for Santa Anna to cross border as ordered by Polk Anna is annoyed by Taylor crosses border and attacks Americas uses this as an excuse for a defensive war General Winfield Scott Vera Cruz then takes Mexico City Treaty oquadalupe Hidalgo 15 million we get New Mexico Arizona and California Gold Rush 1849 California Gold Rush Railroads New Technology in Agriculture cotton gin steel plow spinning jenny Lowell mills John Deere patens the steel plow lmmigration immigrants coming in German lmmigrants 14 million came for economic reasons amp opportunity they are skilled craftsman move to Midwest and create the middle class Irish lmmigrants 17 million came for necessity starving wheat farmers unskilled and had to stay in New England Utopian Communities Charles Fourier societies in NJ PA NY OH they had no competition and no individuality John Humphrey Noyes Oneida community Charles Fourier Utopian communities Slavery we get new territory what will the new states become Cotton Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin after watching slaves pick cotton it revolutionizes the US and spreads slavery south Yeoman Farmers wanted to keep slavery because slaves would start their own business and it would be competition and they also wants to preserve the social class slaves were below the Yeoman Nat Turner Nat Turner rebellion of 1831 he is a VA slave who was literate his owner wanted him to be a minister he believed he was the arc angel Gabriel and sent to kill owners he gets 70 slaves and they kill 57 whites all slaves hung 200 innocents to show power Wilmot Proviso all land that we get from Mexican war will be free racist three reasons people supported John C Calhoun against the Proviso because of the 15 h Amendment Lewis Cass comes up with Popular Sovereignty quotPopular Sovereignty vague and ambiguous North likes it because they can go immediately South likes it because they can bring slaves FreeSoil Party for racism and free western territory Martin Van Buren Zachary Taylor 18491850 dies of Cholera or poison Supported Wilmot Proviso Millard Fillmore 18501853 signs anything Compromise of 1850 Omnibus Bill Henry Clay proposes does not pass Stephen A Douglas writes the Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 1 California enters as a free state 2 New Mexico and Utah popular sovereignty 3 We would assume Texas debt if Texas gives up slave to New Mexico 4 Strict Fugitive Save Law Fugitive Slave Act a slaves must help in the apprehension of slaves then brought to commissioner to decide if they were save or not Election of 1852 Pierce always sided with south vs Winfield Scott KansasNebraska Act 1854 Nebraska comes in as slave state Kansas Topeka is free Le Compton is slave president Pierce sides with the South Bleeding Kansas 1856 American Party KnowNothings Nativism don t want immigrants Republican Party 1 Kansas 2 Charles Sumner 3 Dred Scott Case Election of 1856 Charles Sumner Preston Brooks Dred Scot Decision Taney says 1 Home state determines states 2 No blacks are citizens 3 Cannot sue 4 No territories can prohibit slavery leading topic at the Lincoln Douglas debates Abraham Lincoln LincolnDouglas Debates 7 debates Freeport Doctrine second debate in Freeport Illinois Lincoln pushes Douglas attacks popular sovereignty Douglas replies with Freeport Doctrine if territory doesn t want slavery do not enact black codes Election of 1860 Lincoln wins even though he got no votes from the south Doctrine of State s Rights Abraham Lincoln John C Breckinridge South democratic party Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis president of the Confederate States of America Fort Sumter1st battle of civil war
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