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Psychology Unit 2 Notes

by: Danielle Nwefo

Psychology Unit 2 Notes Psychology 1101

Danielle Nwefo

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About this Document

This is a huge compilation of all the notes from Unit 2 for the test.
General Psychology
Dr. Tim Flemming
Study Guide
General Psychology, Psychology, brain
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Psychology Unit 2 Notes Memory­ active dynamic process; recall ● Recall vs. Recognition a. Recall is trying to remember; self generating of information ■ “Free response” ■ Much more difficult  b. Recognition is familiarity judgement; retrieval ■ “Multiple choice” ■ Easy ● Processes 1. Encoding­ learning; making associations 2. Storage­ retaining/keeping the info 3. Retrieval­ getting info out  3 Stage/Modal Model 1. Sensory Machine: ○ A “buffer” ○ Capacity: unlimited ○ Duration: 50 milliseconds­ 1 sec 2. Short Term Memory ○ Capacity: 722 items ○ What is an item?...chunking groups and meaning i. Increases capacity of short term memory ● Proactive Intervention­ when old information interferes with  new information ● Recency Effect­ what happened recently affecting recall ● Retroactive Interference­ new memory interferes with  remembering old        3. Long Term Memory ● Capacity: unlimited ● Duration: unlimited ● Processing: Automatic/Shallow­repetition  ● Effortful­ conscious/lots of repetition ● Deep­ making connections with long term memory Transfer to Long Term Memory ● Spaced vs Massed Practice­ Attention: less is even transferred to long  term memory ○ Memory Consolidation­ reorganization ● Testing Effect­ retrieval practice February 25, 2016 Memory of Neural Level ● Synaptic Changes­ Wiring Together ● Long Term Potentiation­ with repeated stimulation Retrieval: getting info out ● Context­ depends; Memory­ encoding specifically  ● Environment­ State Dependence­ if you are in a certain mood while  encoding info you should stay in that mood while taking the exams, per say. ○ Implicit/Retrieval Cues ■ Automatic Forgetting: knows as either: ● Encoding Failure­ intentioned “remembering” ● Retrieval Failure ○ Storage decay = forgetting  ○ Interference/Construction Errors ■ Misinformation Effect ● Misleading Post Event Info (MPI) ○ Retrieval is constructive; rebuilds the pathways that were  originally encoded ○ Source Amnesia March 1, 2016 Cognitive ● Thinking vs Learning ○ Learning­ making association ○ Memory­ recalling association ○ Cognitive­ processing/interpreting association ■ “Doing something” with associations ● Integrate/transform ● Concepts­ a general idea/ collection of facts about an idea ● Visual Imagery­ internal pictures  ○ Prototype­ averaged form of internal imagery that include  necessary features of the concepts Problem Solving 1. Trial and Error: randomly trying different combinations in no particular  order  ○ Use when you have no info, or a completely novel situation ○ Inefficient 2. Algorithms­ rule based step by step procedure 3. Heuristics Rule­ based on experience ○ Use information stored to figure it out  ○ Likelihood of occurring  Obstacles of Problem Solving 1. Mental Set­ set “way of thinking” (default mode of thinking) a. Functional Fixedness­ default function for a familiar item 2. Confirmation Bias­ looking for info that confirms our beliefs or a rule 3. Availability Heuristic­ likelihood of something that is very obvious to you a. Strongest novel pathway 4. Overconfidence­ tend to be very confident in our abilities 5. Belief Perseverance­ holding onto previously held beliefs March 3, 2016 Reasoning: transformation of important to reach conclusion ● Inductive­ specific to general info ● Deductive­ general to specific info ○ More common ○ More susceptible to making false info with general  realizations Thinking Creatively­ producing ideas ● Convergent Thinking­ taking facts and arriving at a solution/ problem  solving  ● Divergent Thinking­ generating ideas based on a particular fact/ avoiding  what you know and generating new ideas based on instances of situations Language and Thinking ● Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language & the Brain 1. Wernicke’s Area­ language comprehension  2. Broca's Area­ language production (speaking words) Universal Grammar ● Syntactic Processing ○ Rapid arrangement and processing word order ○ Ability to generate novel sequences Communication vs Language ● Communication conveys meaning ● Language is infinite “productivity” generativity Language Development ● Receptive­ understanding ● Productive­ producing/ speaking ○ Example: babbling  ■ Phonemes: sound in language ■ Babies can produce one word at 9 months ■ Babies can produce two words in 18­24  months  ■ 28 months­ words and sentences ■ Semantic Burst­ Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (generativity) Critical Sensitive Periods ● Nervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in order to grow or  develop March 8, 2016 When does development begin? ● First trimester Qualitative vs Quantitative ● Qualitative­ different type of ability  ○ New abilities develop over time or in development ○ “Thinking differently” ● Quantitative­ more or less of an ability ○ “Knowing more” Piaget (founder) ● Assimilation­applying new knowledge to an old experience ○ Interpreting according to new experience ● Accommodation­ adapting your old way of thinking ○ Adjusting old info to fit new experience  Stages of Cognitive Development  1. Sensorimotor: (0­2 years old)­ knowledge is based on sensory experience a. No interpretation/ “perception” b. Out of sight, out of mind c. Recognition, but recall 2. Preoperational Stage: (2­7 years old)­ lacking logic abstract thinking  a. Conservation b. Egocentrism­ only their point of view/ perspective  c. Theory of Mind­ mental perspectives; attribute a different  state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete Operational: (7­12 years old) a. Prototypes­ transform info b. Abstract of physical world 4. Formal Operational: (12+ years) a. Abstract Reasoning (Deductive) b. Mental operations on Abstract Rules c. Deductive Reasoning March 10, 2016 Social Development ● Imprint­ bond based on needs being met ● Attachment­ emotional bond to another person  ● Shifts of attachment: a. Secure­ crying in absence; ceasing only upon return b. Insecure/Anxious­ crying in absence, continuing to cry ■ leads to Inconsistency/Abandonment c. Avoidant­ no crying ever! ■ leads to abuse; needs not being met; being  avoided  ● Development of trust: intimacy, friendships  ● Critical Periods a. 2 years and older  Development of Self Concept ● Mirror Self Recognition­ 18 months infants pass ● Self in Relation to others­ changing relation to others ○ Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ■ Trust ­­­> Initiative ­­­> Competence ­­­>  Intimacy ­­­> Integrity ● Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development ○ Preconventional­ reward (good) and punishment (bad) ○ Conventional­ maintaining social fairness/ justice; obeying  laws ○ Post Conventional­ putting aside the rules ■ Justifying own behavior  ● Development & Aging (60+ years) ○ Memory ■ Recall tends to decline overtime, not so much  recognition ○ Neurocognitive Disorders ■ Myelin Sheath production reduces; signaling is  interrupted because of the decline ■ Acetylcholine (NT) (excitatory) is down ○ Amygdalar Responses ■ Responsiveness only to cognitive events ■ Old people are happier! March 22, 2015 Self in Social Psychology Personality­ pattern of behaviors, thoughts, emotion that are defining of who you are &  that are consistent A. Personality Tests a. Rorschach Blots­ ambiguous images that determine how you perceive the world­ stimuli that triggers an unconscious self b. Thematic Apperception Test­ ambiguous story lines B. Humanistic Themes­ potential for personal growth/ propensity for change  (self awareness) C. Trait Theories a. Trait­ genetic predispositions for patterns of behavior, etc b. Temperament­ characteristic level of reactivity c. Extraversion d. Introversion­ need for external stimulation/sensitivity  e. Stability/ Instability­ ability to seek novelty and change 5 Factor Trait Theory of Personality A. Openness­ being curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new  ideas B. Conscientiousness­being organized, sympathetic, punctual, achievement  oriented, and dependable C. Extraversion­ being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social  situations D. Agreeableness­ being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm  E. Neuroticism­ being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody  Myers­Briggs Personality “Types”­ types are not traits A. Heritability a. Height­ 85% of genetic makeup b. Personality­ 55% of genetic makeup B. Stability­ over lifetime Person­Situation Controversy­ personality open to change in drastically different  environments  ● “play the part” ● 30% variability across situations ● different factors are expressed differently in different environments  Social Cognitive Theory A. Gene Environment Interaction/ Reciprocal Determination with Traits and  Environment a. Different people choosing different environments b. Personality shapes are interpretations of events c. Person helps create situations in which we can react March 24, 2016 Social Psychology A. Attribution Theory­ we can put the blame on the actions of a behavior on a person a. Disposition­ blame the person for things  b. Situational Disposition c. Fundamental Attribution Error B. Attitudes­ feeling that predisposes us to respond  a. Central Route­ analytical focus b. Peripheral Route (Social Cues)­ incidental influences c. Cognitive Dissonance­ contradictory routes of thinking i. goal is to balance out any conflicting  information C. Social Influence a. Automatic Mimicry (Copying) i. copying emotion = emotional contagion;  foundation of empathy  b. Conformity­ doing and thinking what others do or think c. Obedience­ same as conformity except with a person of  power D. Group Behavior a. Social Facilitation­ performance strengthened in presence of  others i. Social “pressive”; competition­ anxiety (a little) b. Social Loafing­ in presence of a group we feel personally  less accountable i. Responsibility is diffused across a group c. De­Individualization­ losing self awareness and then self  identity  i. Ex: Mean Girls movie d. Group Polarization­ enhancement in uniqueness in thought  around other similar minded people  E. Anti Social Relations a. Prejudice­ predisposed attitudes/ emotions about another  person/group; categorization of things and objects F. Cognitive Roots of Prejudice  a. Ingroup Bias­ prefer things and people that we can relate to  because we can relate to i. safe/comfort ii. we know about them b. Out group Homogeneity­ everyone that doesn't look like me  looks the same G. Social Roots of Prejudice a. Social Inequality­ not everyone is equal i. need for a “Just World” b. US vs. Them­ looking at people at a different scale


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