Psychology Unit 2 Notes
Psychology Unit 2 Notes Psychology 1101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Psychology Unit 2 Notes Memory active dynamic process; recall ● Recall vs. Recognition a. Recall is trying to remember; self generating of information ■ “Free response” ■ Much more difficult b. Recognition is familiarity judgement; retrieval ■ “Multiple choice” ■ Easy ● Processes 1. Encoding learning; making associations 2. Storage retaining/keeping the info 3. Retrieval getting info out 3 Stage/Modal Model 1. Sensory Machine: ○ A “buffer” ○ Capacity: unlimited ○ Duration: 50 milliseconds 1 sec 2. Short Term Memory ○ Capacity: 722 items ○ What is an item?...chunking groups and meaning i. Increases capacity of short term memory ● Proactive Intervention when old information interferes with new information ● Recency Effect what happened recently affecting recall ● Retroactive Interference new memory interferes with remembering old 3. Long Term Memory ● Capacity: unlimited ● Duration: unlimited ● Processing: Automatic/Shallowrepetition ● Effortful conscious/lots of repetition ● Deep making connections with long term memory Transfer to Long Term Memory ● Spaced vs Massed Practice Attention: less is even transferred to long term memory ○ Memory Consolidation reorganization ● Testing Effect retrieval practice February 25, 2016 Memory of Neural Level ● Synaptic Changes Wiring Together ● Long Term Potentiation with repeated stimulation Retrieval: getting info out ● Context depends; Memory encoding specifically ● Environment State Dependence if you are in a certain mood while encoding info you should stay in that mood while taking the exams, per say. ○ Implicit/Retrieval Cues ■ Automatic Forgetting: knows as either: ● Encoding Failure intentioned “remembering” ● Retrieval Failure ○ Storage decay = forgetting ○ Interference/Construction Errors ■ Misinformation Effect ● Misleading Post Event Info (MPI) ○ Retrieval is constructive; rebuilds the pathways that were originally encoded ○ Source Amnesia March 1, 2016 Cognitive ● Thinking vs Learning ○ Learning making association ○ Memory recalling association ○ Cognitive processing/interpreting association ■ “Doing something” with associations ● Integrate/transform ● Concepts a general idea/ collection of facts about an idea ● Visual Imagery internal pictures ○ Prototype averaged form of internal imagery that include necessary features of the concepts Problem Solving 1. Trial and Error: randomly trying different combinations in no particular order ○ Use when you have no info, or a completely novel situation ○ Inefficient 2. Algorithms rule based step by step procedure 3. Heuristics Rule based on experience ○ Use information stored to figure it out ○ Likelihood of occurring Obstacles of Problem Solving 1. Mental Set set “way of thinking” (default mode of thinking) a. Functional Fixedness default function for a familiar item 2. Confirmation Bias looking for info that confirms our beliefs or a rule 3. Availability Heuristic likelihood of something that is very obvious to you a. Strongest novel pathway 4. Overconfidence tend to be very confident in our abilities 5. Belief Perseverance holding onto previously held beliefs March 3, 2016 Reasoning: transformation of important to reach conclusion ● Inductive specific to general info ● Deductive general to specific info ○ More common ○ More susceptible to making false info with general realizations Thinking Creatively producing ideas ● Convergent Thinking taking facts and arriving at a solution/ problem solving ● Divergent Thinking generating ideas based on a particular fact/ avoiding what you know and generating new ideas based on instances of situations Language and Thinking ● Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language & the Brain 1. Wernicke’s Area language comprehension 2. Broca's Area language production (speaking words) Universal Grammar ● Syntactic Processing ○ Rapid arrangement and processing word order ○ Ability to generate novel sequences Communication vs Language ● Communication conveys meaning ● Language is infinite “productivity” generativity Language Development ● Receptive understanding ● Productive producing/ speaking ○ Example: babbling ■ Phonemes: sound in language ■ Babies can produce one word at 9 months ■ Babies can produce two words in 1824 months ■ 28 months words and sentences ■ Semantic Burst Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (generativity) Critical Sensitive Periods ● Nervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in order to grow or develop March 8, 2016 When does development begin? ● First trimester Qualitative vs Quantitative ● Qualitative different type of ability ○ New abilities develop over time or in development ○ “Thinking differently” ● Quantitative more or less of an ability ○ “Knowing more” Piaget (founder) ● Assimilationapplying new knowledge to an old experience ○ Interpreting according to new experience ● Accommodation adapting your old way of thinking ○ Adjusting old info to fit new experience Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor: (02 years old) knowledge is based on sensory experience a. No interpretation/ “perception” b. Out of sight, out of mind c. Recognition, but recall 2. Preoperational Stage: (27 years old) lacking logic abstract thinking a. Conservation b. Egocentrism only their point of view/ perspective c. Theory of Mind mental perspectives; attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete Operational: (712 years old) a. Prototypes transform info b. Abstract of physical world 4. Formal Operational: (12+ years) a. Abstract Reasoning (Deductive) b. Mental operations on Abstract Rules c. Deductive Reasoning March 10, 2016 Social Development ● Imprint bond based on needs being met ● Attachment emotional bond to another person ● Shifts of attachment: a. Secure crying in absence; ceasing only upon return b. Insecure/Anxious crying in absence, continuing to cry ■ leads to Inconsistency/Abandonment c. Avoidant no crying ever! ■ leads to abuse; needs not being met; being avoided ● Development of trust: intimacy, friendships ● Critical Periods a. 2 years and older Development of Self Concept ● Mirror Self Recognition 18 months infants pass ● Self in Relation to others changing relation to others ○ Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ■ Trust > Initiative > Competence > Intimacy > Integrity ● Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development ○ Preconventional reward (good) and punishment (bad) ○ Conventional maintaining social fairness/ justice; obeying laws ○ Post Conventional putting aside the rules ■ Justifying own behavior ● Development & Aging (60+ years) ○ Memory ■ Recall tends to decline overtime, not so much recognition ○ Neurocognitive Disorders ■ Myelin Sheath production reduces; signaling is interrupted because of the decline ■ Acetylcholine (NT) (excitatory) is down ○ Amygdalar Responses ■ Responsiveness only to cognitive events ■ Old people are happier! March 22, 2015 Self in Social Psychology Personality pattern of behaviors, thoughts, emotion that are defining of who you are & that are consistent A. Personality Tests a. Rorschach Blots ambiguous images that determine how you perceive the world stimuli that triggers an unconscious self b. Thematic Apperception Test ambiguous story lines B. Humanistic Themes potential for personal growth/ propensity for change (self awareness) C. Trait Theories a. Trait genetic predispositions for patterns of behavior, etc b. Temperament characteristic level of reactivity c. Extraversion d. Introversion need for external stimulation/sensitivity e. Stability/ Instability ability to seek novelty and change 5 Factor Trait Theory of Personality A. Openness being curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas B. Conscientiousnessbeing organized, sympathetic, punctual, achievement oriented, and dependable C. Extraversion being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations D. Agreeableness being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm E. Neuroticism being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody MyersBriggs Personality “Types” types are not traits A. Heritability a. Height 85% of genetic makeup b. Personality 55% of genetic makeup B. Stability over lifetime PersonSituation Controversy personality open to change in drastically different environments ● “play the part” ● 30% variability across situations ● different factors are expressed differently in different environments Social Cognitive Theory A. Gene Environment Interaction/ Reciprocal Determination with Traits and Environment a. Different people choosing different environments b. Personality shapes are interpretations of events c. Person helps create situations in which we can react March 24, 2016 Social Psychology A. Attribution Theory we can put the blame on the actions of a behavior on a person a. Disposition blame the person for things b. Situational Disposition c. Fundamental Attribution Error B. Attitudes feeling that predisposes us to respond a. Central Route analytical focus b. Peripheral Route (Social Cues) incidental influences c. Cognitive Dissonance contradictory routes of thinking i. goal is to balance out any conflicting information C. Social Influence a. Automatic Mimicry (Copying) i. copying emotion = emotional contagion; foundation of empathy b. Conformity doing and thinking what others do or think c. Obedience same as conformity except with a person of power D. Group Behavior a. Social Facilitation performance strengthened in presence of others i. Social “pressive”; competition anxiety (a little) b. Social Loafing in presence of a group we feel personally less accountable i. Responsibility is diffused across a group c. DeIndividualization losing self awareness and then self identity i. Ex: Mean Girls movie d. Group Polarization enhancement in uniqueness in thought around other similar minded people E. Anti Social Relations a. Prejudice predisposed attitudes/ emotions about another person/group; categorization of things and objects F. Cognitive Roots of Prejudice a. Ingroup Bias prefer things and people that we can relate to because we can relate to i. safe/comfort ii. we know about them b. Out group Homogeneity everyone that doesn't look like me looks the same G. Social Roots of Prejudice a. Social Inequality not everyone is equal i. need for a “Just World” b. US vs. Them looking at people at a different scale
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