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Environmental Science 150 Exam 3 Study Guide

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by: BreAnna Smith

Environmental Science 150 Exam 3 Study Guide ENVS 150

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Science > ENVS 150 > Environmental Science 150 Exam 3 Study Guide
BreAnna Smith
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 4.0

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This study guide is reviewing Chapters 6, 7, 10, 12, and 13 from the Introductory to Plant Science. 7 pages total.
Environmental Science
Mr. Foret
Study Guide
Science, environmental, environmental science, plants, growth, Stimuli
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by BreAnna Smith on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENVS 150 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Foret in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/24/16
ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDE I. Chapter 6: Flowers A. Sexual Reproduction  Requires TWO parents to reproduce  Produces genetically different plants  Reproduction produces seeds  Slower Reproduction B. Asexual Reproduction  Requires ONE parent  Produces genetically identical plants  Reproduction DOES NOT produce seeds  Faster Reproduction C. Complete vs. Incomplete Flowers  Complete = a flower that contains ALL four primary floral parts: Pistils, Stamens, Sepals & Petals  Incomplete = a flower that LACKS one or more primary floral parts: Pistils, Stamens, Sepals & Petals D. Perfect vs. Imperfect Flowers  Perfect = flowers that contain BOTH male and female parts  Imperfect = flowers that have EITHER male or female parts E. Imperfect Flowers; Staminate vs. Pistillate  Staminate Flower – only contains male parts (Stamen: Anther, Filament)  Pistillate Flowers – only contains female parts (Pistil: Stigma, Style, Ovary) F. Imperfect Flower; Monoecious vs. Dioecious  Monoecious = plants that have separate male flowers and female flowers produced on the SAME plant  Dioecious = plants with male flowers and female flowers produced on SEPERATE plants G. Self- Pollination vs. Cross Pollination  Self- pollination: the process of the plant’s stamen pollinates directly onto its own stigma  Cross- pollination: the transfer of pollen from one plant to another by an insect (pollinator) or the wind H. Cross-Pollinated Flowers  More efficient & accurate  Important to the evolution & diversity of flowers I. Wind Pollinated Flowers (Anemophily)  Dull colors; exposed anthers and stigmas; no nectar; odorless J. Insect Pollinated Flowers (Entomophily)  Bee: Blue or Yellow; Petals showy & nectar visible in UV light; sweet odor  Butterfly: Bright Red, Blue, Yellow & Orange; petals are landing platforms w/ long flower tubes containing nectar; sweet odor  Moth: White; petals are landing platforms w/ long flower tubes containing nectar at night; heavy, musky odor  Carion Fly: Dull red or brown; produces heat; no nectar; rotten meat odor K. Animal Pollinated Flowers (Zoophily)  Bird: Bright red or Yellow; large flowers w/ long floral tubes; a lot of nectar; odorless  Bat: White; large flowers w/ long floral tubes that open at night; lots of nectar; fruit-like or musky odor II. Chapter 7: Fruits, Seeds, Dissemination and Germination A. Pollination  ALL fruit & seed formation begins with pollination B. Fruits  When a flower is pollinated > Fruits w/ seeds develop from one or more ovaries ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 2 of 8  When a flower isn’t pollinated > No fruits, no seeds  Parthenocarpic- fruits w/out seeds C. Fertilization  Double fertilization- occurs when the pollen tube grows through the style and into the embryo sac in the ovule and then releases two sperm nuclei (takes place in angiosperms)  Cone-bearing plants- no flower or fruit is produced. Pollen- producing cones are grown on the tree separately and the naked seeds form in the female cone (occurs in gymnosperms) D. Fruit Setting  A fruit is an enlarged ovary.  Exocarp: outermost layer; the skin  Mesocarp: the middle layer; the fleshy pulp  Endocarp: the innermost layer; the pit E. Fruit Types  Compound fruit: A fruit composed from a multiple carpel ovary  Simple fruit: A fruit composed of a single carpel (one flower one pistil)  Fleshy: succulent & fleshy  Dry: pericarp dry when mature  Aggregate: one flower multiple pistils  Multiple: multiple flowers  Accessory: ovary + other floral parts F. Dry Fruit; Dehiscent vs. Indehiscent  Dehiscent = dry fruit that SPLITS open to disperse seeds  Indehiscent = dry fruit that DOES NOT split open G. Fruit and Seed Dispersal  Tiny fruits w/ feathery attachments > Wind ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 3 of 8  Small fruits w/ hooks > Attach to Animal Fur  Fleshy Fruits > Animals, Ingested  Dehiscent > Gravity H. Germination  Imbibition is the start of germination  Eudicot-epigeous germination; two cotyledons- used in the seed for food storage  Monocot- hypogenous germination; one cotyledon- a large endosperm in the seed for food storage I. Seeds and Dormancy  Physical Dormancy- Structural conditions preventing dormancy (seed coat dormancy)  Physiological Dormancy- Embryo dormancy when the seed must be subjected to specific conditions to enhance germination  Quiescence- When a seed does not have the appropriated environmental conditions to germinate; usually due to lack of water  Primary/ Innate Dormancy- when a seed is not immediately able to germinate after ripening  Secondary Dormancy- when the seed is exposed to extreme stress and dormancy is induced  Double Dormancy- A combination of both physical and physiological dormancy J. Physiological Dormancy  Stratification- the process of chilling seed in a moist medium for multiple weeks  After Ripening- a immature seed is stored to provide time for embryos to mature  Soaking- seed is soaked in water, which removes inhibition chemicals from the seed to rehydrate it K. Physical Dormancy ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 4 of 8  Scarification- overcoming physical dormancy by damaging the seed coat thus preventing inhibition (physical scarring) III. Chapter 12: Evolution A. Natural Selection  Favors individuals which are best adapted and will reproduce in greatest numbers  Individuals compete for limited resources  Only a small percentage will survive and reproduce in great numbers B. Evolution  The change in allele frequency from one generation to the next  How life forms change over millennia and breeding new species of animals and plants  Genetic traits of a population where certain traits are inherited to increase the survival in the following generations C. Genetic Composition and Evolution  Fitness = a genetic trait improving survival rate and reproduction  Adaptation= a genetic trait that is passed to the next generation to ensure the survival and reproduction of an induvial/ species under certain conditions  Acclimation = an change that slowly occurs overtime in an organism when responding to the change in the environment condition; but is not a trait that is passed to the next generation D. Changes in Population  Mutations are random changes in the genetic composition of an organism.  Gene flow develops when individuals either leave or join a population.  Genetic drifts occurs when a random events affect the genotypes of a population. ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 5 of 8  Nonrandom mating occurs when certain individuals with certain characteristics are desired/ preferred over others without those phenotypic characteristics. E. Micro vs. Macro Evolution  Microevolution- rapid changes that occur in the gene pool of a population  Macroevolution- small & slow changes that develop over many generations until a new species is formed from the results F. Punctuated Equilibrium  Evolution that occurs in long periods without changes; some species become extinct and new ones emerge IV. Chapter 13: Genetics A. Genetic Terms  Genes: A segment of DNA that produces a functional product (protein/enzyme)  Alleles: Different forms of the same gene  Characters: Property of an organism (e.g. flower color)  Traits: Specific form of a character (e.g. red)  Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism  Phenotype: environmental effect on expression of genotype B. Complex Patterns of Inheritance  Polygenic inheritance- Multiple genes control one character  Pleiotropy - Single gene controls multiple characters  Incomplete dominance- the intermediate inheritance of characters in offspring  Linkage- Genes occur on the same chromosome and are inherited together  Environmental influence- the conditions of the aggregate surrounding and affecting an organism ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 6 of 8 C. Transcription vs. Translation  Transcription- makes a copy of a section of DNA, thus becoming RNA  Translation- turns the RNA copy into an amino acid chain (protein) D. Genetic Breeding  Self- Fertilize Crops: hybridization an pure-line selection  Cross- Fertilize Crops: Mass selection E. Biopharming  The use of genetically modified plants to produce proteins in mass quantities  Produced vaccines, antibodies, blood substitutes, human growth hormone V. Chapter 10: Plant Responses to Hormonal and Environmental Stimuli A. Auxins  Promote apical dominance  Phototropism- plants growing towards a light source B. Cytokinins  Promote cell division and shoot formation  Promotes shoots initiation in the tissue culture C. Gibberellins (acid)  Increases stem elongation through cell division and elongation  Promotes flowering and increases fruit size of seedless grapes D. Abscisic Acid  Induces storage protein synthesis in seeds  Initiates plant responses to water stress (when plants have too much water) E. Ethylene  Occurs as a gas ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 7 of 8  Stimulates defense in stressed plants  Is used commercially to ripen fruit F. Photoperiodism  Long-day plants  Short-day plants  Day-neutral plants G. Photomorphogenesis  Is the plant growth response to light  Phytochrome- A receptor which is a protein that absorbs red & far-red light H. Brassinosteroids  Inhibit root growth and stimulate phloem and xylem development I. Gravitropism  Growth movement by a plant in response to gravity J. Thigmomorphogenesis  A plant responding to touch stimulus by turning, coiling, or bending ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 8 of 8


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