Environmental Science 150 Exam 3 Study Guide
Environmental Science 150 Exam 3 Study Guide ENVS 150
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Environmental Science
Popular in Science
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by BreAnna Smith on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENVS 150 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Foret in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDE I. Chapter 6: Flowers A. Sexual Reproduction Requires TWO parents to reproduce Produces genetically different plants Reproduction produces seeds Slower Reproduction B. Asexual Reproduction Requires ONE parent Produces genetically identical plants Reproduction DOES NOT produce seeds Faster Reproduction C. Complete vs. Incomplete Flowers Complete = a flower that contains ALL four primary floral parts: Pistils, Stamens, Sepals & Petals Incomplete = a flower that LACKS one or more primary floral parts: Pistils, Stamens, Sepals & Petals D. Perfect vs. Imperfect Flowers Perfect = flowers that contain BOTH male and female parts Imperfect = flowers that have EITHER male or female parts E. Imperfect Flowers; Staminate vs. Pistillate Staminate Flower – only contains male parts (Stamen: Anther, Filament) Pistillate Flowers – only contains female parts (Pistil: Stigma, Style, Ovary) F. Imperfect Flower; Monoecious vs. Dioecious Monoecious = plants that have separate male flowers and female flowers produced on the SAME plant Dioecious = plants with male flowers and female flowers produced on SEPERATE plants G. Self- Pollination vs. Cross Pollination Self- pollination: the process of the plant’s stamen pollinates directly onto its own stigma Cross- pollination: the transfer of pollen from one plant to another by an insect (pollinator) or the wind H. Cross-Pollinated Flowers More efficient & accurate Important to the evolution & diversity of flowers I. Wind Pollinated Flowers (Anemophily) Dull colors; exposed anthers and stigmas; no nectar; odorless J. Insect Pollinated Flowers (Entomophily) Bee: Blue or Yellow; Petals showy & nectar visible in UV light; sweet odor Butterfly: Bright Red, Blue, Yellow & Orange; petals are landing platforms w/ long flower tubes containing nectar; sweet odor Moth: White; petals are landing platforms w/ long flower tubes containing nectar at night; heavy, musky odor Carion Fly: Dull red or brown; produces heat; no nectar; rotten meat odor K. Animal Pollinated Flowers (Zoophily) Bird: Bright red or Yellow; large flowers w/ long floral tubes; a lot of nectar; odorless Bat: White; large flowers w/ long floral tubes that open at night; lots of nectar; fruit-like or musky odor II. Chapter 7: Fruits, Seeds, Dissemination and Germination A. Pollination ALL fruit & seed formation begins with pollination B. Fruits When a flower is pollinated > Fruits w/ seeds develop from one or more ovaries ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 2 of 8 When a flower isn’t pollinated > No fruits, no seeds Parthenocarpic- fruits w/out seeds C. Fertilization Double fertilization- occurs when the pollen tube grows through the style and into the embryo sac in the ovule and then releases two sperm nuclei (takes place in angiosperms) Cone-bearing plants- no flower or fruit is produced. Pollen- producing cones are grown on the tree separately and the naked seeds form in the female cone (occurs in gymnosperms) D. Fruit Setting A fruit is an enlarged ovary. Exocarp: outermost layer; the skin Mesocarp: the middle layer; the fleshy pulp Endocarp: the innermost layer; the pit E. Fruit Types Compound fruit: A fruit composed from a multiple carpel ovary Simple fruit: A fruit composed of a single carpel (one flower one pistil) Fleshy: succulent & fleshy Dry: pericarp dry when mature Aggregate: one flower multiple pistils Multiple: multiple flowers Accessory: ovary + other floral parts F. Dry Fruit; Dehiscent vs. Indehiscent Dehiscent = dry fruit that SPLITS open to disperse seeds Indehiscent = dry fruit that DOES NOT split open G. Fruit and Seed Dispersal Tiny fruits w/ feathery attachments > Wind ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 3 of 8 Small fruits w/ hooks > Attach to Animal Fur Fleshy Fruits > Animals, Ingested Dehiscent > Gravity H. Germination Imbibition is the start of germination Eudicot-epigeous germination; two cotyledons- used in the seed for food storage Monocot- hypogenous germination; one cotyledon- a large endosperm in the seed for food storage I. Seeds and Dormancy Physical Dormancy- Structural conditions preventing dormancy (seed coat dormancy) Physiological Dormancy- Embryo dormancy when the seed must be subjected to specific conditions to enhance germination Quiescence- When a seed does not have the appropriated environmental conditions to germinate; usually due to lack of water Primary/ Innate Dormancy- when a seed is not immediately able to germinate after ripening Secondary Dormancy- when the seed is exposed to extreme stress and dormancy is induced Double Dormancy- A combination of both physical and physiological dormancy J. Physiological Dormancy Stratification- the process of chilling seed in a moist medium for multiple weeks After Ripening- a immature seed is stored to provide time for embryos to mature Soaking- seed is soaked in water, which removes inhibition chemicals from the seed to rehydrate it K. Physical Dormancy ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 4 of 8 Scarification- overcoming physical dormancy by damaging the seed coat thus preventing inhibition (physical scarring) III. Chapter 12: Evolution A. Natural Selection Favors individuals which are best adapted and will reproduce in greatest numbers Individuals compete for limited resources Only a small percentage will survive and reproduce in great numbers B. Evolution The change in allele frequency from one generation to the next How life forms change over millennia and breeding new species of animals and plants Genetic traits of a population where certain traits are inherited to increase the survival in the following generations C. Genetic Composition and Evolution Fitness = a genetic trait improving survival rate and reproduction Adaptation= a genetic trait that is passed to the next generation to ensure the survival and reproduction of an induvial/ species under certain conditions Acclimation = an change that slowly occurs overtime in an organism when responding to the change in the environment condition; but is not a trait that is passed to the next generation D. Changes in Population Mutations are random changes in the genetic composition of an organism. Gene flow develops when individuals either leave or join a population. Genetic drifts occurs when a random events affect the genotypes of a population. ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 5 of 8 Nonrandom mating occurs when certain individuals with certain characteristics are desired/ preferred over others without those phenotypic characteristics. E. Micro vs. Macro Evolution Microevolution- rapid changes that occur in the gene pool of a population Macroevolution- small & slow changes that develop over many generations until a new species is formed from the results F. Punctuated Equilibrium Evolution that occurs in long periods without changes; some species become extinct and new ones emerge IV. Chapter 13: Genetics A. Genetic Terms Genes: A segment of DNA that produces a functional product (protein/enzyme) Alleles: Different forms of the same gene Characters: Property of an organism (e.g. flower color) Traits: Specific form of a character (e.g. red) Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype: environmental effect on expression of genotype B. Complex Patterns of Inheritance Polygenic inheritance- Multiple genes control one character Pleiotropy - Single gene controls multiple characters Incomplete dominance- the intermediate inheritance of characters in offspring Linkage- Genes occur on the same chromosome and are inherited together Environmental influence- the conditions of the aggregate surrounding and affecting an organism ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 6 of 8 C. Transcription vs. Translation Transcription- makes a copy of a section of DNA, thus becoming RNA Translation- turns the RNA copy into an amino acid chain (protein) D. Genetic Breeding Self- Fertilize Crops: hybridization an pure-line selection Cross- Fertilize Crops: Mass selection E. Biopharming The use of genetically modified plants to produce proteins in mass quantities Produced vaccines, antibodies, blood substitutes, human growth hormone V. Chapter 10: Plant Responses to Hormonal and Environmental Stimuli A. Auxins Promote apical dominance Phototropism- plants growing towards a light source B. Cytokinins Promote cell division and shoot formation Promotes shoots initiation in the tissue culture C. Gibberellins (acid) Increases stem elongation through cell division and elongation Promotes flowering and increases fruit size of seedless grapes D. Abscisic Acid Induces storage protein synthesis in seeds Initiates plant responses to water stress (when plants have too much water) E. Ethylene Occurs as a gas ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 7 of 8 Stimulates defense in stressed plants Is used commercially to ripen fruit F. Photoperiodism Long-day plants Short-day plants Day-neutral plants G. Photomorphogenesis Is the plant growth response to light Phytochrome- A receptor which is a protein that absorbs red & far-red light H. Brassinosteroids Inhibit root growth and stimulate phloem and xylem development I. Gravitropism Growth movement by a plant in response to gravity J. Thigmomorphogenesis A plant responding to touch stimulus by turning, coiling, or bending ENVS 150 THIRD EXAM STUDY GUIDEPage 8 of 8
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