New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide Exam 2 BCOR

by: Brooke Pietrafesa

Study Guide Exam 2 BCOR BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni)

Brooke Pietrafesa
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes outline things to know for the exam. This exam covers chapters 17-23.1
BCOR 12- section C- 10022
Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in BCOR 12- section C- 10022

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Pietrafesa on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni) at University of Vermont taught by Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see BCOR 12- section C- 10022 in Biology at University of Vermont.

Similar to BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni) at UVM


Reviews for Study Guide Exam 2 BCOR


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/24/16
BCOR Study Guide Exam 2 The exam covers chapters 17- 23.1 Chapter 17- Speciation  Biological species concept- group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring and are reproductively isolated from all other groups  Phylogenic Species concept- smallest group of organisms that share a common ancestor  Types of speciation o Allopatric speciation- species geographically isolated and gene pools diverge after years of selection  Spatial or temporal isolation- genetic divergence and reproductive isolation  Example- two separate squirrel species inhabit the north and south rims of the Grand Canyon o Sympatric Speciation- occurs without special or temporal isolation  Can happen through polyploidy or host race formation  Example- Crater lake cichlids  Reproductive isolation –two groups of organisms can’t exchange genes o Important to keep gene pools isolated o Prevents gene flow between species (distinct species) o Results from speciation  Pre zygotic isolation- habitat isolation, temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation  Post zygotic isolation- hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility  Polyploidy- abnormal number of chromosomes o Arises through non disjunction in meiosis or mitosis o Source of speciation (sympatric) in a short amount of time Chapter 18- History of Life on Earth  Prokaryotes evolved 3.8 billion years ago  Eukaryotes evolved 2.5 billon years ago  Multicellular eukaryotes evolve 542 million years ago  Plants and animals colonize land 444 million years ago  Humans evolve 2.6 million years ago Chapter 19- Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses  Bacteria have peptidoglycan cell wall (archaea and eukarya don’t) o Gram + - thick peptidoglycan wall- easier to kill with antibiotics o Gram - thin peptidoglycan cell wall- harder to kill with antibiotics  Eukarya have nuclear envelope and archaea and bacteria don’t  Prokaryotes exchange genetic material, and increased genetic variation by o Transformation- takes up DNA from surroundings o Conjugation- transfer b/w 2 prokaryotes o Transduction- DNA transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus  Efflux pumps- on surface of bacteria, pump out toxins and increase antibiotic resistance, can increase these number of pumps  Nitrogen fixation- bacteria (rhizobium) take nitrogen from environment and make it usable for plants  Microevolution- changes in gene frequencies  Macroevolution- evolution of a species and higher level taxa  Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in that they: o Are unicellular o Divide by fission o Have circular DNA o No nuclear membrane o No membrane estlosed organelles  Cyanobacteria- 1 photosynthesizes o Eukaryotes evolved from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria (where chloroplasts came from)  Symbiosis- organisms that live in the same location  Mutualism- both organisms are benefitting, their fitness in increasing  Traits that contribute to the success of bacteria o Highly variable- morphologically and genetically  10x more prokaryotic cells that eukaryotic cells in the human body Chapter 20- Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes  evolution of eukaryotes from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria and proteobacteria o chloroplasts- cyanobacteria o mitochondria- proteobacteria  Steps to eukaryotic cell from prokaryotic cell o Increased flexibility of cell walls and invagination to increase surface area o Cytoskeleton formed o Nuclear envelope developed o Internal membranes studded with ribosomes o Developed vacuoles for digestion o Microtubules formed eukaryotic flagellum for motility  Protists o Uni or multicellular o Tremendously diverse in functional role in environment and structure  Diatoms o Responsibly for 1/5 of all C fixation o Autotrophic o Important source of fossil fuels o Glass like- wash up on beach (silica)  Dinoflagellates o Mobile-flagellum o Most are marine o Many photosynthetic o Cause red tides and when dinoflagellates die coral bleaching occurs  Brown Algae o Kelp forests o Often produce holdfasts – keep the anchored o Sensitive to pollution  Apicomplexans o Plasmodium causes Malaria o Asexual and sexual reproduction  Ciliates o Have cilia for motility and to perceive the environment o Ex. Paramecium Chapter 21- Evolution of Plants  Coevolution- reciprocal adaptation of one species in response to another o Ex Darwin orchid and moth  Why does pollination specialism occur? o Reduce competition o Increase efficiency of finding and extracting resources  Adaptations to life on land o Waxy cuticle- protects against drying out o Pigmentation- protection from UV rays o Stomata- open and close to regulate gas exchange o Mychorrhizae fungi- exchange nitrogen and phosphorus for photosynthetic carbon (mutualism) o Spore walls- protective coating o Apical meristems- tissue at end of shoots that dictate growth pattern o Alternation of generations o Multicellular gametangia- protect gametes from dehydration  Moss and non vascular plants o Dominant stage is gametophyte o Peat- fossilized moss  Gametangia- structure that contains and protects the eggs and sperm  Antheridia- structure that produces sperm  Archegonia- structure that produces eggs  Vascular Plants o Sporophyte stage is dominant o Xylem and phloem transport water and nutrients o Have lignified cell walls that increase stature  Alternation of generations o (1N) spores produced by sporophyte developed into a multicellular gametophyte o the gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis and the fusion of these gametes produce diploid zygote o zygote grows and tissues differentiates to again become the sporophyte  Gymnosperms o Naked seeds o Pine cones are either male or female unlike in angiosperms  Angiosperms o Flowering plants o Pollen tube- grows down the style to fertilize the ovules inside of the ovary o Double fertilization- each pollen has 2 sperm, one fertilizes the ovule and the other fertilizes the megaspore and becomes the endosperm  Pollination- movement of gametes from flower to flower  Fertilization- penetration of the ovule by the sperm  Plants attract pollinators via o Showy flowers o Scent o Food reward o Morphology mimics certain animals  Pollination syndrome- Plants with particular traits attract specific types of pollinators Chapter 23- Animal Origins and Diversity  Most animals are symmetrical o Radial o Bilateral  Acoelomates- lack fluid filled cavity (have ectoderm, and endoderm)  Pseudocoelomates- mesoderm not completely surrounding internal organs, have a fluid filled body cavity  Coelomate- body cavity, endoderm surrounded by mesoderm and ectoderm  Protostome- mouth develops first from the blastopore  Deuterostome- anus develops first, mouth second from the blastopore  Know when different traits evolved in time on a phylogenetic tree


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.