Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 3040
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Exam 3 Vocabulary -‐ Basal angiosperm: flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to the most flowering plants (i.e. Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales) -‐ Magnoliid: clade, or evolutionary line, of angiosperms leading to the eudicots. Leaves of most magnoliids possess ether-‐containing oil cells -‐ Eudicots: one of two major classes of angiosperms; formerly grouped with the Magnoliids, a diverse group of archaic flowering plants, as “dicots”; plants with an embryo having two cotyledons -‐ Amborella: oldest known angiosperm family with a member still living; flowering plants from Amborella evolved and diversified so successfully that they quickly dominated Earth’s flora -‐ Vessels: tubelike structure of the xylem composed of elongated cells (vessel elements) placed end to end and connected by perforations. Its function is to conduct water and minerals through the plant body; found in nearly all angiosperms and a few other vascular plants (for example, gnetophytes) -‐ Tracheids: elongated, thick walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem, with tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, in contrast to a vessel element; found in nearly all vascular plants -‐ Nymphaeales: water lily order, basal lineage of angiosperms; aquatic -‐ Tepal: one of the units of a perianth that is not differentiated into sepals and petals -‐ Nectar: sugary fluid that attracts animals to plants -‐ Nectary: in angiosperms, a gland that secretes nectar -‐ Nectar guide: markings or patterns seen in flowers of some angiosperm species; guide pollinators to their rewards -‐ Rafflesia: genus of parasitic flowering plants; largest individual flower on earth -‐ Ray flower: in Asteraceae, the flattened, zygomorphic flowers; in contrast to the actinomorphic, tubular disk flowers. In many Asteraceae, the ray flowers occur around the margins of the inflorescence -‐ Disk flower: the actinomorphic, tubular flowers of the Asteraceae; in contrast to flattened, zygomorphic ray flowers. In many Asteraceae, the disk flowers occur in the center of the inflorescence -‐ Column: finger-‐like structure that carries the orchid’s reproductive organs; the stigmatic surface and the pollinia located under the operculum -‐ Lip: lower petal of an orchid, used by flower to provide a “landing platform” for its pollinator -‐ Simple fruit: fruit derived from one carpel or several united carpels -‐ Aggregate fruit: fruit developing from the several separate carpels of a single flower -‐ Multiple fruits: cluster of mature ovaries produced by a cluster of flowers, as in the pineapple -‐ Apical-‐basal pattern: asymmetric cell division with smaller apical (terminal) cell and larger basal cell. First asymmetric division provides polarity to the embryo -‐ Embryo: in plants, a young sporophyte before the start of a period of rapid growth (germination in seed plants) -‐ Hypocotyl: the portion of an embryo or seedling situated between the point of attachment of the cotyledons and the radicle -‐ Epicotyl: the upper portion of the axis of an embryo or seedling, above the point of insertion of the cotyledons (seed leaves) and below the next leaf or leaves -‐ Radicle: the embryonic root -‐ Protoderm: primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermis -‐ Ground meristem: the primary meristem, or meristematic tissue, that gives rise to the ground tissues -‐ Procambium: primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to primary vascular tissues -‐ Cotyledon: seed leaf; generally absorbs food in monocotyledons and stores food in other angiosperms -‐ Plumule: the first bud of an embryo; the portion of the young shoot above the cotyledons -‐ Shoot apical meristem: population of cells located at the tip of the shoot axis. Produces lateral organs, stem tissues and regenerates itself -‐ Coleoptile: the sheath enclosing the apical meristem and leaf primordia of the grass embryo; often interpreted as the first leaf -‐ Coleorhiza: the sheath enclosing the radicle in the grass embryo -‐ Scutellum: single cotyledon of a grass embryo, specialized for absorption of the endosperm -‐ Endosperm: tissue, containing stored food, that develops from the union of a male nucleus and the polar nuclei of the central cell; it is digested by the growing sporophyte before or after maturation of the seed; found only in angiosperms -‐ Aleurone layer: proteinaceous material, usually in the form of small granules, occurring in the outermost cell layer of the endosperm of wheat and other grains -‐ Stratification: the process of exposing seeds to low temperatures for an extended period before attempting to germinate them at warm temperatures -‐ Scarification: the process of cutting or softening a seed coat to hasten germination -‐ Dormancy: a special condition of arrested growth in which the plant and such plant parts as buds and seeds do not begin to grow without special environmental cues. The requirement for such cues, which include cold exposure and a suitable photoperiod, prevents the breaking of dormancy during superficially favorable growing conditions -‐ Ballistic seed dispersal: mechanical process in which seed pods detonate, firing their seeds away from the parent plant -‐ Imbibing: absorption of water by and swelling of colloidal materials due to the adsorption of water molecules onto the internal surfaces of the materials -‐ Epigeous: type of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above ground level -‐ Hypogeous: type of seed germination in which the cotyledons remain under ground -‐ Apical meristems: the meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant -‐ Lateral meristems: meristems that give rise to secondary tissue; the vascular cambium and cork cambium -‐ Cambium: meristem that gives rise to parallel rows of cells; a term commonly applied to the vascular cambium and the cork cambium -‐ Initials: a cell that remains within the meristem indefinitely and, at the same time, divides and adds cells to the plant body -‐ Growth: in vascular plants, resulting from the production of primary tissues by an apical meristem -‐ Morphogenesis: development of form -‐ Differentiation: developmental process by which a relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development -‐ Tissue: a group of cells organized into a structural and functional unit -‐ Simple tissue: tissue composed of single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are simple tissues -‐ Complex tissue: tissue consisting of two or more cell types; epidermis, periderm, xylem, and phloem are complex tissues -‐ Tissue system: in plants, a tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural and functional unit in the plant or plant organ; vascular and ground -‐ Ground tissue system: all tissues other than the epidermis (or periderm) and the vascular tissues. Also called fundamental tissue system -‐ Vascular system: all the vascular tissues in their specific arrangement in a plant or plant organ -‐ Dermal system: the outer covering tissue of the plant; the epidermis or the periderm -‐ Parenchyma: living, generally thin-‐walled plant cell of variable size and form; the most abundant kind of cell in plants -‐ Totipotency: for a plant cell, having the potential to develop into an entire plant -‐ Transfer cells: specialized parenchyma cell with wall ingrowths that increase the surface area of the plasma membrane; apparently functions in the short distance transfer of solutes -‐ Collenchyma: elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall -‐ Sclerenchyma: cells of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; include fibers and sclereids -‐ Fibers: elongated, tapering, generally thick-‐walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity -‐ Sclereids: sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Sclereids are variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity -‐ Epidermis: outermost layer of cells of the leaf and young stems and roots; primary in origin -‐ Guard cells: pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma; changes in the turgor of a pair of guard cells cause opening and closing of the pore -‐ Trichomes: an outgrowth of the epidermis, such as a hair, scale, or water vesicle -‐ Tracheid: elongated, thick-‐walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem, with tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, in contrast to a vessel element; found in nearly all vascular plants -‐ Vessel element: one of the cells composing a vessel -‐ Sieve cell: long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms -‐ Sieve-‐tube element: one of the component cells of a sieve tube; found only in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell -‐ Sieve element: cell of the phloem that is involved in the long distance transport of food substances; sieve elements are further classified into sieve cells and sieve-‐tube elements -‐ Sieve plate: the part of the wall of sieve-‐tube elements that bears one or more highly differentiated sieve areas -‐ Sieve area: portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected -‐ Companion cell: specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-‐tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-‐tube element -‐ Albuminous cell: certain ray and axial parenchyma cells in gymnosperm phloem that are spatially and functionally associated with the sieve cells -‐ Taproot system: primary root of plant, formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots -‐ Fibrous root system: formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem; in monocotyledonous plants and ferns -‐ Root cap: thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root. It typically consists of a central column of cells, the columella, and a lateral portion, the lateral rootcap -‐ Border cells: rootcap cells programmed to separate from the rootcap and from each other; on their release, they may remain alive in the rhizosphere for several weeks and undergo changes in gene expression that enable them to produce and exude specific proteins completely different from those of the rootcap -‐ Lateral root: root that arises from another, older root -‐ Columella: central column of cells of a rootcap -‐ Quiescent center: initial region in the apical meristem of roots that has reached a state of relative inactivity -‐ Promeristem: initiating cells and their most recent derivatives in an apical meristem; the least differentiated, or determine, part of an apical meristem -‐ Region of cell division: closest to the root tip and is made up of actively dividing cells of root meristem -‐ Region of elongation: newly formed cells increase I length, thereby lengthening the root -‐ Region of maturation: root cells differentiate into specialized cell types -‐ Aerenchyma: parenchyma tissue containing particularly large intercellular spaces -‐ Pericycle: tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem -‐ Protoxylem pole: first part of primary xylem, which matures during elongation of the plant part in which it is found -‐ Metaxylem: the part of the primary xylem that differentiates after the Protoxylem and before the secondary xylem; the metaxylem reaches maturity after the portion of the plant part in which it is located has finished elongating -‐ Endodermis: single layer of cells forming a sheath around the vascular region in roots and some stems; endodermal cells are characterized by a Casparian strip within radial and transverse walls. In roots and stems of seed plants, the endodermis is the innermost layer of the cortex -‐ Casparian strip: bandlike region of primary wall containing suberin and lignin; found in anticlinal – radial and transverse – walls of endodermal and exodermal cells -‐ Closed vs. open root cap organization: closed – files of cells that arise from root tip can be traced back to meristematic layers. Open – cell files cannot be traced back to a single, distinguishable layer -‐ Leaf primordium: lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a leaf -‐ Tunica-‐corpus: organization of the shoot apex of most angiosperms and a few gymnosperms, consisting of one or more peripheral layers of cells (tunica layers) and an interior (corpus). Tunica layers undergo surface growth (by anticlinal divisions) and the corpus undergoes volume growth (by divisions in all planes) -‐ Anticlinal cell division: perpendicular to the surface -‐ Periclinal cell division: parallel to the surface -‐ Node: the part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached -‐ Internode: the region of a stem between two successive nodes -‐ Cortex: ground tissue region of a stem or root, bounded externally by the epidermis and internally by the vascular system; a primary tissue region -‐ Pith: the ground tissue occupying the center of the stem or root within the vascular cylinder; usually consists of parenchyma -‐ Petiole: the stalk of a leaf -‐ Stipules: an appendage, often leaflike, on either side of the basal part of a leaf, or encircling the stem, in many kinds of flowering plants -‐ Palisade parenchyma (mesophyll): a leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast bearing parenchyma cells with their long axes at right angles to the leaf surface -‐ Spongy parenchyma (mesophyll): leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast bearing cells -‐ Bundle sheath: layer or layers of cells surrounding a vascular bundle; may consist of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells, or both -‐ Bundle sheath extensions: a plat of ground tissue extending from a bundle sheath of a vein in the leaf mesophyll to the upper or lower epidermis, or both; may consist of parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma -‐ Bulliform cells: large epidermal cells present in longitudinal rows in grass leaves; believed to be involved in the mechanism of rolling and unrolling or folding and unfolding of the leaves; motor cells -‐ Stomatal crypt: stomata recessed into leaves so that the water must travel further to reach them. Increases resistance to water loss -‐ Cladophyll: branch resembling a foliage leaf -‐ Hypodermis: one or more layers of cells beneath the epidermis that are distinct from the underlying cortical or mesophyll cells -‐ Thorn: woody, pointed branch -‐ Spine: hard, sharp pointed structure; usually a modified leaf, or part of a leaf -‐ Prickle: short, slender, sharp pointed outgrowth on the bark or epidermis of a plant -‐ Corm: thickened underground stem, upright in position, in which food is accumulated, usually in the form of starch -‐ Rhizome: more or less horizontal underground stem -‐ Bulb: embryonic shoot, often protected by modified scale leaves -‐ Tuber: an enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem, such as that of the potato
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