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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Min-Young Kim

Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 3040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 3040 > Exam 3 Study Guide
Min-Young Kim
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The vocabulary necessary for mastering exam 3 material is included in these notes.
Biology of Plants
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Exam  3  Vocabulary     -­‐ Basal  angiosperm:  flowering  plants  which  diverged  from  the  lineage  leading   to  the  most  flowering  plants  (i.e.  Amborellales,  Nymphaeales,   Austrobaileyales)       -­‐ Magnoliid:  clade,  or  evolutionary  line,  of  angiosperms  leading  to  the   eudicots.  Leaves  of  most  magnoliids  possess  ether-­‐containing  oil  cells   -­‐ Eudicots:  one  of  two  major  classes  of  angiosperms;  formerly  grouped  with   the  Magnoliids,  a  diverse  group  of  archaic  flowering  plants,  as  “dicots”;  plants   with  an  embryo  having  two  cotyledons   -­‐ Amborella:  oldest  known  angiosperm  family  with  a  member  still  living;   flowering  plants  from  Amborella  evolved  and  diversified  so  successfully  that   they  quickly  dominated  Earth’s  flora   -­‐ Vessels:  tubelike  structure  of  the  xylem  composed  of  elongated  cells  (vessel   elements)  placed  end  to  end  and  connected  by  perforations.  Its  function  is  to   conduct  water  and  minerals  through  the  plant  body;  found  in  nearly  all   angiosperms  and  a  few  other  vascular  plants  (for  example,  gnetophytes)   -­‐ Tracheids:  elongated,  thick  walled  conducting  and  supporting  cell  of  xylem,   with  tapering  ends  and  pitted  walls  without  perforations,  in  contrast  to  a   vessel  element;  found  in  nearly  all  vascular  plants                         -­‐ Nymphaeales:  water  lily  order,  basal  lineage  of  angiosperms;  aquatic   -­‐ Tepal:  one  of  the  units  of  a  perianth  that  is  not  differentiated  into  sepals  and   petals   -­‐ Nectar:  sugary  fluid  that  attracts  animals  to  plants   -­‐ Nectary:  in  angiosperms,  a  gland  that  secretes  nectar   -­‐ Nectar  guide:  markings  or  patterns  seen  in  flowers  of  some  angiosperm   species;  guide  pollinators  to  their  rewards   -­‐ Rafflesia:  genus  of  parasitic  flowering  plants;  largest  individual  flower  on   earth   -­‐ Ray  flower:  in  Asteraceae,  the  flattened,  zygomorphic  flowers;  in  contrast  to   the  actinomorphic,  tubular  disk  flowers.  In  many  Asteraceae,  the  ray  flowers   occur  around  the  margins  of  the  inflorescence   -­‐ Disk  flower:  the  actinomorphic,  tubular  flowers  of  the  Asteraceae;  in   contrast  to  flattened,  zygomorphic  ray  flowers.  In  many  Asteraceae,  the  disk   flowers  occur  in  the  center  of  the  inflorescence         -­‐ Column:  finger-­‐like  structure  that  carries  the  orchid’s  reproductive  organs;   the  stigmatic  surface  and  the  pollinia  located  under  the  operculum   -­‐ Lip:  lower  petal  of  an  orchid,  used  by  flower  to  provide  a  “landing  platform”   for  its  pollinator     -­‐ Simple  fruit:  fruit  derived  from  one  carpel  or  several  united  carpels   -­‐ Aggregate  fruit:  fruit  developing  from  the  several  separate  carpels  of  a   single  flower   -­‐ Multiple  fruits:  cluster  of  mature  ovaries  produced  by  a  cluster  of  flowers,   as  in  the  pineapple       -­‐ Apical-­‐basal  pattern:  asymmetric  cell  division  with  smaller  apical   (terminal)  cell  and  larger  basal  cell.  First  asymmetric  division  provides   polarity  to  the  embryo       -­‐ Embryo:  in  plants,  a  young  sporophyte  before  the  start  of  a  period  of  rapid   growth  (germination  in  seed  plants)   -­‐ Hypocotyl:  the  portion  of  an  embryo  or  seedling  situated  between  the  point   of  attachment  of  the  cotyledons  and  the  radicle   -­‐ Epicotyl:  the  upper  portion  of  the  axis  of  an  embryo  or  seedling,  above  the   point  of  insertion  of  the  cotyledons  (seed  leaves)  and  below  the  next  leaf  or   leaves                         -­‐ Radicle:  the  embryonic  root   -­‐ Protoderm:  primary  meristematic  tissue  that  gives  rise  to  epidermis   -­‐ Ground  meristem:  the  primary  meristem,  or  meristematic  tissue,  that  gives   rise  to  the  ground  tissues   -­‐ Procambium:  primary  meristematic  tissue  that  gives  rise  to  primary   vascular  tissues           -­‐ Cotyledon:  seed  leaf;  generally  absorbs  food  in  monocotyledons  and  stores   food  in  other  angiosperms   -­‐ Plumule:  the  first  bud  of  an  embryo;  the  portion  of  the  young  shoot  above   the  cotyledons   -­‐ Shoot  apical  meristem:  population  of  cells  located  at  the  tip  of  the  shoot   axis.  Produces  lateral  organs,  stem  tissues  and  regenerates  itself   -­‐ Coleoptile:  the  sheath  enclosing  the  apical  meristem  and  leaf  primordia  of   the  grass  embryo;  often  interpreted  as  the  first  leaf   -­‐ Coleorhiza:  the  sheath  enclosing  the  radicle  in  the  grass  embryo       -­‐ Scutellum:  single  cotyledon  of  a  grass  embryo,  specialized  for  absorption  of   the  endosperm   -­‐ Endosperm:  tissue,  containing  stored  food,  that  develops  from  the  union  of  a   male  nucleus  and  the  polar  nuclei  of  the  central  cell;  it  is  digested  by  the   growing  sporophyte  before  or  after  maturation  of  the  seed;  found  only  in   angiosperms   -­‐ Aleurone  layer:  proteinaceous  material,  usually  in  the  form  of  small   granules,  occurring  in  the  outermost  cell  layer  of  the  endosperm  of  wheat   and  other  grains   -­‐ Stratification:  the  process  of  exposing  seeds  to  low  temperatures  for  an   extended  period  before  attempting  to  germinate  them  at  warm  temperatures   -­‐ Scarification:  the  process  of  cutting  or  softening  a  seed  coat  to  hasten   germination   -­‐ Dormancy:  a  special  condition  of  arrested  growth  in  which  the  plant  and   such  plant  parts  as  buds  and  seeds  do  not  begin  to  grow  without  special   environmental  cues.  The  requirement  for  such  cues,  which  include  cold   exposure  and  a  suitable  photoperiod,  prevents  the  breaking  of  dormancy   during  superficially  favorable  growing  conditions   -­‐ Ballistic  seed  dispersal:  mechanical  process  in  which  seed  pods  detonate,   firing  their  seeds  away  from  the  parent  plant       -­‐ Imbibing:  absorption  of  water  by  and  swelling  of  colloidal  materials  due  to   the  adsorption  of  water  molecules  onto  the  internal  surfaces  of  the  materials   -­‐ Epigeous:  type  of  seed  germination  in  which  the  cotyledons  are  carried   above  ground  level                   -­‐ Hypogeous:  type  of  seed  germination  in  which  the  cotyledons  remain  under   ground     -­‐ Apical  meristems:  the  meristem  at  the  tip  of  the  root  or  shoot  in  a  vascular   plant   -­‐ Lateral  meristems:  meristems  that  give  rise  to  secondary  tissue;  the   vascular  cambium  and  cork  cambium     -­‐ Cambium:  meristem  that  gives  rise  to  parallel  rows  of  cells;  a  term   commonly  applied  to  the  vascular  cambium  and  the  cork  cambium   -­‐ Initials:  a  cell  that  remains  within  the  meristem  indefinitely  and,  at  the  same   time,  divides  and  adds  cells  to  the  plant  body   -­‐ Growth:  in  vascular  plants,  resulting  from  the  production  of  primary  tissues   by  an  apical  meristem   -­‐ Morphogenesis:  development  of  form   -­‐ Differentiation:  developmental  process  by  which  a  relatively  unspecialized   cell  undergoes  a  progressive  change  to  a  more  specialized  cell;  the   specialization  of  cells  and  tissues  for  particular  functions  during   development   -­‐ Tissue:  a  group  of  cells  organized  into  a  structural  and  functional  unit   -­‐ Simple  tissue:  tissue  composed  of  single  cell  type;  parenchyma,   collenchyma,  and  sclerenchyma  are  simple  tissues   -­‐ Complex  tissue:  tissue  consisting  of  two  or  more  cell  types;  epidermis,   periderm,  xylem,  and  phloem  are  complex  tissues   -­‐ Tissue  system:  in  plants,  a  tissue  or  group  of  tissues  organized  into  a   structural  and  functional  unit  in  the  plant  or  plant  organ;  vascular  and   ground   -­‐ Ground  tissue  system:  all  tissues  other  than  the  epidermis  (or  periderm)   and  the  vascular  tissues.  Also  called  fundamental  tissue  system   -­‐ Vascular  system:  all  the  vascular  tissues  in  their  specific  arrangement  in  a   plant  or  plant  organ   -­‐ Dermal  system:  the  outer  covering  tissue  of  the  plant;  the  epidermis  or  the   periderm       -­‐ Parenchyma:  living,  generally  thin-­‐walled  plant  cell  of  variable  size  and   form;  the  most  abundant  kind  of  cell  in  plants   -­‐ Totipotency:  for  a  plant  cell,  having  the  potential  to  develop  into  an  entire   plant   -­‐ Transfer  cells:  specialized  parenchyma  cell  with  wall  ingrowths  that   increase  the  surface  area  of  the  plasma  membrane;  apparently  functions  in   the  short  distance  transfer  of  solutes   -­‐ Collenchyma:  elongated  living  cell  with  unevenly  thickened,  nonlignified   primary  cell  wall   -­‐ Sclerenchyma:  cells  of  variable  form  and  size  with  more  or  less  thick,  often   lignified,  secondary  walls;  may  or  may  not  be  living  at  maturity;  include   fibers  and  sclereids       -­‐ Fibers:  elongated,  tapering,  generally  thick-­‐walled  sclerenchyma  cell  of   vascular  plants;  its  walls  may  or  may  not  be  lignified;  it  may  or  may  not  have   a  living  protoplast  at  maturity   -­‐ Sclereids:  sclerenchyma  cell  with  a  thick,  lignified  secondary  wall  having   many  pits.  Sclereids  are  variable  in  form  but  typically  not  very  long;  may  or   may  not  be  living  at  maturity   -­‐ Epidermis:  outermost  layer  of  cells  of  the  leaf  and  young  stems  and  roots;   primary  in  origin   -­‐ Guard  cells:  pairs  of  specialized  epidermal  cells  surrounding  a  pore,  or   stoma;  changes  in  the  turgor  of  a  pair  of  guard  cells  cause  opening  and   closing  of  the  pore   -­‐ Trichomes:  an  outgrowth  of  the  epidermis,  such  as  a  hair,  scale,  or  water   vesicle   -­‐ Tracheid:  elongated,  thick-­‐walled  conducting  and  supporting  cell  of  xylem,   with  tapering  ends  and  pitted  walls  without  perforations,  in  contrast  to  a   vessel  element;  found  in  nearly  all  vascular  plants   -­‐ Vessel  element:  one  of  the  cells  composing  a  vessel       -­‐ Sieve  cell:  long,  slender  sieve  element  with  relatively  unspecialized  sieve   areas  and  with  tapering  end  walls  that  lack  sieve  plates;  found  in  the  phloem   of  gymnosperms   -­‐ Sieve-­‐tube  element:  one  of  the  component  cells  of  a  sieve  tube;  found  only   in  flowering  plants  and  typically  associated  with  a  companion  cell   -­‐ Sieve  element:  cell  of  the  phloem  that  is  involved  in  the  long  distance   transport  of  food  substances;  sieve  elements  are  further  classified  into  sieve   cells  and  sieve-­‐tube  elements   -­‐ Sieve  plate:  the  part  of  the  wall  of  sieve-­‐tube  elements  that  bears  one  or   more  highly  differentiated  sieve  areas   -­‐ Sieve  area:  portion  of  the  sieve  element  wall  containing  clusters  of  pores   through  which  the  protoplasts  of  adjacent  sieve  elements  are  interconnected       -­‐ Companion  cell:  specialized  parenchyma  cell  associated  with  a  sieve-­‐tube   element  in  angiosperm  phloem  and  arising  from  the  same  mother  cell  as  the   sieve-­‐tube  element   -­‐ Albuminous  cell:  certain  ray  and  axial  parenchyma  cells  in  gymnosperm   phloem  that  are  spatially  and  functionally  associated  with  the  sieve  cells   -­‐ Taproot  system:  primary  root  of  plant,  formed  in  direct  continuation  with   the  root  tip  or  radicle  of  the  embryo;  forms  a  stout,  tapering  main  root  from   which  arise  smaller,  lateral  roots   -­‐ Fibrous  root  system:  formed  by  thin,  moderately  branching  roots  growing   from  the  stem;  in  monocotyledonous  plants  and  ferns     -­‐ Root  cap:  thimblelike  mass  of  cells  that  covers  and  protects  the  growing  tip   of  a  root.  It  typically  consists  of  a  central  column  of  cells,  the  columella,  and  a   lateral  portion,  the  lateral  rootcap   -­‐ Border  cells:  rootcap  cells  programmed  to  separate  from  the  rootcap  and   from  each  other;  on  their  release,  they  may  remain  alive  in  the  rhizosphere   for  several  weeks  and  undergo  changes  in  gene  expression  that  enable  them   to  produce  and  exude  specific  proteins  completely  different  from  those  of  the   rootcap   -­‐ Lateral  root:  root  that  arises  from  another,  older  root   -­‐ Columella:  central  column  of  cells  of  a  rootcap   -­‐ Quiescent  center:  initial  region  in  the  apical  meristem  of  roots  that  has   reached  a  state  of  relative  inactivity   -­‐ Promeristem:  initiating  cells  and  their  most  recent  derivatives  in  an  apical   meristem;  the  least  differentiated,  or  determine,  part  of  an  apical  meristem   -­‐ Region  of  cell  division:  closest  to  the  root  tip  and  is  made  up  of  actively   dividing  cells  of  root  meristem   -­‐ Region  of  elongation:  newly  formed  cells  increase  I  length,  thereby   lengthening  the  root   -­‐ Region  of  maturation:  root  cells  differentiate  into  specialized  cell  types       -­‐ Aerenchyma:  parenchyma  tissue  containing  particularly  large  intercellular   spaces   -­‐ Pericycle:  tissue  characteristic  of  roots  that  is  bounded  externally  by  the   endodermis  and  internally  by  the  phloem   -­‐ Protoxylem  pole:  first  part  of  primary  xylem,  which  matures  during   elongation  of  the  plant  part  in  which  it  is  found   -­‐ Metaxylem:  the  part  of  the  primary  xylem  that  differentiates  after  the   Protoxylem  and  before  the  secondary  xylem;  the  metaxylem  reaches   maturity  after  the  portion  of  the  plant  part  in  which  it  is  located  has  finished   elongating   -­‐ Endodermis:  single  layer  of  cells  forming  a  sheath  around  the  vascular   region  in  roots  and  some  stems;  endodermal  cells  are  characterized  by  a   Casparian  strip  within  radial  and  transverse  walls.  In  roots  and  stems  of  seed   plants,  the  endodermis  is  the  innermost  layer  of  the  cortex   -­‐ Casparian  strip:  bandlike  region  of  primary  wall  containing  suberin  and   lignin;  found  in  anticlinal  –  radial  and  transverse  –  walls  of  endodermal  and   exodermal  cells   -­‐ Closed  vs.  open  root  cap  organization:  closed  –  files  of  cells  that  arise  from   root  tip  can  be  traced  back  to  meristematic  layers.  Open  –  cell  files  cannot  be   traced  back  to  a  single,  distinguishable  layer   -­‐ Leaf  primordium:  lateral  outgrowth  from  the  apical  meristem  that  will   eventually  become  a  leaf   -­‐ Tunica-­‐corpus:  organization  of  the  shoot  apex  of  most  angiosperms  and  a   few  gymnosperms,  consisting  of  one  or  more  peripheral  layers  of  cells   (tunica  layers)  and  an  interior  (corpus).  Tunica  layers  undergo  surface   growth  (by  anticlinal  divisions)  and  the  corpus  undergoes  volume  growth   (by  divisions  in  all  planes)   -­‐ Anticlinal  cell  division:  perpendicular  to  the  surface   -­‐ Periclinal  cell  division:  parallel  to  the  surface   -­‐ Node:  the  part  of  a  stem  where  one  or  more  leaves  are  attached   -­‐ Internode:  the  region  of  a  stem  between  two  successive  nodes   -­‐ Cortex:  ground  tissue  region  of  a  stem  or  root,  bounded  externally  by  the   epidermis  and  internally  by  the  vascular  system;  a  primary  tissue  region   -­‐ Pith:  the  ground  tissue  occupying  the  center  of  the  stem  or  root  within  the   vascular  cylinder;  usually  consists  of  parenchyma       -­‐ Petiole:  the  stalk  of  a  leaf   -­‐ Stipules:  an  appendage,  often  leaflike,  on  either  side  of  the  basal  part  of  a   leaf,  or  encircling  the  stem,  in  many  kinds  of  flowering  plants   -­‐ Palisade  parenchyma  (mesophyll):  a  leaf  tissue  composed  of  columnar   chloroplast  bearing  parenchyma  cells  with  their  long  axes  at  right  angles  to   the  leaf  surface   -­‐ Spongy  parenchyma  (mesophyll):  leaf  tissue  composed  of  loosely   arranged,  chloroplast  bearing  cells     -­‐ Bundle  sheath:  layer  or  layers  of  cells  surrounding  a  vascular  bundle;  may   consist  of  parenchyma  or  sclerenchyma  cells,  or  both   -­‐ Bundle  sheath  extensions:  a  plat  of  ground  tissue  extending  from  a  bundle   sheath  of  a  vein  in  the  leaf  mesophyll  to  the  upper  or  lower  epidermis,  or   both;  may  consist  of  parenchyma,  collenchyma,  sclerenchyma   -­‐ Bulliform  cells:  large  epidermal  cells  present  in  longitudinal  rows  in  grass   leaves;  believed  to  be  involved  in  the  mechanism  of  rolling  and  unrolling  or   folding  and  unfolding  of  the  leaves;  motor  cells   -­‐ Stomatal  crypt:  stomata  recessed  into  leaves  so  that  the  water  must  travel   further  to  reach  them.  Increases  resistance  to  water  loss     -­‐ Cladophyll:  branch  resembling  a  foliage  leaf   -­‐ Hypodermis:  one  or  more  layers  of  cells  beneath  the  epidermis  that  are   distinct  from  the  underlying  cortical  or  mesophyll  cells   -­‐ Thorn:  woody,  pointed  branch   -­‐ Spine:  hard,  sharp  pointed  structure;  usually  a  modified  leaf,  or  part  of  a  leaf   -­‐ Prickle:  short,  slender,  sharp  pointed  outgrowth  on  the  bark  or  epidermis  of   a  plant   -­‐ Corm:  thickened  underground  stem,  upright  in  position,  in  which  food  is   accumulated,  usually  in  the  form  of  starch   -­‐ Rhizome:  more  or  less  horizontal  underground  stem   -­‐ Bulb:  embryonic  shoot,  often  protected  by  modified  scale  leaves   -­‐ Tuber:  an  enlarged,  short,  fleshy  underground  stem,  such  as  that  of  the   potato  


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