Introduction to Sociology Principles
Introduction to Sociology Principles 034 001
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Chapter 16 Religion 39239 Emile Durkheim stressed the way that religion contributes to social order and developed the following terms Collective conscience common sentiments and values that we share as a result of living together Profane secular everyday world Sacred religious transcendent world Totems objects to symbolize the sacred Rituals public practices designed to connect us to the sacred Civil religion set of quasireligious beliefs and practices that bind us together and justify our way of life 0 Religion causes gender inequality by traditionally placing women in a subordinate position 0 Religion causes class inequality by justifying class hierarchy on religious grounds suggesting that wealth is Godgiven making those who are wealthy seem godlike 0 Religion causes social con ict just as African Americans were discriminated against in the South and even had to worship in separate churches however this led to the Civil Rights movement 0 Religion can maintain social order under some circumstances in Emile Durkheim s opinion but can clearly reinforce social inequality and con ict 39239 Max Weber stressed the way religion contributes to social change The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism Weber s book that aims to explain the rise ofmodern capitalism citing that favorable economic conditions and the spread of certain moral values are factors that initiated capitalism Protestant theologian john Calvin discussed the need to engage in intense worldly activity to display industry punctuality and frugality in everyday life many Protestants took up this idea and Weber coined the term Protestant ethic I Where the Protestant ethic took root and where economic conditions were favorable early capitalist enterprises grew quickly I Protestantism was constructed on Iudaism and Catholicism which were rational because their followers abstained from magic and they engaged in legalistic interpretation of the holy writ I Problems with Weber s argument correlation between the Protestant worth ethic and the strength of capitalism is weaker than he thought and Weber s followers didn t always apply the Protestant ethic as carefully as he did I Weber said that the world had become quotdisenchantedquot I In medieval and early modern Europe the quality oflife was unpredictable which led to popular beliefin magic as livingmaterial conditions improved beliefin magic and witchcraft lost support which led to the development of Christianity the Church persecuted witches stamped out opposing beliefs and became a powerful presence and authority in Europe until the turn of the 20th century Secularization thesis religious institutions actions and consciousness are on the decline worldwide 0 Sociologists modified ideas about secularization in the 1990 s because of survey evidence proved otherwise and that an intensification of religious beliefpractice had occurred over the past few decades Less developed countries never under Communist rule have highest percentages of citizens who say religion is important in their lives 5797 Highly developed countries have 1139 ofpopulation who say religion is important in their lives v Communist and formerlyCommunist countries have the lowest percentage of religious people 113 6 due to atheism as a state policy 0 This data suggests that religiosity is negatively correlated with level of economic development except in one case The United States has 59 ofpopulation that consider religion important compared to 33 in the UK and 30 in Canada which is highly unusual for such a developed country 0 93 ofAmericans believe in God or some higher power 0 47 attend religious serves 1 times a month 0 48 feel somewhat strongly affiliated to their religion 0 o 00 o 00 Fundamentalists interpret scriptures literally seek to establish a direct personal relationship with the higher beings they worship and are relatively intolerant of nonfundamentalists o Fundamentalism has spread throughout the world since the 1970 s and is typically driven by politics 0 Religious fundamentalism has become a worldwide phenomenon and has taken eXtreme forms and involved violence as a means of establishing fundamentalist ideas and institutions Revised secularization thesis worldly institutions break off from the institution of religion over time meaning that religion governs an ever smaller part ofmost people s lives and becomes a matter ofpersonal choice 39239 More than 2100 religious groups are active in the US and sociologists generally divide religious groups into three groups churches sects and cults Church bureaucratic religious organization that accommodated itself to mainstream society and culture formally trained leaders strict hierarchy of roles and clearcut rules and regulations members from all classes of society two main types of churches o 39 Ecclesia statesupported churches which impose advantages on members and disadvantages on nonmenbers and have low tolerance of other religions Pluralistic churches that allow diversity and express tolerance of nonmembers many denominations various streams ofheliefand practice that some churches allow to coexist under their overarching authority include Baptists Methodists Lutherans Roman Catholics and Orthodox Catholics Conservative Iews Reform Iews etc 0 o o o Sects usually form by breaking away from churches due to disagreement about church doctrine Sects are less integrated into society and less bureaucratized than churches They often are led by charismatic leaders who tend to be relatively intolerant of other religious opinions separate themselves geographically and have strict rules about dress diet and prayer usually sects are shortlived but if they do persist they usually turn into churches because of the need for rules and clearly defined hierarchy of roles Cults small groups ofpeople deeply committed to a religious vision that rejects mainstream culture and society and are generally led by charismatic individuals cults tend to be classsegregated groups and because they tend to recruit few members they usually disappear quickly exceptions Iesus and Muhammad were both charismatic leaders of cults and eventually gained so many followers that they transformed their cults into churches Routinization of charisma Weber s term for the transformation of the unique gift of divine enlightenment into a permanent part of everyday life It involves turning religious inspiration into a stable social institution with defined roles interpreters of the divine message teachers duespaying laypeople etc Major World Religions 39239 Iudaism central teachings rest on beliefin one God Yahweh and 613 divine commandments or mitzvoth which are outlined in the Torah These include prescriptions for justice righteousness and observance rest and pray on the Sabbath honor the old and the wise don t eat meat of animals with hooves etcews worship in temples or synagogues the first Iew was Abraham who lived about 4000 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia currently Iraq over 5 millions Iews live in the US and about the same amount live in Israel different Iewish denominations include Reform Iudaism most popular denomination in US Chasidic Iudaism Conservative Iudaism and Reconstructionist Iudaism know for being liberal genderegalitarian and social activism 39239 Christianity belief that Jesus is the Messiah and he teaches us to believe in God and love him and to love your neighbor possess inner conviction in 312 CE the Roman emperor Constantine I converted to Christianity and turned it into a state religion causing it to spread rapidly throughout Europe the Church became dominant in Europe until the 16th century and it contributed to gender inequality because women played a marginal role in its affairs in the 16th century Martin Luther a Germany priest challenged the Christian ways by seeking to achieve a personal relationship with God and by questioning the Church hierarchy which led to the split of Christianity into two branches Catholicism and Protestantism the Bible is the most important book for Christians Easter was the most important holiday for Christians but Christmas gained popularity in the 19th century Christianity is the dominant religion in the West 0 Islam originated 600 years after Christianity in Mecca now Saudi Arabia one God is Allah and his prophet is Muhammad the Islamic holy bookis the Qur an Islam stresses egalitarianism universal love the significance of hadith traditions and Muslims believe the Qur an is the direct word of God Islams have 5 duties o Recite the Muslim creed aloud correctly with full understanding and with heartfelt belief quotThere is no god but Allan and Muhammad is his prophet 5 times a day they must worship in a religious service Fast from sunrise to sunset everyday during the 9th month of the lunar calendar Ramadan Give to the poor At least once in their life they must make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca When the prophet Muhammad died his followers disputed about how to name a successor which led to the division of Muslims the Sunni Muslims thought his successor Khalifa caliph should be elected the Shia Muslims thought the caliph should be a direct descendant of Muhammad today the majority of Muslims are Sunni and the Shia are concentrated in Iran and souther Iraq and tend to be more conservative and fundamentalist than the Sunni another Islamic sect developed in the modern era called Wahhabism which is an extreme fundamentalist group that placed ritual over intentions and prays only to Allah not Muhammad 0 Hinduism originated 4000 years ago and is dominant in India the major Hindu texts are epic poems like the Bhagavad Gita Mahabharata and the Ramayana it has no single founder and no books that are thought to be inspired by god belief in reincarnation only the body dies the soul returns in a new form after death and that form depends on how one lived one s previous life and rarely someone will reach nirvana which is a stage of spiritual perfected that allows the soul to reunite with God their beliefs created a rigid 0 OO 00 o caste system of religiously sanctioned hierarchy there are many gods in the Hindu religious and all of them are thought to be aspects of the one tru God Hinduism tends to assimilate not exclude other religious beliefs Buddhism developed from ideas of Hinduism which had turned into a system of rituals and sacrifices that were considered a burden Gautama Buddha objected to the stale ritualism rejected the caste system and reincarnation and sought to achieve a direct relationship with God which provided a new way for everyone to establish spiritual enlightenment proposed 4 Noble Truths 0 Life is suffering There are moments of joy but poverty violence and other sources of sorrow overshadow them All suffering derives from desira We suffer when we fail to achieve what we want 0 Suffering ceases by eliminating desire If we can train ourselves not to lust be greedy crave please or desire material comforts we won t suffer 0 We can eliminate desire by behaving morally focusing intently on our feelings and thoughts meditating and achieving wisdom 00 0 Nirvana can be achieved by quotblowing out the burning torch of futile passions of existence Buddhism holds the possibility of everyone becoming some sort of god not presuming the existence of one true God no central church or text and is known for its diversity of beliefs and practices Buddhism spread across Asia after India s ruler adopted it as his religion in the 3ml century BC the in uence of Buddhism in its original land started to die out and Hinduism is the predominant religion in India today Buddhism is able to coexist with other religions 0 We have limited understanding of the social conditions that developed the first world religions Iudaism and Hinduism but we have greater knowledge of the formation of Buddhism Christianity and Islam 0 We can conclude that 1 new world religions are founded by charismatic personalities in times of great trouble the impulse to find a better world is inspired by the adversity in this one 2 the founding of new religions is typically animated by the desire for freedom and equality always in the afterlife and often in this one 3 the routinization of charisma typically makes religion less responsive to the needs of ordinary people and often supports injustice meaning that religious reformrevival are always evident and often spill over into politics 4 new world religions could emerge in the future Religiosity how important religion is to people and is measured in various ways strength ofbelief emotional attachment to a religion knowledge of religion frequency of performing rituals and frequency of applying religious principles in daily life Older people attend religious services more frequently than younger people because older people have more time not usually in school or working not busy raising a family and they have more need for religion older people are generally closer to illness and death and require the solace of religion Different age groups live through different times and older people reached maturity when religion was a more authoritative force in society than it is currently African Americans attend church more regularly than whites which is due to the central political and cultural role played by the church in helping African Americans cope with fight slavery segregation discrimination and prejudice People whose parents attended religious services frequently are more likely to do so themselves Religiosity is partly a learned behavior and parents actions have a lasting impact on children To sum up religiosity depends on opportunity need and learning 2 trends are dominant concerning religion today secularization and revival From 19722002 Americans without religious preference went form 5 to 14 Americans who say religion is important went from 75 to 50 from the middle of the 20th century until the century s end People attending religious services 1 times each month went from 57 to 47 Because religion serves as a means of political expression there has been a revival and intensification of religion over the past few decades The two contradictory social processes of secularization and revival are likely to last for awhile resulting in a world that is neither more religious or more secular but a world that is more polarized Review Feminist theory male domination is something to do with patriarchy Structural Functionist all parts of society work together to function as a whole Emile Durkheim study affecting suicide rates This researcher conducted an experiment that set up a mock prison at Stanford Zimbardo This l 39 used pdl 1 1pm in Samoa Margaret Mead This word refers to a word or punishment associated with a norm Sanctions This term refers to a statement that says some change in the independent variable causes some change in the dependent variable Hypothesis These three terms are measures of central tendency Mean median and mode This term refers to norms of great moral significance Mores This sociologist was the rst AfricanAmerican to deserve a PhD from Harvard WEB DuBois This sociologist coined the term ideal type Max Weber This concept refers to the intangible creations of human society Non material culture This term refers to the repeating of research by different people in different settings to assess its accuracy Replication This term refers to personal neutrality when conducting research Objectivity This term refers cause and effect under highly controlled conditions Experiment This tells us how far away from the mean the average measurement is likely to be which helps us understand how common or uncommon an answer is Standard deviation This word means to specify exactly what is to be measured in assigning a value to a variable Operationalize This term refers to the scientific study of human society Sociology This concept refers to seeing the general in the particular or seeing the strange Sociological perspective This term refers to the fact that being excluded from social activity as an outsider Social marginalization This concept refers to the holding of a third variable constant while testing for the relationship between two variables Scienti c control This concept refers to a causal relation is apparent between two variables when in fact none exist because a third variable Spurious correlation This paradigm assumes that society is a complex system Con ict theory This paradigm assumes that society is continually recreated as humans construct reality through interaction Symbolic interactionism This refers to repeated patterns of behavior that come to constrain individuals Social structure When one makes this mistake one assumes others behavior is caused not by Fundamental attribution error This term refers to the personal disorientation that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life Culture shock This term refers to anything that carries a particular meaning carried by members of a culture Symbol This term refers to consistency in measurement repeated measures in the same case gives the same answer Reliability This type of sociologist believes that the real world exists and that science can measure it accurately Positivism This sociologist is most associated with symbolic interactionism known as the father of symbolic interactionism George Herbert Meed Auguste Comte 179818579 coined the term sociology in 1838 he was a conservative thinker who was motivated by opposing the rapid changes in French society he promoted gradual changes and the preservation of traditional social life never conducted any research Harriet Martineau 180218769 first woman sociologist born in England studied slavery factory working conditions and gender inequality in the 180039s translated Auguste Comte39s works to English advocate ofvoting rights and higher education for women feminist founded both the Con ict and Feminist perspectives Robert Merton 191020039 made functionalism a more exible theory he said social structures can be functional or dysfunctional and not all functions are manifest intended easily observed but that some functions are latent unin tended less obvious Emile Durkheim 185819179 the first professor of sociology in France considered the first modern sociologist argued that human behavior is shaped by the social context in which people are embedded including the constraints and opportunities within which people must act Durkheim suggested that the most personal decisions ex suicide are profoundly in uenced by societal forces developed a theory of suicide that states more freedom and autonomy leads to higher risk of suicide C Wright Mills 191619689 American sociologist who said that the ability to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures was the sociological imagination he thought economic political and military power is highly concentrated in US society and is less of a democracy than we think in order to make our society more democratic power needs to be evenly distributed WEB Du Bois 1868 19639 Harvard39s first AfricanAmerican PhD founder of the NAACP suggested that decline in inequality and prejudice would solve problems in the African American community Karl Marx 181818839 German who thought that major sociohistorical changes are the result of con ict between society39s main social classes originated con ict theory named Communismclassless society that will develop out of capitalism socialism is the name Marx gave to the transitional phase between capitalism and communism Friedrich Engels Karl Marx39s collaborator who located the root of male domination in class inequality Engels stated that men gained substantial power over women when preliterate societies were first able to produce more than their members needed for their own subsistence which resulted in men controlling the economic surplus Herbert Spencer 182019039 British social theorist who was in uenced by Darwin39s theory of evolution thought society was made of interdependent parts like any biological organism Charles Darwin observed wide variations in the physical characteristics of members of each species led to his conclusion that the fittest members of each species are more likely to survive long enough to produce offspring Max Weber 186419209 Germany39s greatest sociologist who found aws in Marx39s argument showed that class con ict isn39t the only driving force of history author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit ofCapitalism argued that capitalism wouldn39t seg way to socialism he stated that the growth of bureaucracy and the overall rationalization of life as the defining characteristics of the modern age detailed in his Economy and Society Edward Sapir with help from Benjamin Whorf proposed that experience thought and language interact in what came to be known as the SapirWhorf thesis Benjamin Whorf with help from Edward Sapir proposed that experience thought and language interact in what came to be known as the SapirWhorf thesis SapirWhorfthesis we experience certain things in our environment andform concepts about them we then develop language to express our concepts nally the language itselfin uences how we see the world Lillian Rubin one of the most talented participantobservation researchers in the United States her work in Families on the Fault Line gave voice to the voiceless by investigating how race ethnicity and other gender divide the working class Sigmund Freud 185619399 Austrian the founder of psychoanalysis his main sociological contribution was his insistence that the self emerges during early social interaction and that early childhood experience exerts a lasting impact on personality development Id part ofthe selfthat demands immediate gratification Superego part ofthe selfthat acts as a repository ofcultural standards Ego psychological mechanism thatbalances the con icting needs of the pleasureseeking id and the restraining superego Unconscious part that contains repressed memories that we are no t normally aware of Criticisms of Freud39s Analysis connections between early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than Freud assumed gender bias in Freud39s analysis of male and female sexuality neglecting socialization after childbirth Iean Piaget Swiss psychologist who divided the development of thinking cognitive skills during childhood into 4 stages Senso rimotor rst 2 years of life when children explore the world only with their 5 senses children39s knowledge of the world is limited and can39t think using symbols Preoperational ages 27 when language and imagination bloom children of this age are still unable to think abstractly Concrete Operational ages 711 when children are able to see the connections between causes and effects in their environment Formal Operational begins at age 12 children develop the ability to think more abstractly and critically George Herbert Mead 186319319 his work led to symbolic interactionism the study of how an individual s sense ofselfisformed by interaction with others Mead also developed the idea of the lookingglass self drew attention to the unique human capacity to take the role of the other Charles Horton Cooley 9 American sociologist Charles Horton Cooley introduced the idea of the lookingglass sel the founding father ofsymbolic interactionist tradition early contributor to the sociological study of socialization Cooley observed that when we interact with others they gesture and react to us This allows us to imagine how we appear to them We then judge how others evaluate us Finally from these judgments we develop a selfconcept or set of feelings and ideas about who we are Our feelings about who we are depend largely on how we see ourselves evaluated by others Cooley39s argument implies that the way others judge us determine whether we develop a positive or negative selfconcept Georg WF Hegel WI Thomas developed the Thomas theorem with his wife a selffulfilling prophecy is an expactation that helps cause what it predicts this stemmed from the belief that an education doesn39t necessarily lead to economic success Thomas theorem quotsituations we de ne as real become real in their consequences Erving Goffman sociologist who developed dramaturgical analysis which is the most widely applied approach to symbolic interactionism Goffman states that we are constantly engaged in roleplaying Dramaturgical analysis views social interactions as a sort ofplay in which people present themselves so that they appear in the best possible light Role distancing giving the impression that we arejust quotgoing through the motions but lack any serio us commitment ifa role is stressful Stanley Milgrim social psychologist who believed the structures of authority tend to render people obedient designed an experiment in which he told his experimental subjects they were taking part in a study on punishment and learning then he brought each subject to a room where a man was strapped in a chair with an electrode attached to his wrist the experiment subject sat in front of a console and given control of the voltageshock No shock was actually administered the man strapped in the chair was an actor the experiment was to teach us that as soon as we are introduced to a new structure of authority we are inclined to obey those in power Philip Zimbardo William Iulius Wilson sociologist who believed race is declining in significance as a force shaping the lives of African Americans he argues that the Civil Rights movement helped establish legal equality between blacks and whites he opposes race specific policies ex affirmative action Talcott Parsons 190219799 sociologist foremost American proponent of functionalism best known for identifying how various institutions must work to ensure the smooth operation of society as a whole society is well integrated and in equilibrium when the family successfully raises new generations the military successfully defends society against external threats schools are able to teach students the skills and values they need to function as productive adults and religions create a shared moral code among people Charles Tilly one of the most prolific and respected sociologists in the world he specializes in the study of largescale social change and its relation to contentious politics in Western Europe some of Tilly39s major works includeThe Rebellious Century From Mobilization to Revolution39 Big Structures Large Processes Huge Comparisons The Contentious French and Roads from Past to Future Rosabeth Moss Kanter conducted a landmark study of informal social relations in bureaucracies in the 197039s studied a corporation in which most women were sales agents and locked out of managerial positions because in order to join the maleonly exclusive social network a woman had to be accepted as one of the guysquot and sponsored by a male executive William Graham Sumner sociologist who called core norms mores he called the least important norms folkways evoke the least severe punishment Carol Gilligan American educational psychologist who emphasized the sociological foundations of moral development in her studies of American boys and girls attributed differences in the moral development of boys and girls to the different cultural standards parents and teachers pass on to them Gilligan found that girls suffer a decline in self esteem from age 5 to 18 which is in uenced by girls learning society39s culturalstandards Society tends to de ne the ideal woman as eager to please and therefore nonassertive most girls learn this as they mature and their selfesteem suffers Lawrence Kohlberg American social psychologist who took Iean Piaget39s ideas in a different direction showed how children39s moral reasoningtheir ability to judge right from wrong pass through developmental stages Young children distinguish right from wrong based only on whether something grati es their immediate needs this stage of moral growth is labeled the preconventional stage whatis llright is simply what satis es a yo ung child n Teenagers begin to think about right and wrong in terms of whether specific actions please their parents teachers and if they are consistent with cultural norms this phase is the conventional stage of moral gro wth Postconventional stage ofmoral development developed capacity to think abstractly and critically abo ut moral principles one may ponder the meaning ofabstract terms such asfreedom justice and equality Charles Derber recorded 1500 conversations in family homes offices restaurants dormitories and classrooms he concluded that Americans usually try to turn conversations toward themselves in a way that goes unnoticed Herbert Blumer stated that symbolic interactionism is based on three principles 1 Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meaning which these things have for them 2 The meaning ofa thing emerges from the process of social interaction The use of meanings by the actors occurs through a process ofinterpretation W Kingsley Davis proposed thefunctional theory ofstrati cation at the end of WWII Functional theory ofstratification somejobs are more important than others people have to make sacrifices to trainfor importantjobs inequality is required to motivate people to undergo these sacrifices Criticisms the theory stresses how inequality helps society discover talent but it ignores the pool of talent lying undiscovered because of inequality the theory fails to examine how people pass advantages from generation to generation George Ritzer points out one common shorthand expression for the homogenizing effects of globalization is McDonaldiza tion McDonaldization form of rationalization that specifically refers to the spread of the principles offast food restaurants such as efficiency predictability and calculability to all spheres oflife Randall Collins
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