DINOSAURS & DISASTERS
DINOSAURS & DISASTERS GLY 130
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tomasa Abernathy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GLY 130 at University of Kentucky taught by Stephen Greb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/228190/gly-130-university-of-kentucky in Geology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Cretaceous Carnivores o Raptor means Dromaeosaurs o Velociraptor 0 00000 O o TRex O 0 Foot Claw Discovered in China Grappling Wrists Worked together in packs Literally means swift robber reptile Movie vs Fossils I Movie 0 Dino with frills 0 Extremely Large I Real 0 3 ft tall and 8 ft long with tail Fighting Dinos I The fossil record shows that velociraptors fought other dinosaurs It was a struggle to compete Velociraptor was fighting Protoceratops in the preserved specimen Teeth I Jaws are 5 ft long I 60 teeth ranging up to 6 inches long I Could dislocate its jaw Bone injuries I TRex has many holes in bones that are from infections I Regrowth is common in spots where the bone was cut I Most skulls have bite marks within them Bone CAT scans I Thick heavy skull with large holes behind eyes I Large area for muscle attachment and powerful bite I Modern CT scans used on skulls show that the brain had a great sense of smell and good eye site I Eyes were looking forward rather than on the side which allowed for depth perception End Cretaceous KT extinction o Deccan Traps India 0 O O Lava flows more than 2400m thick which accumulated at the end of the Cretaceous penod Similar to Siberian traps of end Permian Read about end Permian example 0 Volcanic Theory 0 See above 0 Meteor Impact theory 0 Alvarez I Proposed a theory of a comet or meteorite hitting Earth 0 lridium I Very rare platinum element only common in meteorites asteroids comets and deep within Earth I Found in numerous places around the Earth dated around KT o Tsunami I Caused by any tectonic movements or asteroids hitting water I Can extend for distances across the sea 0 What is shocked quartz I Found in craters made from asteroids o Tektites I Similar to shocked quartz I Created from meteor impact and found in craters gulf coast 0 A buried crater was found in Yucatan peninsula to support theory of asteroid 0 Events that lead to mass extinction After KT o Cenozoic Era Tertiary Period 0 Adaptive Radiation o What traits favored I Dust blocks sun I Climate changes due to blocked sun I Plants die from lack of sun I Big meat and plant eaters die I Only small things that don t eat much and reproduce quickly survive o How to survive a mass extinction I Not specialize I Have global distribution I Breed rapidly I Eat anything 0 How does adaptive radiation occur 4 parts I Develop new characteristics I Develop new behaviors I Either of the two above allows for niche to occur I Older characteristics allowed to spread into a new niche o Tends to show I Rapid evolution I Stabilization of evolutionary rates I High rates of extinction I Relative stability Mammal Evolution 0 Whale Evolution 0 Once whales moved to water size was a major advantage 0 They kept remnant limbs vestiges even after evolving o No straight lineage due to incomplete fossil record 0 Ambulocetus from land to sea I 10 ft long otter like carnivore I Tooth and skull structure similar to whales I Semi aquatic animal that went back to water 0 Horse Evolution 0 1 family 1 genus Equidae Equus o 6 to 10 natural species 0 Oldest horse is Hyracotheirum dog sized 0 Changes in Horses over time I Show increase in size I Increase in limb length Increasing slenderness of limbs Reduction of toes from 4 to 1 hoof Teeth become more deeply rooted Early horses had a browsing style of eating Later horses developed a tendency to graze caused by lack of forest or new grasslands o Traits develop over time there is no straight lineage 0 Elephant Evolution 0 1 Family 2 genera 0 With time these traits are developed I Larger size I More weight bearing limbs I Lengthening of trunk I tusks o ears leave no evidence 0 Using holes in the skull as a present as a key to the past we can determine that old elephants had trunks lndricotherium o Largest land mammal of all time Influence of tectonics and climate on mammal evolution in Cenozoic North and South join Great American Interchange 0 Land bridges allow exchange 0 Changes in ocean and air currents that change climate 0 What s a glyptodont I South American animal with dog body and turtle shell Placental vs Marsupial mammal o Placental animals develop in the womb o Marsupials are born from eggs Why are Australian mammals dominated by marsupial mammals when the rest of the world isn t o Dominated by placental mammals in the cretaceous and remained island with no migrations into for most of Cenozoic Basically because of isolation What is an ice age 0 Advance of ice sheets from polar regions toward equatorial regions across continents 0 There have been many in the past including those that coincided with the end Ordovician and endPermian extinctions o Quaternary is the most famous and studied 0 Evidence I Glacial sediments far away from modern glaciers I Striations on the bedrock I Glacial landforms far away from modern glaciers I Evidence of dramatic sea changes I lsostacy crustal rebound from weight of ice 0 What is till 0 Bulldozed and eroded sediment 0 Sea Levels 0 Channels and valleys cut into continental shelves and filled with land sediment show that sea level was as much filled as 200 m lower than today 0 Land fossil shelves we buried underwater o lsotopes 0 Migration patterns of bering straight o What causes an ice age 0 Continents at high latitudes because I can build up and sustain itself on land easier than at sea 0 Mountain Uplift 0 Changes in ocean circulation o Earth s orbital variations 0 Milankovich Cycles 0 lnferred that changes in earths orbital parameters could cause changes in seasons that would lead to ice ages Various aspects of earths orbit around the sun affect how much solar energy had any spot on earth at a given time Human Evolution 0 Hominid 0 Members of the family hominidae which includes chimpanzees gorillas orangutangs and us 0 Archeology 0 Study of material remain 0 Anthropology 0 Science about people ancestors and interactors o Australopitheus first hominid 0 Africa I All species came out of Africa as of fossil evidence thus far 0 Bipedal ape what evidence I By fossilized tracks I Position of how skull sits on its head 0 Position towards back of the skull means squatting posture 0 Position towards base of skull means more up right posture I 13 brain size I Large back teeth I Ridge on top of skull 0 Many species I Habilis erectus sapiens n sapiens s Homo Erectus first hominid out of Africa 0 First widespread humans 0 Found in north Africa china and Europe 0 Has brain 23 size of ours o Show evidence of fire and tool use Homo Sapiens Neaderthalus 0 Found in germany Not very old Has brain marginally smaller than ours Heavy brow ridges barrel chest leaves impression of brute but beautiful cave paintings complex burial sites use of fire and tools that show that it had a culture with complex social structure 0 Went extinct 35000 years ago 0 Had red hair 0 Didn t know if could speak Homo Sapiens Sapiens AKA Cromagnon o Smarter and adaptable o Ware and elimination of Neanderthals o lnter breeding to kill off neaderthals o 5 traits that appear I Significant brain enlargement in short time period I Bipedalism and standing more upright I Increasing ability to grasp with thumb and fingers on hand I Possibly increasing bipolarism in eyesight I Delayed development and continued growth of the skull and brain after birth is due to neoteny Sabre tooth tiger called smilodon La brea tar pits CA 0 A lot of dead animals walked into a natural oil pit and were preserved Big Bone Lick State Park KY 0 Found by Benjamin Franklin Jacques Cuvier and Thomas Jefferson 0 Mammoths mastodons sloths bison and other animals were trapped in natural marshes o Lick refers to natural salt licks that form in the marshes OOO Mammoths vs mastodons o Mammoths were made to graze in open areas 0 Mastodons reside in forests because they are smaller Dying in ice peat or swamp water was great because it allowed for a quick burial process 6 h extinction Paul Martin o Pleistocene overkill theory implying that humans killed all Pleistocene mammals 3 types of possible human extinctions 0 Hunting and direct explotation 0 Introduction ofalien species o Destruction and fragementation of habitat o Humans and Natural Selection 0 Humans make their own climate so there is no natural section Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 After the Permian Extinction evolutionary divergence of numbers of a single phyletic line into a series of different niches or adaptive zones 0 Niches relatively rapid in geologic time adaptations I Faster than normal background rate of adaptations I Many new species develop in a short period of time o Tend to follow mass extinctions O I 1 mammallike reptiles with hole behind eye 0 0 Numerous families species in many niches Just survive 0 Those that make it eventually lead to mammals I mammallike reptiles with 2 holes behind eye 00000 0 Only a few families Extinction event was to their bene t Several families develop They fill most niches land sea and air Originated in the Permian before the mass extinction but not the dominant type of reptiles Several species survive the endPermian extinction By the midTriassic Period this type of reptile had split into several groups taking over niches left vacant from the extinction and competing with their mammallike reptile cousins in others subclass of diapsid reptiles 15t abundant archosaurs were all predators OOOOOO Appear to fill or radiate into the unfilled predatory niches Crocodiles are only remaining type ofarchosaur Many types of ying reptiles Many types of aquatic reptiles Many types of landdwelling terrestrial reptiles Dinosaur ancestor or dinosaur ancestor of dinosaur O 0 Extra hole in skull Crocodilelike gaitstance Sprawling gait O O O 0 Most lizards have sprawling gait Bod drags on or near the ground Crocodiles have semierect gait as do many thecodonts They can get up off the ground for short bursts of speed Erect gait 0 Some ofthe latest thecodonts and their descendents the dinosaurs had erect gait O 0 Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 This opened up the possibility of additional support and weightbearing as well as different styles of movements Deinos terrible sauros lizard An archosaur type of reptile Lived during the Mesozoic Era Had feet and therefore were land dwelling I Distinctions between 15t dinos and their thecodont ancestors o Hips most important for classification and understanding ofwhat makes dinos different 0 Legs were positioned directy beneath hips for more support and fully upright gait came up with word dinosaur In England when people bringing dinosaurs in used functional morphology Cuvier to compare to other animals 9 distinct o 15t Oldest Dinosaurs dawn reptile OOOOOO Found in Argentina in the 1990 s Late Triassic strata Small 3 ft long Long back legs shorter front limbs Sharp teeth and claws Saurischian hips o Hollow form OOOOOOOO Found in Late Triassic strata 310 ft in length with saurischian hip structure Long sshaped neck and long slender head with sharp teeth Hands with long fingers and sharp claws Back limbs longer than front limbs Long limbs with hollow bones Feet are threetoed with narrow ankles and sharp claws Ghost ranch NM I Several dozen Coelophysis skeletons in a 20 X 60 ft area in the same rock layer 9Traveled or at least died in a group or pack I The rock containing the skeletons is a shale sedimentary rock formed from mud 9 age or sex MF The shale contains fossils ofsmall fish and crayfish beneath the skeletons Skulls of the dinosaurs range from 310 in Bodies range from 310 ft Necks on all skeletons are arched backward After measuring all of the bodies there were 2 distinct groups a One group had big heads and short arms b Second group had small heads and long arms Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 I Complete skeletons are lying on their sides on the bottom ofthe layer Several skeletons are stacked on top of the lower skeletons and these are incomplete I Two skeletons have the disarticulated broken apart skeletons of tiny Coeophysis skeletons in their abdomens I What can we infer from the paleoforensics 0 00000 Long back legs short arms biped walked on back legs Claws and sharp teeth carnivore Hollow bones slender build light weight fast Two groups Different sizes Infants in the abdomen o means that the rock and fossils are covered with plaster and fossils are covered with laster cut out unsiderside and the jacket is completed beneath the layer o lfchewed up and disarticulted then dinner 0 lfwhole baby OOOOO Life has recovered from the endPermian extinction Mammallike reptiles rule The oldest mammals salamanders frogs turtles have evolved Archosaurs including dinosaurs are diversifying The continents which had collided together at the end ofthe Permian are splitting apart and there is widespread volcanic activity associated wthe opening ofwhat will be the Atlantic Ocean I On Land mammallike reptiles thecodonts phytosaurs and several other archosaur groups I In the seas conodonts brachio odst es ofs uid called ammonites Ofall the dinosaurs that existed in the Triassic amp from the extinction o toward the end ofthe Triassic Pangea begins to split apart 0 Toward the end ofthe Triassic Pangea begins to split apart 0 Northern continents split away from southern continents in the Jurassic 0 When oceans form and continents split there is a midocean ridge that develops I At the end of the Triassic there appears to have been a huge outpouring of lava for 600000 years I As ocean opened up there would have been a dramatic change in ocean circulation which would have changed climate andor sea level 0 famous cartoon O O 0 Babies go to deep forest until they can grow bigger 9 eat ferns 0000 Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 Mother sauropods lay eggs on edge of forest bc too big to go to deep forest Babies stand still and use their camoflauge to hide from predators Ex Little Foot from The Land Before Time 2 important subfamilies I Diplodicids front legs back legs 0 Weighs less 0 Snack neck elephant body I Brachiosaurs back legs lt front legs long necks 000000 0000000 000000 0 Move in herds of 30 or more Use tail for communicating wmembers of herd Fecesday 1 ton Attract bugs eg dung beetles Adults flatten vast amounts of trees looking for ferns Swallow whole leaves and stones in their stomachs help digestion Males rock on tails to attract mates I Sometimes fights break out and victor has right to mate I Female lets out low tones to signal to mate 9 they mate Can live for 100 yrs At certain size no predators Peg like teeth Nostrils at the top of head Longest Skeleton 100 ft Diplodocus have longest skeletons ofall time Specialized chiseled teeth can harvest cones Designed to eat tops of trees Much heavier Tallest complete skeleton 42 ft Longest 75 ft Brachiosaurus are heaviest dinos ofall time 1 Calculate Volume of Dinosaur Model 2 Volume Dinosaur Volume Model X Dino LengthModel Length 3 Density is 8501000 kgm3 so mass density X volume Scale bones that are known to the complete skeletons found 0 stomach stone used to digest food 0 largest land animal ofall time Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 o roofed lizard plates on back for display Herbivore Spikes on tale deadly Small brain with another cavity in the back for a second brain Flushed blood to plates 9 makes color and intimidates predators Plates alternate 00000 0 Bipedal o All carnivores o Eoraptorwas rst Theropod o area where many sauropods were found 0 Jurrasic Park Movie I Neck Frill I Poison Spitting I Small 0 Real 18 ft long No spitting 2 Crests Light weight jaw Crest for ornamentation Similar to Cobra with the hood 0 top predators oftheir age Stalk prey on 2 legs Teeth evolved to eat large sauropodlets Largest Carnivore of Jurrasic Can tell from MRls if bones looked weird or if there were injuries Can tell from CAT scan ifthe break caused death or not by growth Big Al 0 trace fossil 0 Ex tracks 0 Any marking or imprint left behind by an organism 0 Tracks show direction 000000 0 Types ofdinos o Gaitstance I Tracks closely spaced erect posture I Tracks widely spaced sprawling posture 5 Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 0 Tail position I Tail drag mark tail down I No tail drag mark tail up 0 Speed can calculate from stride length I In 76 R McNeil Alexander developed a formula for animal speed dimensionless velocity based on o G acceleration due to gravity 0 SL stride length 0 H hip height 0 Herding and other behaviors O O OO 00 I Length bw footprints stride determines how fast they were moving pattern of movement 0 Walking or running I Group tracks may indicate herding which is a social structure that can t be determined from bones in Solenhofen Limestone Jurassic of southern Germany Long skull wteeth like small dinosaur compsognathus Long 3fingered clawed hands Loni tail wfeathers 0 Has feathers o Haswings 0 Has teeth 0 Lacksabill 0 Has reptilelike rib cage 0 Has loni bonii tail Bird any warmblooded vertebrate of the class Aves having a body covered wfeathers and forelimbs modified into wings Which hips Archeoraptor liaonigensis National Geographic published an article about a new missing link bw dinos and birds I Long bony tail ofa raptor I Feathers I Shoulders and chest ofa bird Later testing showed it was a fake Long bony tail of a raptor was a block of rock wa raptor tail and a block of rock from the same rock unit wthe feathers shoulders and chest of bird a bird fossil Chinese villager wanted the cash for the bones Consequence assumption by many nonscientists that all of these Chinese feathered dinos are fakes Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 0 Study of modern flightless birds show they have symmetrical feathers I flying birds have asymmetrical feathers I flying birds have a breast bone the wish bone to which flying muscles are attached What kinds ofdinos have feathers 0 Insulation 0 For sexual display I EX canary females choose males wbrighter yellow feathers healthier o For feeding I Modern birds use wings to ush water to nd hiding fish 0 For ghting I As birds learned to hop they may have been able to gain an advantage in fighting for food or mates or fending off larger predators I Rustling of feathers can be a good defense Muttaburrasaurus a large herbivore from Australia 0 lguanadon ornithopod o Coped wcold temps by migrating Lealynasaurus a small herbivore from Cretaceous Australia 0 Fossil skulls show they had large eyes 0 Brain case shows enlarged optic area ofthe brain 0 How they coped with cold temps I In summer lived in water must move to forest for warmth in fall I Huddled together and bodies went to still animation can only sustain for a few days Dino Metabolism reptiles are cold blooded birds and mammals are warm blooded Baker s evidence of endothermy o Upright posture 0 Light bone structure active lifestyle 0 Living in polar regions 0 Social structures like herding 0 Bone structure sometime shave haversian canals large blood flow I Haversian canals holes where blood flows 0 Bone structures sometimes have growth rings that indicate rapid growth 0 Obvious relationships of at least theropods wbirds Bone structure evidence is based on comparison ofdino bones wmodern bones 7 Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 O 0 One structure of some dinos esp theropods sometimes have These are large in modern mammal bone bc mammals are 0 Also some possible soft art evidence although this is debatable 0 Possible i of Thesceosaurus suggests birdlike heart which would indicate 0 lmprints of possible organs from another dino Scipionyx suggest more croclike distribution of soft parts and therefore ectothermy coldblooded Jurassic Seas 0 ll Short necks limb paddles peglike teeth Oldest fossils from early Triassic these are already fully marine but they really became widespread in the Jurassic Many species One of the 15 giant reptiles found 1811 in England Softpart preservation in specimens from the Solenhofen lithographic limestone in Germany 0 Stomach contents liked squids 0 Carbon films show dorsal and tail fins 0 Baby ichthyosaurs have been found in abdomens of some fossils I Small skeletons not broken 9 gave live birth 0 Shortnecked plesiosaur a type ofpliosaur which were very common in the Jurassic 0 1 Group started in the Triassic Became abundant in the Jurassic One type were the small species shown living on sauropods in the Walking wDinos Titans movre Elon ated 4th n er su orts win membrane 000 I 2 basic body shapes I Long tailkeeled tail I Short tailkeeled head 0 O O Cretaceous Period 0 ml O O 0 Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 Grasses Broadleaf trees Flowering plants fossilized sap from trees 0 It s theoretically possible to collect fossils of blood sucking insects from amber 9 collect tissue and blood I Even ifyou found DNA to clone a dino from a partial DNA fragment would require that you knew the complete genome 00 0000 All are ornithischian bird hipped Powerful front and back legs but back legs longer most were quadrupeds but could walk on 2 legs for short distances Herbivores Exs lguanadon Anatosaurus Parasauraophus Tsintosaurus etc Specialized grinding teeth 2 main rou s in the Cretaceous I 9 15t dino found 2nd named 0 Group of 29 found in Belgium in 1878 9 found whole skeletons so they determined what their bodies looked like and that they traveled in a group most common Cretaceous dinos of N America and Asia had ducklike mouths manli had bonli head crest in manii different shaies and sizes 0 Trachnodon Mummy from Wyoming I Naturally mummified Edmontosaurus a Cretaceous dino o a Brachylophosaurus found in 01 in Cretaceous rocks from Montanta 0 Soft part preservation Hi 39oint muscles ribs and Xrays of neck show it had a crop O O O 0 Front of top jaw covered whard skin beak 9 O Nesting tells us that mother cared foryoung and that dino families stuck together as a unit Study Guide For Dinosaurs and Disasters Exam 2 O o Nests found b Jack Homer and his students What can we learn from comparing different sizes of hadrosaurs O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Age and changes of dinos as they grew Avg rate ofgrowth and lifestyle oldyoung pregnancy time MF I Flushed wcolor I Added to display for mate or for preventing attack I Would bleed if used to hit Protoceratops one of oldest members from early Cretaceous of Mongolia I No horn but had shield Centrosaurus died in flood wbodies piled like log jams I Thereopod teeth ins some bones 9 bodies scavenged Pachyrhinocerosaurus battering ram or broken horn I Small and large traveling together individual bones can be examined from small and large specimens to look at changes in bone shape as a function of age of dino I From early to late Cretaceous of N America I Existed up until the endCretaceous extinction 4 kinds all are bipedal wa thick bony skull Herbivores Modern animal that has thick boned skull ram 10 Natural selection theory all organisms show variations Organism s produce more offspring than can survive Therefore there is a struggle to survive Some individuals have a better chance in the struggle to survive The survivor s are naturally selected With time natural selection can lead to new species Baron Goeges Cuvier studied comparative anatomy Discovered the giant marine reptile and named it the Mososaurus Plate tectonics theory the upper crust of the Earth is broken into blocks called plates These plates are in motion The rst land animals were the arthropods The oldest sh is jawless and small and is from the Cambrian period The Earth is 46 billion years old 4600000000 The longest period is the Precambrian Eon Natural selection means the strongest survive This is FALSE Scientists use the absolute dating of moon rocks to determine the age of the Earth The more plants there are on Earth the bigger the decrease in temperature Modern organisms are the key to the past Uniformitarianism Species is the most speci c classi cation Brachiopods are the of cial Kentucky state fossils During the glacial theory sea level drops and the shelves drain Know the types of mass extinction amp which one is favored most or which one is most likely what happened Types of mass extinctions Paleozoic Mass ExtinctionsiEndDevonian 70 of marine species pershised EndOrdoviciani End PermianiLargest extinction of all time Cyanobacteria Cooksoniaioldest vascular plant fossil Half lifelooking at the graph be able to tell the halflife Half life time rate it takes for half of the parent isotopes in an element to change to daughter elements 2 graph questions DEFINITIONS Carbonizationihappens for carbonrich organisms in environments where carbon is preserved plants in oxygen poor swamp waters ex Fossil leafcarbon lm FossiliAny remains trace or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the Earth s crust since some geologic or prehistoric time Geologyistudy of the earth Scienceithe observation description experimental design and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena or the explanation of observation Theoryiwell substantiated conceptual idea or model that explains some aspect of the natural world based on observed data Preadaptationisome survivors are unaffected or pre adapted to the changes in the environment Permineralizationi this is how porous organism s parts are generally preserved such as bone or petri ed wood Paleontologyistudy of past life Cambrian Explosioniexplosion of hard parts Cambrian Period
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