DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 223
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at University of Kentucky taught by Walter Curtis Jr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/228242/psy-223-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
PSY 223test 2 322010 32300 PM Piaget s theory sees development as interplay between assimilation and accommodation Eguilibration o back and forth process of seeking fit with existing schemas and new experiences 0 achieving a balance between current understanding of the world and new experiences 0 brings child to new level of development 0 equilibrium does not last long Sequence of Cognitive Development 151 iu39iiiiquot39i39i 9 l n I n 9 7 o 1 Equilibrium 9 harmony between schema and experiences 0 Baby has only experienced rattles objects that can easily be picked up put in mouth All is well with the world o 2 Assimilation 9 adapt new experiences by making it fit existing schema sister s Barbie doll o 3 Accommodation 9 modify existing schema to better account for new experience beach ball 0 causes disequilibrium o successful accommodation restores equilibrium until next time o 4 Organization 9 existing schemas evolve into new and more complex structures how Piaget defined development Cognitive Development The First Two Years o Sensorimotor Period 0 First of Piaget s major periods Mostly about behavioral schema Coordinating sensory inputs and motor capabilities Gaining knowledge about the world through these modalities Six substages see textbook O O O O Infancy Social and Emotional Development I Infant temperament II Attachment o Theory o Stages of attachment o Strange situation and quality of attachment Infant Temperament o Definition characteristic mode of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events o Example How does a baby respond to novelty o Modes of responding to the world 0 consistent across situations 0 stable over time o believed to be core elements of precursors to childadult personality o 1960s longitudinal research by Alexander Thomas Stella Chess New York longitudinal study studied group of children over time derived components of temperament nine important attributes of temperament O O O O 1 Activity level typical pace or intensity of activity degree of physical activity always moving vs relaxed energy level arm waving kicking in early infancy 2 Rhythmicity 9 degree of regularity predictability of biological functions feeding schedule sleepwake elimination 3 Approachwithdrawal 9 baby s initial response to something new meeting a stranger first bath fear withdrawal vs active exploration seeking further stimulation 4 Adaptability 9 how easily initial response to a situation can be modified how soon does novelty wear off longer term adjustment after initial reaction being left with babysitter 5 Threshold of responsiveness 9 intensity level required for a stimulus to evoke a response how much does it take to get a response wake from a nap loud noise bright light 6 Intensity of reaction 9 energy level of response how intense is a response to negative or positive frown cry laugh scream smile 7 Quality of mood 9 from pleasant friendly behaviors to unpleasant not friendly generally happy or unhappy general disposition 8 Distractibility 9 how much do novel stimuli alterdisrupt ongoing behaviors does a new toy pacifier calm a crying baby more likely if more distractible 9 Attention spanpersistence 9 staying with ongoing activity play with favorite toy for a long time or move frequently from one activity to another Three broad temperament categories 0 2 3 OOOOOOmOOOOOOUOOOOO 1 Easy temperament eventempered positive mood playful open to new experiences adaptable regular biological functions approx 40 of babies ifficult temperament very active irritable withdraw from new experiences intense negative reactions irregular biological functions approx 10 of babies lowtowarmup temperament low activity level moody slow to adapt to new people experiences withdraw from new situations but do not react intensively react with mild passive resistance Approx 15 fbabies Examples o Resist cuddling difficult baby kick cry slowtowarmup look away ignore o These patterns may persist over time 0 can influence later adjustment but not always 0 difficult infants more likely to have problems adjusting to school 0 more irritable aggressive in interactions with peers Goodness of fit o between child temperament and type of childrearing used by parents 0 factor that may facilitate change in temperament for example difficult to easy good fit difficult baby with easygoing parents poor fit difficult baby with impatient irritable parents Infancy 322010 32300 PM Perceptual Development Sensation sensory receptor neurons detect information and transmit it to the brain 0 detection of signals from the environment 0 sound light Perception process of categorization and interpretation of sensory input 0 recognizing what you see 0 distinguishing between voices Sensation and perception are central to human functioning Almost everything we do depends on perception Do infants perceive the world or merely sense it o Empiricists John Locke William James believed that infants must LEARN to perceive knowledge arises only from EXPERIENCE extreme nurtureenvironmental view blooming buzzing confusion Nativists Descartes Kant ability to perceive is innate extreme naturebiological view Ex born with understanding of spatial relations understanding that approaching objects appear to increase in size perspective depth cues 0 Modern View infants see some order in the universe at birth but perception is limited perception and perceptual awareness come about GRADUALLY biological MATURATION and EXPERIENCE both contribute to the growth of perceptual awareness Knowing What Infants Perceive o as recently as 1900 many medical texts claimed human infants are functionally blind deaf and do not perceive pain for several days after birth 0 today we know otherwise 0 partly due to scientific methods that reveal what infants can perceive o 4 Primary Methods 0 1 PREFERENCE METHOD present 2 visual stimuli simultaneously Does the infant look longer at one than the other Measure looking time n if the infant looks longer at one than the other o assume that the infant has a PREFERENCE early 1960s Robert Fantz a Can infants discriminate visual patterns a looking chamber a Infants preferred to look at a complex patterned stimuli o Striped pattern vs solid color o also demonstrated face preference n ability to detect and discriminate patterns innate o Mother vs stranger face 0 As early as 4 days show preference for mother s face 0 longer looking time o 2 HABITUATION stimulus repeated over and over becomes so familiar that infant stops responding to it respiration heart rate slow Then a 2nd stimulus is presented a If infant reacts to it changes in respiration heart rate o perceived as DIFFERENT than the 1St stimulus n Ex perceiving difference between mother s face and stranger s face 0 3 EVENTRELATED POTENTIALS ERPS recording of brain waves during stimulus presentation if change is detected pattern of brain waves will change 0 4 EYE TRACKING technology allows direct measure of looking time exact direction of gaze n Infrared camera tracks pupil corneal reflection u still use preference habituation u but don t have to rely on imprecise measures of looking time direction of gaze Example autism a human newborns prefer to look at eyes o Jones Carr Klin 2008 o showed video of woman to 2 year olds o Children with autism looked less at eyes than those without autism o looked more at mouth 0 greater social disability less eye looking Infant Visual Perceptual Ability o vision may be least mature sense at birth newborn s distance vision is about 20400 some estimate 20120 by 6 months vision is about 2060 2020 by 12 months can see close objects more clearly 0 Why is infant vision not good lack of muscle control for focusing immature retina brain visual pathways 0 Color Vision Once assumed that neonates see only in black and white Habituation studies a discrimination between color and black amp white stimuli n indicate infants perceive color a adultlike color vision by 2 months o Auditory Perception o newborns have welldeveloped auditory system develops prenatally can distinguish sounds of different loudness duration and frequency recognize sound of mother s voice at less than one week a voice of mother voice of stranger called to infant n infant looked to mother 0 Infants particularly responsive to sound of the human voice stop crying open eyes vocalize and become attentive to adults who speak to them conversationally newborn responsiveness to speech helps elicit attention and interpersonal contact Infancy Cognitive Development o How does a child develop knowledge about the world o Definition of cognition 0 mental processes by which knowledge is acquired stored and used to solve problems 0 cognitive processes include attention learning thinking and remembering o Develops in stages 0 different views on how this happens 0 prominent view in developmental psychology PIAGET Jean Piaget 18961980 0 Swiss psychologist 0 observed children formulated theory of cognitive development Stage theory 4 major stages 0 Stages represent QUALITATIVE differences or levels of cognitive functioning invariant developmental sequence all children go through in the same order no skipping stages 0 Constructivist view children acquire construct knowledge by acting on their environment level of understanding achieved depends on maturity of child s cognitive system o How is the knowledge organized Schema a mental construct about an object or set of actions Piaget theorized about three types of schema o 1 Behavioral schema 0 first intellectual structures to emerge first 2 years 0 organized patterns of behavior used to represent an object or experience 0 child actively engages objects and that way forms schema about those objects slowly gaining knowledge about what the world is like Example object 9 month old 9 how do they think about a ball what is their knowledge of a ball knowledge is based on behaviorphysical interaction ball is something she can rollbounce 0 Example action sequence 9 month old 9 toy rattle a grasp put in moth o 2 Symbolic Schema o emerge during the 2nd year 0 representing experiences amp objects symbolically mentally without having to act on them 0 internal mental symbols eg images used to represent aspects of experience 0 example 24 months old able to imitate another child s behavior observed the day before a mental representation or image of the behavior formed and then retrieved o 3 Operational Schema o emerge after age 7 o cognitive operations mental activity used to reach logical conclusions 0 adultlike thinking 0 O How does a child gain knowledge o process of organizing schema 0 increasing complexity o for adaptation adjusting to the demands of the environment 0 as child grows older more schema more complex and more differentiated How do schema get organized o Schema are either strengthened or changed 0 assimilation o accommodation 0 both are ways of dealing with new experiences o Assimilation o interpreting new experiences by incorporating into existing schema strengthening of existing schema make new experiences fit into your schema o Accommodation 0 adapt modify existing schema o accommodate old schema to new object 0 new schema similar to old builds on old schema Piaget s theory sees development as interplay between assimilation and accommodation o Child acts on stuff o Fit with existing schema o if yes or almost assimilation o if no accommodation add new schema Attachment o core element of social and emotional development c 4 stages of attachment 0 derived from longitudinal study of infants from birth to 18 months 0 1 ASOCIAL 06 WEEKS reach favorably to most types of stimuli by end of this stage have preference for social stimuli o 2 STAGE OF INDISCRIMINATE ATTACHMENTS 6 WEEKS TO 67 MONTHS preference for human company but enjoy attention from anyone likely to cry when put down more quickly soothed by regular caregiver o 3 STAGE OF SPECIFIC ATTACHMENTS 79 MONTHS protest only when separated from one particular individual usually mother begin to show separation anxiety crawls to stay close to mother greets her warmly upon return from absence beginning of stranger wariness marks the 1St true attachment attachment figure becomes secure base 0 4 STAGE OF MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS gt10 MONTHS by 18 months few infants attached to 1 person only each attachment figure may serve a different function a preference may depend on situation o may prefer mother when frightened o may prefer father as playmate o Mechanism We know WHAT happens but how does attachment come about Various Theoretical Explanations o Psychoanalytic Theory I love you because you feed me o attachment formed with person who provides feeding o Learning Theory rewardingness leads to love early learning theory stressed importance of feeding as reinforcer in creating attachment later experiments Harlow O O O Monkeys preferred cloth surrogate even when feeding came from wire surrogate reinforcement NOT from feeding infant forms attachment to adult who provides variety of rewarding pleasant experiences CognitiveDevelopment Theory to love you I must know you will always be there 0 ability to form attachments depends in part on cognitive development 0 must be able to discriminate familiar people from strangers 0 must have achieved some degree of object permanence 0 1st attachments emerge around 79 months also begin to acquire object permanence perhaps not coincidence Ethological Theory I was born to love 0 humans born with innate attachment behaviors 0 John Bowlby 1961 ethological perspective adaptive to stay in close proximity to caregiver early in life protection from predators infants born with behaviors that elicit caregiving a genetically programmed a crying smiling cooing grasping babbling n adults biologically predisposed to respond to a baby s signals o hard to ignore crying or smiling n attachment as a reciprocal relationship a infant and caregiver predisposed to respond favorably to each other a facilitating survival of infantsspecies n attachment not automatic n develops gradually as parent and infant become more familiar with each other a get better at responding to each other a attachment relationship serves as an internal working model mental representation a guides interactions with all humans throughout life Which theory best accounts for attachment 0 mix of ethological and cognitive development Patterns of Attachment o individual differences in the type or quality of attachment o Mary Ainsworth o strange situation to measure attachment quality elicits attachment behavior organized behaviors 0 Laboratory observation 8 steps 3 minute episodes maintaining balance between safety and exploration 0 observe code sequence analyze infantcaregiver reaction attachment to caregiver can be quantifiedcharacterized o Secure Pattern 65 0 infant actively explores while alone with mother visibly upset by separation greets mother warmly when she returns welcomes physical contact with her outgoing with strangers when mother is present 0 thus infant able to rely on availability and sensitivity of caregiver maintain good balance between safety and exploration 0 caregiver sensitive to infant s needs positive affect picks up on and responds quickly to infant signals o Insecure Patterns 0 1 AnxiousAvoidant 20 infant a shows little distress when mother leaves a turns away and ignores or avoids contact when she returns a not especially wary of strangers caregiver a distant n irritability n absence of comforting infant s avoidance coping mechanism 0 2 AnxiousResistant 15 Infant 1 n a poverty of exploration clingy preoccupied with caregiver very distressed at separation ambivalent when she returns stay near her when she returns resist physical contact appear resentful very wary of strangers even when mother is present Caregiver n unpredictable close and distant o 3 Disorganized 5 infant n n n n n inconsistent behavior pattern when mother returns dazed freezing walking backwards move closer then abruptly move away reflects confusing about whether to approach or avoid the caregiver caregiver a confusing unpredictable infant coping with an unpredictable threatening environment a most maltreated infants in this category o Cultural Variations o Percentages of infants in each category vary across different cultures ex German parents may discourage close contact with infants o more in avoidant category Japanese babies have more intense reactions to separation to separation and strangers o rarely left with substitute caregivers a All attachment classifications seen in all cultures studied so far o more in secure category in all cultures o Mary Ainsworth caregiving hypothesis 0 caregivers of securely attached infants are responsive caregivers from the very beginning enjoy close contact with babies emotionally expressive sensitive to baby s social signals encourage exploration 0 caregivers of resistant infants often unresponsive or respond inconsistently infants respond by n increasing intensity and frequency of attachment behaviors n becomes sad resentful when they fail 0 parents of avoidant infants impatient unresponsive negative feelings about infant OR overzealous parents talk endlessly provide too much stimulation 0 parents of disorganized infants neglectful abusive OR severely depressed infant drawn to caregiver but also fears them o Attachment security PREDICTS future adaptation o insecure attachment patterns related to later psychopathology probabilistically o attachment also predictive of quality of friendships and romantic relationships attachment relationship bases for internal working model image of self as lovable caregiver as loving guides expectations in future close relationships 322010 32300 PM
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