INTRO PHIKNOWL PHI 100
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Introduction to Philosophy Study Guide for First Test Ancient Metaphysics and Epistemology Study Resources Texts a Marias Julian History ofPhilosophy provides an overview ofthe whole ancient period presocratic philosophy b Plato i Merto on philosophical method on virtue on inquiryknowledge ii Republic soulcity structure two world cosmology knowledge and its object the philosopher king c Aristotle Introductory Readings iii Physics the study ofthings in motion theory ofcausation composite substance iv Metaphysics various ways being is spoken of substance v De Anima study ofthe soul 2 Class notes 3 Class Web Page b quotContent and Schedulequot an overview of themes discussed c Class Handouts d Reading Question Archive quotancientquot not exhaustive but a rich quotindexquot of issues covered in the readings Historical Figures Objective You should know i who each gure is and his relation to his contemporaries and ii generally where the thought ofeach ts into the history of ancient philosophy That is to say you should be able to articulate in what way each philosopher is in uential in the ancient study of metaphysics and epistemology Some gures are obviously more in uential than others but you should be able to identify each Anaxagoras Gorgias Protagoras Anaximander Heraclitus Pythagoras Anaximenes Meno Socrates Antiphon Parmenides Thales Aristotle Plato Conceptual Knowledge Objective Below are listed twenty concepts with which you should be familiar This list is organized alphabetically and is not exhaustive You will be asked to complete E Short answer questions 10 15 minutes each Each question will concern one ofthese concepts eg quotpresocratic philosophy is a study of arch brie y describe the history of this studyquot It is misleading to think that each concept can be understood in isolation from the rest Your job will be to explicate albeit brie y the signi cance ofthe chosen concept in the history ofthe ancient study of metaphysics and epistemology actuality potentiality motion knowledge vs beliefand their objects apeiron logos Heraclitus arch Meno s paradox artifact vs natural substance participation theory of forms being or entity Parmenides recollection causation Aristotelian Socratic ignorance city state structureparts sophistry whowhat cosmology two worlds in Plato soul structureparts amp mortality immortality Form or idea essence Plato amp Aristotle substance the Sun the Good virtue wisdom courage temperancejustice Essay Question STUDYGUIDEI W39PD p 1 Objective You will be asked to answer Q of these questions on the exam Be sure that you answer the entire question to receive full credit Think ofeach lettered section of the question a b c etc as at least one paragraph ofthe essay 1 When characterizing the ultimate subject matter being Plato and Aristotle agreed that this subject is a singular entity They disagreed however on the quotnaturequot or status ofthis singular thing under discussion a When we are talking about this beautiful vase or this beautiful painting or this beautiful person what is quotitquot ofwhich we are really speaking according to Plato b Further for Plato why are these beautiful things that we perceive really beautiful c What about Plato39s metaphysics does Aristotle find objectionable d What is Aristotle39s conception of quotsubstancequot in contrast to Plato39s theory of forms and how does Aristotle39s epistemology influence his conception of substance 2 In the history of ancient Greek philosophy one can trace the search for first principles archai by which individuals attempted to explain reality Aristotle identifies this ancient search for explanatory first principles as the beginning of philosophy a What of Thales view does Anaximander reject and what does Anaximander offer as a better explanation b Is Heraclitus following a line ofthinking similar to the Milesian philosophers or is he really rejecting the kind ofexplanation his Ionian predecessors had put forward c how is Parmenides39 radical philosophy of being a rejection of Ionian philosophy and lastly d how does Aristotle incorporate the study of arche by the presocratics into his philosophy 3 Plato was heavily in uenced by both Parmenides and Heraclitus a What does Parmenides say is knowable and what are the metaphysical characteristics of what is knowable according to Parmenides b How is the Platonic theory ofForms a rejection ofParmenides39 strict monism and how is the Platonic theory ofForms an acceptance of Pamenidean philosophy c how is the Heraclitean metaphysical notion offlux which is expressed in the fragment quotCold things grow hot hot things grow cold the wet dries the parched is moistenedquot representative ofthe Platonic quotworld of appearancesquot and d in what sense do we quotknowquot the things ofthis world of appearances Do we in other words have any knowledge ofthe objects of experience according to Plato The Test 2 short answer questions a paragraph or so e spend 10 to 15 minutes on each 1 essay question f spend 20 to 30 minutes on writing this The test is not open note However you can do much to prepare in advance First organize your notes conceptually That is order the list of concepts by reference to each philosopher and the guiding influence this concept in or over the history ofthe ancient period Write out briefquotdef1nitionsquot for each Second write out an outline if not a complete essay for each ofthe essay questions Bring a BLUE BOOK on the day ofthe exami Students who fail to bring one will receive a 3 deductioni STUDYGUIDEI W39PD
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