Midterm 1 Study Guide
Midterm 1 Study Guide ISS 210
Popular in Society and the Individual
Popular in Human Development
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elena Behrman on Thursday January 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Handrick in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 239 views. For similar materials see Society and the Individual in Human Development at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 01/15/15
ISS Midterm 1 Review 1 Intro to course A The Process of Perception 1 sense organs and neural pathways mediate experiences of the internal 2 objects don t change perception does 11 Thinking About Ourselves A Aristotle described some 500 organisms l viewed animals as unchanging DarwinDarwin s nches B Darwin 1 Darwin s Finches 2 Origin of a Species by Means of Natural Selection 1859 3 adaptive radiation species change over time goes agains typically held religious beliefs 4 tries to avoid talking about humans and evolution 5 humans didn t evolve from apes we shared a common ancestor C Knowing vs Explaining l postmodern view we can t know things for certain truth is simply unknowable Supporting Ideas 2 Popper if there is little we can know for sure explanation is the best substitute 3 to prove or verify the statement that all swans or white we must examine all swans on the planet which is impossible a falsi cation allows us to come up with the best available explanation for things we see around us nding a black swan falsi es the statement that all swans are white D Paradigms l A set of assumptions that provides a fundamental image of the subject matter within science 2 determines what should be studied what questions to ask what rules to follow when interpreting date 3 Is a lens that enhances and distorts perception a Barbara McClintock s discover of jumping genes i studies inheritance of color in indian corn ii forced reappraisal for Mendelian genetics E Paradigm Shifts 1 One paradigm usually dominates for a period of time but will be replaced when it no longer accounts for the observed facts a Tattersall describes the shift from The Modern Synthesis to a messier bushier model of hominid evolution b The discovery of Lucy pushed back the date for hominids and with it research priorities Richard Leakey v Donald J ohanson 2 The shift begins when the scholarly community as a whole accepts the new model but is completed only when the proponents of the old theory retire or die F The Modern Synthesis 1 Reduced evolutionary phenomena to generation by generation changes in gene frequencies within populations under the guiding hand of natural selection 2 created the expectation that evolutionary change in the fossil record would be a gradual affair a species changed slowly over time as they adapted to new conditions and became ne tuned to their old ones b discontinuities in the fossil record due to gaps 3 Replaced model of Punctuated equilibrium G Why is this important 1 Evolutionary principle guide our lives a comparative genomics DNA sequences help diagnosis and treatment of hereditary disease b decipher microbes responsible for infectious disease Doonesbury treating an evolve drug resistant strain of TB c develop environmentally friendly microbial energy sources 111 Thinking About Our Origins A Cognitive Style 1 Characteristics a experiences within each style are consistent and compatible b viewed from outside the interpretation may seem contradictory or ctitious c no simple transition from one cognitive style to another 2 Types of Styles a Mysticism private knowledge Ex Religion b Rationalism observe think logically and try to explain Ex Sherlock Holmes deduction c Empiricism assumes the knowledge we have of the world comes through our senses Observe hypothesize test observe Ex Science d Common Sense shared understandings passes for truth in a bounded universe inductive B Facts 1 Empirically veri able a an be perceived through our sense aided at time by sense extenders fossil bones and DNA exist b can be experienced or veri ed by independent observers 2 An argument a is a line of reason towards a conclusion b provides an interpretation of or gives meaning to facts and allows us to make sense of them c the validity of an argument rests on the validity of the assumptions that underly it 3 Assumptions may be a generally accepted b subject to doubt c absolutely untenable 4 Panglossian ParadigmCalvin Effect a putting random pieces together a satisfying story that may be wrong b since we know how the story ends we interpret the earlier events as if their sole purpose was to reach that end C The Controversy l 2 Christians whom take the bible literally is a matter of faith a they offer their truth as an alternative that can t be falsi ed demand balanced treatment separation of church and state in education When challenged in court under Establishment clause where a legal constructed de nition of science is they lose D Characteristics of Science 1 N 4 Empirical knowledge of the physical world is aided by sense extenders Causes and Effect relationships eXist in which each event has a prior cause that s theoretically knowable Materialist science proceeds as if material cause and effect is all there is to reality Obj ective a theory must account for all of the data or be revised a doesn t mean dispassionate b paradigms Tentative all scienti c theories are temporary tentative mental constructs subject to modi cation by revised perception of eXisting or new data a science may disprove or improve a theory but will never prove it b science is a contentious process and ercely competitive c paradigm shifts E Problem of Subjectivity l 9 Social interaction requires an awareness of the feelings and motivation of others and may eXplain our uniquely human brain humans act for reasons subjective step between observing and interpreting behavior you interpret behavior based on a a set of assumptions derived from prior eXperience with that person b a similar eXperience with others c what you suppose your motive would be for acting that way F Technological Functionalism l 2 a discourse that tries to eXplain the universe in terms of ends or nal causes the belief that natural phenomena are not only the product of mechanical causes but by an overall INTELLIGENT design or purpose in nature How vs Why as long as religion doesn t try to eXplain the how the physical came to be science can t refute the why the belief that evolution is going somewhere G Creationism and Catholicism l Creationism phenomenon of protestant fundamentalists a Pope John Paul II declares that one can be Catholic and believe in evolution H NOMA l con ict between evolution and religion a con ict shouldn t exist because each subject has a legit explanation and the explanations don t overlap IV Paleoanthropology A Louis and Mary Leakey l began research in Olduvai George in 1950 s 2 developed specialized teams to gather and interpret fossils and geological evidence 3 nds skull of Paranthropus in 1959 B Virtual Anthropology 1 Use of CT scans a removes deposits without damaging skull b provides non invasive way to examine cranial capacity and other anatomical features i trend in primate evolution increasing brain size relative to body size ii no correlation between brain size and intelligence c allows for comparisons that wouldn t otherwise be possible C Taphonomists amp Deposition l Taphonomists study what happened to an individual after death 2 interpretation of death assemblages all the embedded fossils at a single discovery site They often originate from different habitats having been brought together by a water current crucial to getting interpretation right D Stratigraphy l the study of the sequences in which sedimentary rocks that often contain fossils were laid down a layering can be distorted making sequencing dif cult b Faunal correlation allows for relative stratigraphic sequences 2 Volcanic Tuffs a layers of volcanic deposits provide a range of dates for the hominid remains between them E Chronometrics 1 Carbon 14 dating radioactive isotope of carbon absorbed by living organisms but begins to decay at a xed rate when they die useful on specimens less than 40000 years old 2 Potassium Argon KAr dating the decay of radioactive potassium into the noble gas argon a applied to the hominid fossils at Olduvai Gorge which changed the days from Leakey s estimate of 600000 to 18 mil years ago F Species l the largest populations within which fully functional interbreeding between individuals is possible 2 species became segments of lineages de ned 3 radical differences in morphology appearance and size doesn t necessarily mean new species Catastrophism 1 natural laws were suspended and events happened a different rate than they do today Uniformitarianism 1 Charles Lyell geologist the natural forces acting today acted in the past and they have always worked with the same intensity 2 change is gradual and steady over periods of millions and billions of years Phyletic Gradualism l a phylum the line of decent of a species over time 2 evolution says lineages change due to adaptive responses to natural selection 3 Modern Synthesis saw human evolution as a gradual change from primitiveness to current man brought by generation to generation change Punctuated Equilibrium l Gould and Eldridge believe species don t change gradually but eXperience long periods of stability with periods of rapid change a new species appear due to isolation and environmental differences b mutation is the source for genetic variability c genetic drift and bottlenecking establish new traits Allopatric Speciation 1 local populations within a species adapt to local habitats 2 speciation is the shifting of the genetic and morphological centers of gravity from parent to daughter species Cladistics v Evolutionary Tree 1 a method involved in recognizing relationships between pairs of species on the basis of innovations inherited from their most recent common ancestor a eXpresses closeness of relationships among species based on a common ancestor 2 Evolutionary Trees a plot the relationship and the geological age of fossil species b branches proportional to the amount of time that has passed 3 Cladogram a looks at trees derived from common ancestor and arranges organisms on different branches b doesn t show exact relationships between ancestors and descendants M The disadvantages of Bipedalism l S shaped spine a slipped disks b dislocated hips c wrenched knees d fallen arches 2 Slow on the ground 3 birthing dif culties N Dentition and Skulls l Chimpanzee U shaped 2 Australopithecine U shaped with small canine teeth 3 Human parabolic O Tooth Enamel Wear Patterns 1 indicate the type of food eaten by species 2 analysis of fossil bone indicate very early humans ate more than supposed Neanderthals were very carnivorous P Canine Diastema 1 It allows room for the point of the protruding opposite canine tooth and thereby permits the upper and lower teeth to bite together V Evolution and Human Origins A The Basics 1 Evolution is the frequency in the change of frequency of genes over time 2 Individuals don t evolve populations do 3 Change in frequency due to a natural selection b random events B Malthus and Population 1 Malthus observes that a population increases geometrically food supply increase arithmetically b population limited by poverty disease etc which are natural and inevitable c weak are weeded out stronger survive survival of the ttest C Natural Selection 1 Darwin observed that a all individuals in a population differ slightly from each other and the differences are inherited b observed variation but didn t understand why 2 nothing more than differential reproductive success of individuals D Chimps and Humans 1 Share 987 of DNA in common 2 Hard to tell when the two species diverge a Microevolution study of populations within a species to examine processes of evolutionary change b Macroevolution study of higher categories into which species are grouped to examine and quantify the patterns of evolutionary change using systematics E Chimp and Human Differences Cranial properties relative brain size relative size of canine teeth length of thumb and ngers chin present or absent knuckle walkingbipedal O P PP NE F Genomic Change 1 individuals don t evolve themselves species change With descent 2 genomes can change With time by a natural selection b migration c genetic drift d mating patterns e inbreeding f mutation 3 Genetic Drift a result of sampling error related to population size i larger the population the more likely you Will get frequencies you eXpect ii the smaller the pop the less likely you Will get frequencies you eXpect 4 Founder Effect a the loss of genetic variation that occurs When a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population i natural disasters migration contribute to this 5 Bottlenecks a Disasters that kill off most of the population leaving only a feW survivors The difference between founder events and population bottlenecks is the type of event that causes them A founder event occurs When a small group of individuals is separated from the rest of the population Whereas a bottleneck effect occurs When most of the population is destroyed The end result is very similar genetic diversity is reduced 6 Natural Selection a Populations evolve not individuals as gene frequencies change in the population b those Who survive to reproduce Will be better adapted for prevailing circumstances c the selection neutrality debate i is everything selected for advantageous or against and very little is neutral VI The Place of Homo Sapiens in the Tree of Life A Systematics 1 determines relationships of living and extinct species in nature 2 because all organisms on the planet have a single common ancestor and have evolved through descent With modi cation the pattern can be depicted as a tree B Phylogenetic Trees 1 classi cation based on similarities 2 root of the tree is last common ancestor C Primates l Monkeys a Old world i down facing nose ii two premolars iii non prehensile tails iv tolerate wider range of habitats b New world i at nosed ii 3 larger molars iii prehensile tail iv arboreal habitat Apes a knuckle walking b 5 molars c tailless d brachiators Gorilla a knuckle walking b long narrow pelvis c long forearms Chimpanzee a bipedal movement i used to cover short distance on the ground ii use of hands to carry objects iii arms used for balance iv knuckle walking and walking on two legs are equally inef cient Bipedalism vs Knuckle walking a energy ef ciency is determined by length of stride and amount of muscle activated in each stride b humans only use 25 of the energy apes use whether knuckle walking or upright walking
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