GEG 20, Exam 2 Study Guide
GEG 20, Exam 2 Study Guide GEG 20CD
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEG 20CD at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Robert Ziegenfus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Elements of Culture Geography in Geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Geography 20 Exam 2 Chapter 4—Folk and Popular Culture Habit vs. Custom vs. Culture: Habits are something that an individual person does. Customs are something that a group of people do. Cultures are groups’ combinations of customs. Terminology to Know: Hearth—where a culture originates Diffusion—the process by which cultures or a certain aspect of a culture spreads. Ex: soccer was diffused from English folk culture into popular culture Distribution—how something is spread out across a certain region; in this case culture Folk culture—generally practiced by small groups of people who live in relatively isolated places Popular Culture—practiced by large groups of often diverse people in a society Differences between folk and pop culture: Clothing, food, and shelter. Housing: Environment affects what building materials are easily accessible for housing. It can also affect what types of houses are found in which regions. Many folk houses have a sacred wall/corner/room based on the religious beliefs of one folk culture or another. US Folk Housing: Middle Atlantic, Lower Chesapeake/Tidewater, and New England Diffusion of TV: Hearths of TV are the UK, France, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the US. The US is where the majority of TVs were located in the mid-twentieth century. Towards the end of the century, TV had diffused into and across Europe. Today, TV is accessible almost anywhere in the world Diffusion of the Internet: In 1995, more than half of the world’s Internet users were American. In less than 20 years, the Internet has spread across the globe and is available in many languages. Diffusion of Social Media: Social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube all originated in the US and are quickly diffusing into the rest of the world. Issues with Electronic Media: TV, the Internet, and social media all threaten folk culture. Many developing countries’ governments don’t like the idea of freedom of the press. TV access is prohibited in China, but citizens manage to get around it by hiding satellite dishes. Many countries also limit Internet access and people are not allowed to view anything that has to do with politics, social content, security content, and internet tools like email. Amish Culture: Refer to notes Problems with Pop Culture: Landscape Pollution—uniform landscapes, gold courses, environmental capacity, resource depletion (animals, natural resources, etc.) Be familiar with the map on pg. 120 Chapter 7—Ethnicities (pg. 224-257) Race vs. Culture—“Ethnicity” identifies a group of people who have the same cultural traditions and hearth. “Race” identifies a group of people who have the same biological ancestry. Globalization vs. Localization—Globalization is when a company extends its branches to other countries. Localization is the process through which that company tries to fit in with the local culture through architecture or language. Acculturation—Forced: people have to adapt to a culture; Voluntary: adopting a culture voluntarily; Resistance: hanging on to one’s own culture Assimilation—Losing all unique cultural traits Ethnic Conflicts—French Canadians in Quebec are opposed to anything English Yugoslavia—Country formed from several different countries after WWI. Eventually, the ethnic differences became too much of a problem and Yugoslavia split into seven separate countries. Ethnic Cleansing—The Serbs did ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. They burned the villages and forced the people living there to live in the woods. Ethnic cleansing has also happened in Bosnia & Herzegovina, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Rwanda, and Congo Be familiar with the map on pgs. 230, 231, and 234. Chapter 5—Languages Language Families: Languages that are related through a common ancestral language that has been in existence since before recorded history (language families can be represented by a tree trunk) Language Branches: Languages within a family that have a common ancestral language that is only a few thousand years old (represented by tree branches) Language Groups: Languages within a branch that have a similar origin and share similarities in grammar and vocabulary (represented by smaller branches) Individual Languages: Based off of language groups and branches. Individual languages from the same branch generally have some similarities (represented by leaves) The tree metaphor is known as the hierarchy of languages. Throughout Africa, there are over 1000 languages with thousands more dialects. It is difficult, if not impossible, to document them all because many have no written records or anything. There are a total of six language families. English: English originates from the Germanic language branch, more specifically, the Western Germanic branch. When the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes migrated to the UK, their languages kind of fused together and became English. Eventually, Norwegians and Normans migrated to the UK, as well, and also added to the language. Dialects vs. Languages: Dialects are variations on a language based on region. Distinctions include vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling. Ex: someone from Schuylkill Haven talks completely differently than someone from the South. They both speak English, but their vocabulary and pronunciation are very different. US Dialects: Northern, Southeaster, Midlands, and Western American vs. British English: Noah Webster is primarily responsible for making changes in spelling and grammar in American English. American vocabulary was influenced by the Native Americans, especially when there wasn’t an English word for something they had never seen before. Conflict caused by Language: Spain—in one region of Spain, a large portion of the population speaks Catalán rather than Spanish. The Catalonians want to be separated from Spain. Belgium—Flanders (northern Belgium) speaks Flemish and Wallonia (southern Belgium) speaks French. The two halves do not get along. People in Brussels (the capital) must speak both languages. Switzerland—German, French, Italian, and Romansh are all official languages, but language differences do not cause conflict like they do in Belgium. India—Language families, as well as individual languages are found in India. Language differences cause conflict and riots. Africa—Six language families are found in Africa. Language differences cause conflict. There are 62 languages spoken in Nigeria alone. Quebec—Many people living in Quebec are French and want nothing to do with anything English Be familiar with all language maps, especially pg. 144-145. Chapter 6—Religion Universalizing vs. Ethnic Religions: Universalizing religions try to convert as many people as possible by sending out missionaries or, in the case of Islam, through military campaigns. Universalizing religions include Christianity, Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism. Ethnic religions are more specific to a group of people living in a particular place. Missionaries are not used because the religion stays within a specific group of people. Ethnic religions include Hinduism, Taoism, and Judaism Christianity: Hearth—Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. Eventually migrated to the west and into Europe and the Americas. The Apostle Paul was mainly responsible for the spread of Christianity around the Mediterranean Sea. In 313, Roman Emperor Constantine became a Christian and made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Islam: Hearth—Saudi Arabia. Islam is the only religion that is still dominant in its hearth. It was spread across the Middle East, Northern Africa, and Southeast Asia. Military campaigns were used to spread Islam and people had to convert or be killed. Mecca (where Muhammed was born) is the holy city of the Muslims and it is a life goal to travel there at least once in a lifetime Buddhism: Hearth—India. No longer a common religion in India, but is still dominant in the countries it spread to (China and some of Southeast Asia). Hinduism: Hearth—India. Unlike most religions, the beginnings of Hinduism are unknown. It is the oldest known religion and is most common in India. Hinduism is based on the caste system and living a life good enough to be reincarnated in a higher caste Religion and Conflict: Ireland—The northern part of Ireland is part of the UK and is predominantly Protestant. The Republic of Ireland is predominantly Catholic and the Catholics persecuted the Protestants for many years. Protestants would wear orange instead of green on St. Patrick’s Day Distribution of Religions: Christianity—Most common in the Americas, Europe, Russia, and Australia/New Zealand. Most of the people that migrated to/settled in these places were some variation of Christianity and the religion stuck. Islam—Most common in the Middle East and Northern Africa where the Muslims went on their military campaigns. Buddhism—Most common in China and surrounding countries. That is where Buddhism spread to from India. Hinduism—Almost all Hindus live in India (Map on pgs. 184-185) Be familiar with maps on pages 187, 202, and 215.
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