PSYCH1010: Study guide for chapters 6, 7, 8, & 14
PSYCH1010: Study guide for chapters 6, 7, 8, & 14 PSY 1010
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PSYCH1010 Introduction to Psychology Dr Watson Wednesday 92315 INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONING 1 What final generalization about persons might eliminative reductionists use to summarize their overall position A person is an information unit people receive process and transmit information 2 What does this generalization imply about the structure of persons The causes of persons are completely inside the skin 3 What specific structures are associated With the three functions Within persons that are implied by this generalization Receive sensory receptors that receive infostimuli from the environment 0 Process interneurons between receptors and effectors Transmit effectors such as hormone changes and movement 4 With regard to the NatureNurture controversy how is learning relevant Nurture causes of persons are completely outside the Skin learn through Xp ri nC 0 Behaviorism believe the cause of a person is through nurtureexperience 5 How does the position of John B Watson illustrate the relevance of learning 39 Wrote the book Behaviorism 39 Defined behaviorism by examining the environment in Which individuals live 6 What broad school of thought is associated With the work of John B Watson 10 ll 12 13 39 Behaviorism How might conditioning be defined informally 39 Conditioning learning How might the concept conditioned be defined more formally Conditioned adapted modified or molded by the environment As it relates to conditioned behavior what does the word molded imply about the role of the body in causing persons 39 Molding imagine that the body is a lump of clay and the environment is a sculpture that shapes the body into different forms What two kinds of behaviors are associated with the two forms of conditioning 39 Involuntary and voluntary When we talk about voluntary and involuntary responses in this course what do we mean Are we making any broad philosophical assumptions about free will when we use these terms Involuntary behavior behavior one cannot start and stop on command example dilate pup s a1so caned classical conditioning respondent conditioning or Pavlovian Conditioning Voluntary behavior behavior one can start and stop on command example raise hand What was the first form of conditioning to be systematically studied by scientists What three terms are used to name this form of conditioning and what do these terms imply Who was the first scientist to systematically explore this first form of conditioning 0 Ivan Pavlov E B Twitmyer wrote the first paper but Pavlov formally explored it 39 He was not a psychologist but rather a world class physiologist digested physiology and won a Nobel Prize 14 Explain how the research interests of this scientist led him to focus on the conditioned salivary responses of dogs He wanted to see how salivary glands responded to food so he implanted a device into dogs39 mouths to collect salivation 15 When this scientist talked about psychic re exes what was he talking about 39 Example the dog anticipated food and began to salivate because he had associated Pavlov39s presence with food 39 Psychic re exes response based on anticipation Friday 92515 PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING aka classical conditioning and respondent conditioning 1 What are the four components of any classical conditioning situation unconditioned stimulus UCS unconditioned response UCR conditioned stimulus CS and conditioned response CR 2 How might those components be defined informally unconditioned stimulus unleamed stimulus 39 unconditioned response unleamed response conditioned stimulus learned stimulus conditioned response learned response How would those components be defined formally 39 unconditioned stimulus environmental event that automatically produces a specific response Without any learning at all 39 unconditioned response behavior automatically produced by the UCS 39 conditioned stimulus an initially neutral environmental event that comes to produce a behavior like the UCR by being paired With the UCS conditioned response behavior produced by the CS once learning has occurred Use Pavlov s research into psychic re exes to illustrate how these four components operate in a classical conditioning situation In other words in his procedures What were the unconditioned stimulus the unconditioned response the C337 conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response 56 I S I I i Q 04 UCS food 1 P 39 UCR salivation M 5 fgtbl C R 39 CS ringing bell paired With food at first then food removed p 00d Mafg CR salivation What are the three additional processes 39 Extinction generalization and discrimination What is extinction 10 Unconditioning gradual elimination of a learned response through the removal of the environmental controls of that response behavior that has been stopped due to a removal of UCS Spontaneous Recovery sudden reappearance of a previously extinguished response How is extinction produced in classical conditioning 39 The UCS is removed for a prolonged period of time What is generalization Spread of behavior learned in one environment to other similar environments Example responses conditioned in high school might transfer to behavior in college What is discrimination when the term is applied to conditioning Process of learning to display different behaviors to different stimulienvironments 39 Example one39s behavior is different at a party than it would be during church one may interact differently With a friend than With a professor How might classical conditioning processes be used to explain the early development and the later generalization and extinction of conditioned emotional responses ie the story of the person Who had an abusive father early in life Normal process dad beating gt fear 39 CS gt CR dad gt fear 39 Second stimulus mom comforting gt calm 39 CS gt CR mom gt calm Later in life Boss gt Fear generalization The boss is nothing but supportive Boss gt no abuse gt less fear each time until fear is completely gone 39 Sometimes you may be surprised by the arrival of the boss and fear returns spontaneous recovery but it disappears 11 How might classical conditioning be used to explain the war between the sexes Opposite sex gt betrayal gt anger 39 Eventually this betrayal is expected so anger is attached to the presence of the opposite sex this can cause difficulty When dating Monday 92815 OPERANT CONDITIONING 1 How does radical behaviorism understand the person 39 Develops a stimulusresponse SR psychology to explain the cause of a person 2 How specifically is a person to be described in terms of SR relationships 39 R a person is just a collection of behaviors response can be stronger or weaker S behaviors are just a product of the environment stimuli can be presented or removed UCS gt UCR is an SR relationship 39 CS gt CR is also an SR relationship What does the radical behaviorist assume about your socalled voluntary behaviors Does the radical behaviorist believe in free will 39 Voluntary behaviors you are just a collection of behaviors so you are thought of as a pawn on the chess board of life life picks you up and moves you across the board no actions are voluntary 39 Free will there is none What three terms refer to the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behavior 39 Conditioned quotvoluntaryquot responses 39 Operant conditioning one learns to operate based on the environment 39 Instrumental conditioning one must learn to use behavior as an instrument or tool on the environment 39 Skinnerian Conditioning What is the Law of Effect and who first stated it in formal terms 39 Behavior is controlled by its consequences or effects E L Thorndike What is reinforcement 39 Informal definition it is a responsestrengthening process 39 Formal definition a process that occurs when a behavior is strengthened by a stimulus that follows it 39 Example you work hard at your job so your boss gives you a raise you work just as hard or even harder next time 39 Stimulus hard work gt response boss gives you a raise gt stimulus more hard work 10 What American psychologist was probably most famous for systematically studying the reinforcement process 39 B F Skinner Describe the apparatus used by this psychologist to study reinforcement in studies using for example rats 39 He called his apparatus an operant chamber aka Skinner box 39 He put a rat into the box and deprived it of food for 235 hours A lever is on the wall with a hole underneath it if the rat presses the lever it releases food pellets into the cup by the hole He then observed how long it took the rat to learn about the lever 39 Shaping occurs through the gradual reinforcement of behavior toward a target response do this by applying successive approximations How was conditioned behavior established in this apparatus In this process what do the terms shaping and successive approximations refer to 39 Shaping gradual reinforcement of behavior toward a target response 39 Successive Approximations gradual movement towards target area to learn a conditioned response In the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behaviors what four basic relationships can occur between stimuli and responses 39 positive reinforcement positive punishment negative reinforcement and negative punishment 11 In other words What are positive reinforcement positive punishment negative reinforcement and negative g cm w L S QQC Mowq Ei j Wei oCfmgqf punishment Give an example of each by trying to think up examples from your own life 39 Positive reinforcement stimulus is presented and am nishnew response 1s strengthened QK 39 Positive punishment stimulus is presented and response is weakened 39 Negative reinforcement stimulus is removed and response is strengthened 39 Negative punishment stimulus is removed and response is weakened 12 Do extinction generalization and discrimination apply to this type of conditioning 39 Yes All of the above still apply 39 Extinction if reinforcement is removed for an extended period of time the response Will disappear 39 Generalization if behavior has been established in one area it could transfer to another similar situation 39 Discrimination behavior varies due to observed differences in situations Example Bob calls Debbie to invite her to parties that she in turn attends to make James jealous eventually Debbie gets James and begins rejecting Bob 39 Bob is continuously rejected so he stops calling extinction 39 Bob now meets and likes Sheila so he calls often to invite her to parties generalization 39 Sheila doesn39t like parties but she enjoys nature Bob stops inviting her to parties and invites her on hikes discrimination Wednesday 930 15 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 1 What is a schedule of reinforcement 39 Rules that specify the relationship between responding and reinforcement What are the two basic types of reinforcement schedules Which type is probably more common in the social life of persons 39 Continuous reinforcement schedule every response behavior is reinforced example machines such as the brakes in a car or the buttons on a remote 39 Partial reinforcement schedule only some responses are reinforced What are probably the four most common partial reinforcement schedules 39 Fixed ratio schedule reinforcement occurs after a fixed or set number of responses FR10 39 Operant Example if the rat presses the lever 10 times he gets a pellet of food Rapid responding getting through the set number quickly Postreinforcement pause pausing after reward before beginning process again 39 Example you sew 5 shirts and then get paid 39 Variable ratio schedule reinforcement follows an average varying number of responses VRlO 39 Operant Example the rat presses the lever 10 times and gets food rat presses the lever 25 times and gets food rat presses the lever 4 times and gets food 39 Produces steady responding and is difficult to extinguish 39 Example gambling behavior A casino is like a large Skinner box 39 Fixed interval reinforcement schedule reinforcement is made available after a set fixed period of time Fl10 sec 39 Operant Example rat presses the lever and must wait 10 seconds before reward arrives so the rat waits about 8 seconds to press the lever 39 Scalloping pattern graph looks like the edge of a seashell 39 Example reading is assigned at the beginning of the semester but student doesn39t begin reading until near the exam and is reinforced by good grades this strategy of cramming does not work because it is simply generalized from high school 39 Variable Interval reinforcement schedule reinforcement is made available after an average varying period of time 39 Operant Example rat presses lever and the reward time varies 39 Produces steady responding 39 Example pop quizzes 4 How would each of these four partial reinforcement schedules operate in an operant chamber 39 See above response listed under quotoperant examplequot 5 What would be the characteristics of behavior associated with each of these four partial reinforcement schedules 6 Indicate how each of these partial reinforcement schedules might operate in the life of persons by trying to think of examples from your own personal experience Friday 10215 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 1 How would Skinner react to any attempt to define learning in terms of processes that occur within the mind He would be opposed to the general definition of learning gaining information 2 What two main arguments might he present in order to defend his reaction 39 He sees it as a relationship following the pattern SgtmindgtR This approach is too subjective all science should be objective and one cannot see what39s going on in someone else39s mind This approach is unnecessary how do we know anyone has ever learned anything The only way we know someone has learned something is by watching its obVious eVidence in their behaVior 3 What would Skinner mean if he were to suggest that the mind should be hidden inside a black box 39 It should not be thought about or included forget about the mind39s presence Where does the analogy of a black box come from 39 Architecture one draws a big black box on a blueprint to say quotgenerator goes herequot 39 There is no detail or understanding of the black box but it39s known that it is still there How might Skinner choose to define learning 0 Learning a more or1ess permanent change in behavior as a result of stimulus experience How would this definition be compatible with his SR psychology 39 Stimulus experience creates a response change of behavior How did a British philosopher describe the early 20th Century emphasis of American psychology on an SR approach to learning What did he mean by this 39 American psychology has lost its mind 39 It is literally true because Americans believed that the mind should be ignored 39 Believed that American psychology was crazy because the definition of psychology is quotthe study of the mindquot psyche logos Explain how the research of E C Tolman suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense 39 Complex Maze a huge puzzle given to rats 0 One1ocationis the start box and the other end is the goal box with pathways and dead ends between both boxes One pathway is the most efficient from start to goal 39 The rats are food deprived and set into the start box and a food pellet is placed in the goal box This process is continued until the rat learns the most efficient pathway 39 The reward group learned the most efficient pathway after about 11 times phase 1 39 The no reward group they never learn the maze efficiently if there is no reward food pellet in the goal box phase 1 if there is suddenly food in the goal box after 11 trials of no food they will suddenly learn the efficient route within 2 times phase 2 9 What is latent learning According to Tolman how are cognitive maps relevant to an understanding of latent learning 39 Latent learning sudden change of not learning to rapid learning 39 Cognitive map imagined map of a maze 39 If the rats have a cognitive map they can participate in latent learning 10 Explain how the research of Wolfgang Kohler suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense 39 He worked with chimpanzees and analyzed problemsolving behavior 39 Sultan chimp was placed in a cage with a banana above it attached by a string when jumping for the banana does not work the behavior extinguishes Sultan notices a lot of random objects in the oor of the cage and then stacks the objects to reach the banana 11 What is insight learning and how is it related to the possible role of mental processes in learning How might an informal definition of the concept insight suggest the importance of mental events in psychological functioning 39 Insight learning sudden understanding of how to solve a problem 39 Insight inside one39s mind this shows that chimps and rats have minds so it can be assumed that people have minds as well 12 What approach to psychology emerged in response to the work of people like Tolman and Kohler 39 Cognitivism rebellion against Skinner focus on the mind open the blaCk bOX Monday 10515 Review Eliminative reductionism RgtIgtE Radical behaviorism SgtR Cognitivism focus on the mind persons are products of mental operations and are caused by the mind RESEARCH INTO MEMORY 1 What three basic methods do cognitive psychologists use for studying memory Recall test remember a previously presented stimulus 39 Recognition test remembering of a previously presented stimulus by selecting it from among alternatives 39 Relearning test relearn a previously learned task 2 In using these how might independent variables be manipulated to construct an understanding of the human memory system Recall test read trigrams and then recall them trigram XQP VDF GtC Independent variable manipulate the length of the list the amount of time subject is allowed to study the list the recall interval time from stimulus presentation to recall cued vs uncued recall 39 Dependent variable memory Recognition test remembering of a previously presented stimulus by selecting it from among alternatives 39 Independent variable other options available to be chosen from Relearning test learn something time passes and releam it Independent variable how much time passes What methods of studying memory are involved in police lineups multiplechoice tests and essay exams Police lineups recognition test 39 Multiple choice tests recognition test Essay exams recall test Which approach to studying memory is called the method of savings and why Relearning test bits and pieces of memory are saved even when it seems as though it39s been forgotten What is the fundamental insight or basic assumption of the stage theory of memory Stage theory of memory memory is not one thing but three things it occurs in stages What is the first stage of memory and how would it be defined in formal terms Sensory registration brief lingering of stimuli in sensory systems 10 Example at a birthday party a camera ash blinds you greatly but brie y What are the two basic questions that cognitive psychologists would like to ask and then answer about this and the other stages of memory 39 What is the capacity of a stage of memory Very large 0 What is the duration of each stage Very short less than 1 second Illustrate how a cognitive psychologist might try to answer these questions about the first stage of memory based upon the study of George Sperling 1960 0 He p1aced an individua1 in front of a TScope letters would ash across the screen for 120 second and asked him to report the whole report only a few letters were recalled 39 Then he called for a partial report when the scree ashes a low tone sounds and one remembers the bottom line a high tone sounds and one remembers the top line Duration manipulates the recall interval from immediate to delayed it is less than 1 second What apparatus did Sperling 1960 use in his study What was his general procedure What did his whole report and partial report conditions suggest about this stage of memory as it relates to visual stimuli 39 Tachistoscope TSCOPG What does the Sperling 1960 study suggest about the ability of psychologists to be objective about processes in the black box that Skinner put between stimuli and responses No one can be objective about the block box because it has to be observed and should become the main focus of study Wednesday 10715 STAGE THEORY OF MEMORY 1 Again What is the first stage of memory and how might it be defined in formal terms Sensory registration brief lingering of stimuli in sensory systems 2 What is the capacity and duration of this first stage of memory 39 Capacity is very large and duration is very small 310 second 3 What three processes move information from the first to the second stage of memory How might each be defined 39 Sensory gating process of attending to some sensory systems but not others choosing between stimuli 39 Selective attention process of attending to some stimuli Within a sensory System but not others Mental representation process of making sense out of stimuli so they can be moved to the next stage of memory interpretation of life is based on experience How did people react to the first movie ever shown What might their reactions say about one of these three processes 39 People panicked when they saw a locomotive coming towards them via motion picture Interpretation of stimuli is based on life experience What is the second stage of memory and how might it be defined Short term memory more or less the same thing as your conscious awareness What is the capacity of this second stage of memory How might efforts to explain this capacity be understood in terms of juggling 39 Capacity is 7 2 things One can only handle between 59 things at one time so to add something new something old must be dropped What is the duration of this second stage of memory What procedure did Peterson and Peterson 1959 use in attempting to answer this question What is rehearsal Why did Peterson and Peterson have their subjects count backwards by three 39 Duration about 20 seconds definitely less than 30 seconds 39 Subject is given letters and numbers XBD 127 and must count down from 127 by threes until researcher yells quotrecallquot and the subject has to recall the letters XBD the recall interval is manipulated to see how long the letters remain in one39s short term memory Rehearsal processing of information so that it can be remembered counting backwards by threes prevents subject from rehearsal What process moves information from the second to the third stage of memory Storage process of moving information from short term memory to long term memory 9 What is the third stage of memory and how might it be defined in formal terms 39 Long term memory more or less permanent storage of information 10 What process moves information from the third back to the second stage of memory 0 Korsakoffs Syndrome due to extreme alcoholism there is a deficiency in Vitamin B1 Thiamine and a disrupt in digestion 0 A symptom ca11ed confabulation can be found memories are distorted and made up 39 Retrieval process of bringing long term memory back into conscious awarenessshort term memory 11 What is the capacity of the third stage of memory 39 Capacity unlimited unless brain damage occurs 12 What is the duration of the third stage of memory 39 Duration assuming no brain damage occurs long term memory is lifelong no clear limit 13 What study conducted by Hermann Ebbinghaus suggested how this question about duration might be answered He tested his own memory system by trying to remember Don Juan Tennyson after 22 years of not hearing it since he had to memorize and recite it in grade school It was tricky but he was able to piece it together Friday 10915 IMPROVING LONG TERM MEMORY What metaphor might be useful in conceptualizing longterm memory A filing system with many different categories and places to store memories 39 Many times there is so much information stored that retrieval gets very difficult 39 How you store information affects how you retrieve it later Maintainable What two broad categories of memory are stored in longterm memory Implicit memory and Explicit memory How might these two categories of memory be defined 39 Implicit memory nonconscious behavioral memories not expressed in words and cannot be expressed to others procedural memories motor skills 39 Examples Riding a bike driving a car emotional Conditioned Responses etc 39 Explicit memory memories that can be declared in words also called declarative memories semantic ideas facts and knowledge and episodic memory memory for life episodes what has happened in one39s life such as what he ate for breakfast or where he vacationed last summer What more specific types of memory belong within these two categories of longterm memory 39 Implicit procedural skills Explicit semantic ideas and episodic memories With what two types of rehearsal might information be moved from shortterm to longterm memory Maintenance rehearsal shallow processing maintainrepeat information in short term memory so that is can remembered Elaborating rehearsal deep processing active processing of information in terms of broader meaning After which type of rehearsal is the retrieval of information often better Retrieval is better with elaborating rehearsal information is placed within context so it39s easier to find relevant information How might the improved retrieval associated with this superior type of rehearsal be conceptualized in terms of the basic filing metaphor we have used to describe longterm memory 39 You not only remember the information but you also remember where you put it you label sections of memory within context How might the advice previously given in class about reading the text be explained in terms of the two types of rehearsal and in terms of the metaphor we have used to describe long term memory 39 Read the chapter summary to metaphorically label that section of information when you read the chapter and repeat both steps context is elaborated so that the information is in a common location then take the multiple choice test to make sure the information has stuck with you 9 What is the difference between Psychology 1010 and gossip as it relates to longterm memory What does this difference suggest about psychological processes that might in uence our longterm memory 39 Gossip you never engage in maintenance rehearsal like you have to in psycthlO you immediately elaborate and want more in depth information What you care about in uences your ability to maintain information elaboration comes naturally once you find something interesting to you 10 In class we discussed the case history of a 12yearold boy who repeatedly asked the question Excuse me mister am I still John Paul J ones How might this behavior be explained in terms of the stage theory of memory He remembered everything about his life on the farm with his father and brother and deceased diabetic mother he was a diabetic who was plunged into a comatose state after an insulin deficiency 39 His short term memory was ruined and he cannot remember anything for more than about 2030 seconds now he continuously had a dawning awareness every 2030 seconds that he was not on the farm anymore and surrounded by strange people 39 He is trapped in an eternal cycle due to a lack of memory storage Monday 101215 COMPOSITEECOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE PERSON Review Eliminating Reductionism body R gt I gt E 0 Radical Behaviorism environment S gt R 0 Cognitivism mind sensory registration gt short term memory gt long term memory We developed a CompositeEcological Model of the person during this lecture What is a model in this instance And what does the word composite mean in this context WtCco wi Model theory 0 Stimulus gt body RgtIgtE or mind sensory registrationgtconscious awareness gtlong term memorygt Response 0 When we respond we change our stimulus relationship 0 When responding we immediately have an impact on culture and history 0 Culture and history has an impact on the physical environment 0 The physical environment also has an impact on you How is the perspective of eliminative reductionism included in the Composite Model 0 It is a portion of what is in the black box in the middle of a stimulusresponse model How is the perspective of radical behaviorism included 0 The model is a stimulusresponse style but has more information between stimulus and response How is the perspective of cognitivism included 0 Cognitivism is within the black box in the mind portion of the stimulusresponse model What other causal processes are included in the model 0 Body mind culture and history and physical environment and stimulus and response In what ways do the causal processes of the CompositeEcological Model interact They all interact among each other every piece is connected In class we will talk about a child who would walk up to me at a previous job and ask Excuse me am I still John Paul Jones How might this behavior be explained in terms of the Composite Model of the person 0 The cause is rooted in brain damage so it would be easiest to follow the body pathway of the stimulusresponse composite model for the cause but the piece missing in his mind process is the storage of present information he has anterograde amnesia Cause loss of the psychological process of STORAGE due to bodily brain damage and diabetic genetic history Due to the unfamiliar physical environment he was unsure of who he was It would39ve been ideal for him to be at home but care could not be afforded this is the culturalhistorical aspect of the model Diabetes occurs when there is an deficient amount of sugar in the bloodstream this sentence is also caused by the lack of sugar in his body physical environment What is anterograde amnesia Forwardgoing amnesia cannot store present happenings but remembers the past before brain damage occurred 0 Retrograde amnesia backwardgoing amnesia loss of past memories and long term memories after awhile this also leads to anterograde amnesia Wednesday 101415 DEFINING MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 10 ll 12 How might research into emotion and motivation be framed within the context of the CompositeEcological Model of the person Motivations and emotions located in the mind How do the historical origins of the words emotion and motivation suggest that these two processes are related 0 Both come from Latin word quotmotquot meaning quotto movequot think of them like motors How is motivation defined by psychologists How might it be defined informally Motivation defined by psychologists involves factors that arouse sustain and direct behavior toward goals Informally defined movement and behavior due to desires How is emotion defined by psychologists How might it be defined informally 0 Emotion represents complex reactions to personally significant stimuli Informally movement due to things one cares about or feelings What are the three dimensions or aspects of emotional reactions 0 Subjective mental reactions what is felt psychologically Physiological bodily reactions heart rate muscle tension sweat blood pressure etc Behavioral feelings are shown in correlated behaviors in social life example anger can be shown by yelling clenched hands red face etc What is the Type A personality and how might it be related to medical issues What aspect of the Type A personality proved to be most important in affecting the medical issues 13 14 15 16 0 Type A hardworking goaldirected ambitious workaholic Medical issues more vulnerable to coronary heart disease stroke high blood pressure than Type B the emotion that caused this was angerhostility that put stress on the circulatory system 0 Type B laid back relaxed not easily upset not driven to accomplish much healthier than Type A people What does the phrase poker face tell you about emotions 0 Emotions are social and can be hidden by a control of behaviors facial expressions tone of voice etc 0 Some emotions have involuntary behaviors attached like dilation of pupils and poker players Will wear sunglasses and caps to hide these changes of behavior How is each of these dimensions measured in psychological research To measure emotion all three of these MUST be included 0 Subjective selfreport questionnaire 0 Physiological polygraph Behavioral behavioral observation audience What is a polygraph Liedetector test Does a lie detector detect lies What does it detect 0 It has a high correlation to finding lies but it mostly just detects arousal or upset 17 What is alexithymia How was it discovered Will at least some students in Psychology 1010 display tendencies toward alexiythmia And if so will those tendencies have any psychological implications Alexithymia condition in which people are without words for their emotions Medical doctors were studying people with psychosomatic disorders who could not understand their own emotions they could not process emotions and then could not adapt to the meaning of emotions This is a fairly common condition that can cause depression anxiety and low selfesteem 18 Within the context of the CompositeEcological Model how can emotion and motivation be described in terms of movementrelated processes 0 Stimulus gt emotion gt motivation gt response 0 Something we care about happens gt we are moved gt we desire to move gt we move 19 How can the issues of emotion motivation and movement be related to stress 0 If we cannot move or have a proper response stress occurs Friday 101615 DRIVE THEORY what is the cause of a motivated person 1 What prominent psychologist is associated with the development of Drive Theory 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 0 Clark Hull worked between 1940s1950s motivation of a person can be found through one39s primary needs which are caused by primary drives What is a primary need 0 Goals necessary for survival What are some examples of primary needs 0 Food and water are necessary for individuals 0 Sexual motivation and social activity are necessary for survival of species What is a primary drive 0 Internal state of tension that directs behavior toward primary needs What are some examples of primary drives 0 Hunger and thirst 0 Sexual desire and loneliness What does the term homeostasis mean and how can it be related to Drive Theory 0 Homeostasis stable point 0 Drive systems try to maintain a stable range as the drive rises it tries to return us to a level of 0 need Why is Drive Theory sometimes called Drive Reduction Theory 0 quotWe need not to needquot 0 We are constantly trying to get to a 0 level of need based on satisfying needs as they arise What kinds of behaviors challenge the assumption of Drive Theory that we defend a zero level of need How can these behaviors be related to Arousal Theory 27 28 29 30 0 Hang gliding and skydiving are examples that challenge the drive reduction theory they are not trying to return need levels to 0 but rather trying to arouse senses 0 Scary movies or haunted houses are also examples of the Arousal Theory 0 Arousal Theory persons have a nonzero level of need for arousal Everyone has a different level of necessary arousal they are born needing Emily Dickinson39s need for arousal is much lower than Paris Hilton What is a homeostatic system 0 Systems of need staying Within a close range of comfort around that need How many components does a homeostatic system have 0 4 system variable sensor set point and corrective mechanism How is each of these components defined System Variable variable monitored by the system 0 Sensor mechanism that monitors the system variable Set point level of system variable defended by the system Corrective mechanism returns system variable to set point What are the components of the homeostatic system associated With a typical home heating system System variable air temperature Sensor thermometer Set point thermostat Whatever degree you set Corrective mechanism furnace 31 How might hunger be described as a biological homeostatic system Specifically What are the basic components of this biological homeostatic system 0 System variable body weight 0 Sensor brain cells located in the hypothalamus Set point lipostat Corrective mechanism eating Definition Hunger Heating System Variable Variable monitored by system Body weight Air temperature Sensor Mechanism that Brain cells Thermometer monitors the system variable Set Point Level of system variable Lipostat Thermostat defended by the system Corrective Mechanism Returns system variable Eating Furnace to set point 32 What is a secondary need 0 Learned need for goals that are indirectly necessary for survival 33 What is a secondary drive 0 Learned internal states of tension that direct behavior towards secondary needs 34 What is an example of a secondary need and secondary drive 0 Secondary needs money 0 Secondary drive parents taught children to desire money relationships and culture drive the needs 35 What features of the Ecological Model are implicated in the development of secondary needs and drives Physiopersonal biological homeostasis Interpersonal some primary needs and learned secondary needs Intrapersonal Primary and secondary drives Metapersonal culture determines secondary needs Nonpersonal food water fresh air heat etc 36 Using the Ecological Model answer the following question What is the cause of a motivated person 0 Who we are as motivated people is caused by our nonpersonal variables and the factors in the environment around us Wednesday 102115 J AMES LANGE THEORY 2 What does the J amesLange Theory attempt to explain 0 What are emotional experiences 37 What two individuals articulated this theory 0 William James philanthropist and Carl Lange Danish physiologist 38 In very general terms what does the J amesLange theory say about emotional experience Emotional experience is an experience of the autonomic nervous system 39 With regard to the output motor controls of the nervous system What are the systems that control movement 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system sensory nerves control inputs and motor nerves outputs Motor nerves somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system 40 What is the somatic nervous system 0 Controls voluntary responses 41 What is the autonomic nervous system 0 Controls involuntary responses Wef vows 5fem m C B ffa l 1 A 580501 40 top 47 EPWQ MN eaas Coma L v 50501515 aqmog jC W V0 M 5 Wm 573 617 575 am 5 n cmtb o a f Prv pawl1 532 gagow 0 Auto self Nomic law a law unto itself it controls itself 42 What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system and What do they do 0 Sympathetic nervous system controls energy expenditure fight or ight 0 Parasympathetic nervous system works next to the sympathetic nervous system in control of energy conservation 43 What is the implied logic of the J amesLange theory Emotions are involuntary involuntary reactions are part of the autonomic nervous system Emotions must be controlled by the autonomic nervous system 44 What different components of the autonomic nervous system did James and Lange tend to emphasize in their theorizing about emotions 0 James viscera abdominal organs 0 Getting butter ies or nauseous gut feelings Lange vasculature circulatory system 0 Getting cold feet or blood boiling discolor in skin 45 What are coarser and subtler emotions and how did James relate them to his theory 0 Coarser emotions hot strong inborn reactions James looked more at this one 0 Subtler emotions cool cognitive learned appreciations 46 What is the unexpected sequence of events that is associated with the J amesLange theory How might this be described in terms of the example of running into a bear in the forest 0 What is expected Stimulus produces an emotion which leads to a response SER 0 What happens a stimulus produces a response which then leads to an emotion SRE Example How you explain it While hiking you come across a bear You were afraid so you ran faster than ever before Here39s what actually happened There was a bear so you ran away and then realized you were afraid Think BeargtFeargtRun Reality BeargtRungtFear 47 Why might an explanation of emotional experience solely in terms of the autonomic nervous system be questioned Emotions are involuntary but they are in both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems 48 How might the underlying logic of the theory be revised to address these concerns about a possible overemphasis on the autonomic nervous system Emotions are a whole body experience they are involuntary but produce physical reactions 49 How might laughing at a joke that you get and at one that you do not get be useful in helping explain this underlying logic 0 You laugh When something is funny 0 If you force a fake laugh it doesn39t feel the same as a real one 50 How might the J amesLange theory be stated after it has been revised 0 Happiness causes smiles but smiles also cause happiness 51 Given the involuntary nature of emotions What is one of your main opportunities to exercise responsible control over them 0 Smiling Friday 102315 STRESS AND WELLBEING 3 How might stress be defined informally Being left hanging trapped With our feelings and desires and unable to move 52 How might stress be defined formally 0 When an individual confronts an event that seems overwhelming or threatening to personal wellbeing 53 What is the general adaptation syndrome Hans Selye long term stress produces the general adaptation syndrome 54 What happens during the alarm resistance and exhaustion stages of the general adaptation syndrome 0 Alarm sympathetic arousal 0 Preparing for fight or ight reaction 0 Resistance state of readiness Coping With alarm being on edge and ready to respond as the alarm stage continues Exhaustion depletion of resources 0 Stress isn39t going away and physiological damage or illness is probable stress can even kill the body if it reaches high levels of exhaustion 55 What physiological system underlies the response of the body to stress during the general adaptation syndrome What is ACTH 0 Hypothalamus pituitary and adrenal glands interact to lead to GAS Hypothalamus under stress activates pituitary gland 0 Pituitary gland is like the conductor of an orchestra and releases adrenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH 0 Adrenal glands are beside kidneys critical in control of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems release hormones called cortisol adrenaline epinephrine and noradrenaline 56 What is cortisol and how might it be described What are the effects of cortisol on the autonomic nervous system and on the immune system 0 Cortisol stress hormone that produces sympathetic arousal 0 Suppresses the immune system and makes body vulnerable to disease 57 What is the relationship of depression to cortisol levels and to health 0 Stimulus exam Without having read the book gt negative effect depression gt hideignore sleep gt response read book 58 59 60 61 62 63 0 Depression is associated with high levels of cortisol and health problems illnesses and lifethreatening conditions including heart attacks What is primary appraisal Evaluation of a stimulus as stressful What is secondary appraisal Evaluation of what can be done in response to how to cope with stress As processes of secondary appraisal how do emotionfocused coping and problemfocused coping operate Which form of coping would usually be more advantageous 0 Emotionfocused coping try to change negative emotions associated with stress attempt to treat emotional symptoms doesn39t solve the problem 0 Problemfocused coping treat the cause of the stress and eliminate or remove source of stress respond to a difficult circumstance and do your best to alleviate it What is ow and how might it be related to primary appraisal Flow process of being absorbed by something play not work 0 Eustress good stress challenge with something enjoyed If ow occurs primary appraisal stress becomes eustress What is the relationship of optimism with depression and with physical health 0 Optimism predicts less stress allows for a longer life and provides less illness What does research on optimism suggest about depression the pessimistic explanatory style and system of significance as a way for reducing stress 0 Depressed people understand the world in a pessimistic explanatory style