exam 2 study guide
exam 2 study guide KIN 2332
Popular in Motor learning and control
Popular in Kinesiology
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Delia Navarro on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 2332 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by BOYLE, JASON B in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Motor learning and control in Kinesiology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
i FMotor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 5 The Learning Motor Skills Tuesday September 29 2015 De ning learning Performance 0 Observable behavior 0 Measurement Learning 0 Change in capacity to perform skill Learning berformed distinction 0 Performance as re ection of learning 0 Facilitation of learning by good performance Performance Variability 1 Instruction Good teacher 2Environment 3Self Anxiety fatigue motivation etc Assessing LearningMeasuring ART Observation measurements of learning r All three methods require repeated observations Beginning step 1 in an experiment From an experiment perspective Acquisition is the Ex An exam This is when you see if what was practiced during acquisition has any in uenced on the subjects ability to attempt other tasks that are similar yet very different Assessing Learning A quotClassicquot Motor Learning Experiment Shea and Morgan Question methods of scheduling practice Block practice Random Practice Results Acquisition Retention and Transfer Test Thursday October 1 2015 The shape of Learning Performance C ves Performance curve Line graph of a series of performance observations 0 General representation Features to indicate learning gt General graph is upward Types of Curves 4 types Learning occurs proportionally overtime Learning 0 Ex weight lifting learning how to ride a bike 0 Ex Learning a language learning a dance ballet its really slow at rst and then it gets better faster 0 Learning Normal Performance Curves Mostly common observed Negatively Accelerating Curve Learning at dif cult movement patterns Positively accelerating or Sshaped performance curves Qverlearning 1 mm unable to retrieve and utilize capacity Overlearningcontinued practice beyond desired level of mastery mastery does not have to be 100 1 The goal is to have more resistance to forgetting VAutomaticity Amount of practice is directly related ex Divingacar Refresher practice Overlearning spread out over incremental practice sessions continued education of pilots surgeons etc oContinuing education preserve what you already know Disadvantage of overlearning time consuming The transfer of learning V Transfer in uence of learning n skill on performance of another skill 0 Ex if your good with numbers when you re a child will that help you in chemistry when you re in high school V Target Skill The task the person wishes to be able to perform V Target Context The environment the person wishes to perform in Pt clinicreal life Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 6 Memory and Learning October 6 2015 What is memory gt Persistence of information over time 0 Capacity of Learning from experiences gt No single center for memory 0 Compartmentalized in varies brain regions Ex how you put clothes on Cognitive basedtheories of memcEL gt Convergence centers 0 Components of a retrieved memory come together at a speci c location Top down control gt Hierarchical 0 Storage and retrieval processes 0 Schema Theory Dynamical system theories of memory Characteristics adaptable complex selforganization emergence Conditioned by environmental features Bottom up process Do not like to say our brain control everything we do Driven by environmental factors brain involved with memory synchronizes when being perceived when things are not perceived there is no harmony Declarative Memory System Memories concerning facts and events gt Semantic memory facts 0 Generalized knowledge about the world 0 Independently stored gt Episodic Memory events 0 Autobiographical o Context and Sequence related Ex where were you when 911 happened In 1950 HM Henry Molaison 19532008 0 Brain injury in childhood that lead him to suffer from seizures and doctors removed his hypothalamus from brain Stopping seizures but preventing new memories from forming Before HM everyone believed there was only Declarative Memory 0 HM could learn new Motor skills but no new memories Procedural Memory information relative to skill procedures 0 Information for all three domains of skills 0 Rule based system 0 39Doingquot of skill behaviors o Automaticity 0 Dual tasking o Chocking under pressure Beilgk and Carr study perts vs Novig Compared performance on 30 putt conditions quotHow should the gold putt be performed correctly quot Experts were superior quotPretend a friend walked in the room describe in great detail the last putt you just tookquot Novice were superior gt Experts controlled their movements through procedural memory gt Expertiseinduce amnesia declarative memory is blocked during automatic procedural skill Expertmonitoring hypothesis What causes Choking under pressure gt Trying to access Declarative memory during well learned procedural memory Stages of Memm Be aware of environment and respond effectively gt Be aware of what is in environment gt Decided what to do in response gt How to do what we decide upon These three essential functions are accomplished by memory Atkinson and Shiffrin Model Long Tern Sensoryinput gt Sensor gt Short y Term Memor Memory AttentionampRehersal 8 Storage Memory Retrival Sensory Memory Organization prioritization and encoding of sensory information Registers 0 One for each sensory modality 0 Vision iconic register 0 Touch haptic register Most information entering sensory memory is lost ensory Memory information transferred from sensory memory Must have A39ITENTION to move from sensory store short term memory gt Limited capacity and time o Chunks magic number 72 o Grouping it together gt Only memory system we are consciously aware gt Working memory Long Term Memory LTM responsible for learning 2 Capacity is unlimited 2 Includes procedural sematic and episodic information oEncoding Rehearsal attention motivation Brain will never say it has had enough Enhancing long term Qnsolidation gt structural changes take time 24 to72 hours Factors in uencing consolidation gt Amount of practice attention motivation gt Scheduling and presentation of scheduling Primacy recency effects Learning greatest at beginning and at the end of practice what you hear rst and what you hear last Von Restorft Effect exception to primary recency effect 0 Particular meaningful or dramatic fashion 0 Ex something meaningful happened in the middle it will stick Practice distribution effect shorter practice sessions across longer periods of time Priming effects Introduction of new information or skill before practice 0 Ex coach demonstrates how to do an action then has students do drills on set action Emphasizing location cues critical position points Sleeping on it 0 Procedural memories 0 Lack of suf cient sleep or quality sleep staying up late to study is pointless you will not recall almost anything if we wake up earl to study instead we recall more Why do we forget learned skills gt Forgetting Loss of or inability to retrieve information from memory 0 Trace decay theory Memory trace decays before permanent encoding in LTM not practiced enough 0 Interference Theory Memories in LTM long term memories interfere with one another Ineffective retrieval Retroactive inhibition new memories interfering with the retrieval of old Proactive inhibition old memories interfering with the retrieval of new Ex walking into a room for something and fretting why you went in then leaving remembering why you went in Strategies for reducing interferencg LSeparate similar skills within a practice schedule as far apart as practically possible in order to reduce the effects of interference A Prefer proactive rather than retroactive inhibition when presenting a new skill Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 7 Stages of Learning October 13 15 2015 Fitts and Posner Three stages Modell of Motor Learning Cognitive theoretical approach Progression from declarative to procedural Cognitive stage of learning Conscious mental processes dominate early learning All of us are in declarative memory constantly practicing 0 Ex learning to dance play an instrument counting steps Declarative memory attempt to think way through performance Cognitive stage of learning Characteristics of learners 0 Performance Is inconsistent o Frequent errors 0 Large errors 0 quotself talkquot and sub verbalization Almost everyone passes through stage Factors in uencing time spent in stage 0 Complexity of movement 0 Age Instructional priorities cognitive stage 0 Use verbal instruction amp demonstrations 0 Help differentiate source of environmental information Visual dominance to be able to show the how to do it o Transferability of previously acquired skills 0 Verbal feedback about major error too late too high 0 Help maintain motivation and interest Associative stage of Learning Declarative and procedural learning Characteristics of learners 0 Errors are less frequent o Variability of errors decrease o Remaining errors are distinct o Movements are smoother and quicker 0 Integration of environmental factors Factors in uencing time spent in stage oComplexity oAbilities olnstruction do you have a good instruction or bad instruction Instructional Priorities 0 Help learners identify and respond to environmental Changes oReduce amount and type of feedback reinforcement of correct movement behaviors oMethods to redirect visual and attentional resources oMaintenance of motivation Autonomous stage of Learning Procedural memory Ability to perform skill is basically automatic Characteristics of learners 0 Ability to perform skill well and think about something else 0 Improved performance accurate and quick skills not everyone reaches this stage due to Abilities Large amount of practice Effective instruction Motivation Instructional priorities 0 Maintenance of motivation o Re nement of movements oAdaptation to varying situations Stages of Learning From Dynamical Systems Perspectives Coordinated patterns of movement resulting from constraints Attractors preferred state of movement Types of Constraints Person task environment Control of bodily components contributing to movements Degree of freedom Novice stage of learning gt Major challenge facing learner gt Freezing the degrees of freedom Limiting movement of limbs and joints gt Gradual 39freeing of degrees of freedom gt Trail and error experimental Advance stage of learning gt Freeing of degrees of freedom optimal coordination patterns gt Synergies what combination is the best 0 Grouping of muscle joints and cells that temporary acts together 0 Results in greater coordination Expert Stage of learning Exploitation gt Internal and external forces 0 Exploitation the degrees of freedom gt Equipment and environment Instructional priorities Discovery learning learner attempts to solve the movements problem Instructor assist with discovery through manipulation 0 Optimal movement patterns do not exist adaptation Maintenance of motivation Expertise Large commitment of time and energy Sport speci c or area speci c Cannot be measured by skill performance alone Time to become an expert ten years 10000 hours Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 8 Individual Differences Oct 2022 2015 People vary in their individual characteristics and capabilities Heredity 0 Environmental experience 0 Combination of both Edward Thorndike Investigation of individual differences The concept of individual differences and traits o Traits o inherited factors 0 Stable and enduring 0 Normal distribution 0 Types of traits 0 Cognitive art music Emotional Feelings empathy Personality motivation aggression Physical height body soma type muscle composition kinesthesis handedness perceptual abilities motor abilities 000 Individual differences and motor skills oMotor abilities oStable and enduring oUnderlie or support the performance of motor skills oMotor abilities as a limiting factor oNot all abilities are equally important oPredisposed limitations on skill performance and learning oMotor abilities establish upper limits 0 Generate factors set limits for environmental factors Abilities vs skills oAbilities oGenetically determined oLimit ability to perform oSkills oDeveloped by practice oDeveloped by experience How many motor abilities are there 0 About 4050 motor abilities debatable o Underlie all human motor skills behavior 0 Fleishman s Taxonomy of motor abilities 0 Identi cation of 21 motor abilities 0 table 82 in text Theories that explain abilities General motor ability a single global ability is the basis for all motor behavior 0 Based on biology Fallacy of observed correlation the tendency to draw conclusions based only on relationships that can be readily observed Correlation The ability to measure the strength of a relationship between two things 0 Similarities between tasks 0 Scores 0 Etc r correction coef cient Range from 1 to 1 Line of best t r 90 strong positive 35 25 15 05 O 05 1 15 2 25 90 strong negative 25 15 05 O 18 2 22 24 26 28 3 32 r 0 no correlation YValues 35 25 05 1 15 2 25 Everyone is good at something 0 Nobody is poor at every motor skill 0 Alternate reasons for poor motor skill performance 0 Motivation 0 Encouragement 0 Instruction oExposing children to a variety of activities and sports
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