Review Exam 3
Review Exam 3 Psych 1301
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
In Class Notes Monday ctober 12 2015 1032 AM 0 Issues in developmental psychology 0 Nature and nurture o How do genes and experience guide development over our lifespan 0 Change and stability 0 In what ways do we change as we age and in what ways do we stay the same 0 Are there some parts of who we are that remain stable throughout development 0 Our temperament Our overall personality 0 Do some of our attributes change during development even while we maintain our sense of identity 0 Our abilities interests habits 0 Continuity vs stages 0 Is development a gradual change or are there some leaps to a new way of thinking or behaving o Is it better to think of development as a gradual progression or as steps and phases 0 The competent Newborn o Inborn skills I Reflexes are responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned I Newborns have reflexes to ensure that they will be fed 0 The rooting reflex when something touches a newborn39s cheek the infant turns toward that side with an open mouth 0 The sucking reflex can be triggered by a fingertip o Crying when hungry is the newborn talent pf using just the right sounds to motivate parents to end the Nosie and feed the baby I More inborn abilities o Newborns will look twice as long at the image on the left 0 What can we conclude from this behavior 0 Maturation o Refers to biologically driven growth and development enabling orderly predictably sequential changes in behavior I Exgt infant bodies in a sequence will lift heads then sit up then crawl and then walk 0 Experience nurture0 can adjust the timing but maturation nature sets the sequence 0 Brian development building and connecting neurons 0 In the womb the number of neurons can grow as quickly as 250000 per minute about 100 billion by the time the baby is born 0 Beginning at birth the connections among neurons grow as we learn we form more branches and more neural networks 0 Infancy the growth in neural connections take place initially in the less complex part of the brainthe brainstem and limbic system as well as the motor and sensor strips I This enables body functions and basic survival skills 0 In early childhood neural connections proliferate in the association areas cortex 0 Motor Development 0 Occurs sequentially o Physically training generally does not change the sequence 0 Baby memory 0 Infantile Amnesia I Most people cannot recall many memories from the first three years of life I A birthday party when turning three might be a person39s first memory 0 Learning skills I Infants can learn skills procedural memories I This three month old can learn and recall a month later that specific foot movements move specific mobiles 0 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget 18961980 0 We don t start out being able to think like adults 0 Jean Piaget studied the errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways they think differently than adults I Relative scale 0 Jean page and Cognitive Development 0 Schemas I An early tool to organize experiences is a schema a mental container we build to hold our experiences I Such o Assimilation and accommodation I How can this girl use her quotdogquot schema when encountering cat I She can assimilate the experiment into her schema by referring to the car as a dog I She can accommodate her animal schema by separating the cat and even different types into separate schemas o Assimilation o The schema doesn t change an object or experience is simply interpreted under the existing schema Ex Calling the cat a dog 0 Accommodation 0 The schema changes an object or experience is not interpreted well by the schema and results in an adjustment Ex Creating a new schema and results for a cat or updating the dog schema to a pet schema Marissa Hernandez at 10162015 1037 AM 0 Attachment Variation 0 Styles of dealing with separation 0 Attachment has been tested by the quotstrange situationsquot test In this test a child is observed as I A mother and infant child are alone in an unfamiliar room the child explores the room I A stranger enters the room talk to the mother and approaches the child the mother leaves the room I After a few moments the mother returns 0 Secure attachment 0 Feel distress when mother leaves and seeks contact when she returns Insecure attachment anxious Clingy to mother get loud return hast fixed the pain that you have left 0 Avoidant o Seeming indifferent to mother departure and return 0 What causes these different attachment styles nature or nature 0 Is the strange situation behavior mainly a function of the child39s in born temperament o Refers to a person39s characteristic style and intensity of emotional reactivity 0 Easy temp o Difficult temp 0 Is the behavior a reaction to the way the parents have interacted with the child previously Parenting behavior 0 Mary Ainsworth parenting has a strong impact on the attachment formed 0 Monkeys with fake mother have anxious insecure attachment 0 Training parent to be more sensitive responding led to more secure attachment 0 Deprivation of Attachment 0 If children live without safe nurturing caretaking they may still be resilient that is bounce back attach and succeed 0 Severe prolonged abuse may lead to 0 Hard time forming attachment 0 Increase anxiety and depression 0 Increase aggression 0 Children in Day Care 0 No correlation between being in day care and separation anxiety 0 Warm interactions lead to multiple healthy attachments 0 Times in day care correlates with advanced thinking skills and also with increase aggression and defiance 0 Childhood Hypothetical Parenting styles 0 Authoritarian quotToo Hardquot 0 Permissive quotToo Softquot O Authoritative quotjust Rightquot 0 Outcomes O Authoritative 0 Better outcomes thru out the lifespan
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