Exam II Study Guide
Exam II Study Guide CRM 1003
Popular in Crime and Justice in America
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRM 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Rogers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Crime and Justice in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Crime amp Justice in America EXAM STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 8 O View criminal law and criminal justice system solely as instruments for controlling the poor havenot members of society 0 Theorists I Crime as the product of law enforcement policies akin to a labeling process theory crime as a function of social demoralization I Rehashes the old tradition of helping the underdog unfairly neglects the capitalist system s efforts to regulate itself I Street criminals prey on the poor and disenfranchised thus making the poor doubly abused first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class I Views gender inequality as stemming from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society which leads to exploitation of women by fathers and husbands I Crime and delinquency rates are a function of two factors power class position and control family functions I A system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line I All humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status 0 A nonviolent movement against oppression social injustice and violence as found within criminology criminal justice and society in general 0 The main purpose of criminology is to promote a peaceful just society 0 State punishment and control viewed as crimeencouraging O Advocate such policies as mediation and con ict resolution I A system of criminal justice that focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community at large 0 Challenges I Is it a political movement or treatment process I Have to be wary of the cultural and social differences that can be found in our heterogeneous society I There is no single definition of what constitutes restorative justice I Benefits may only be short term 0 Goals I Recognize harm and accept responsibility I Healing instead of retribution and revenge I Reconciliation I Effectiveness due to stake in the community 0 View on Punishment I Informal social control Crime amp Justice in America EXAM STUDY GUIDE I Disapproval is extended to the offenders evil deeds while at the same time they are cast as respected people who can reaccepted by society White racism increases with the competition posed by a greater proportion of African Americans in a community CHAPTER 9 In general life course theories interconnect personal factors social factors socialization factors cognitive factors and situational factors 0 Sampson and Laub 0 Individual traits and childhood experiences are important 0 Experiences can redirect criminal transitions 0 inequality is not a static outcome but rather is a cumulative process that unfolds over the life course 0 Positive experiences 0 involves a particular event experience or awareness that results in changes in the direction of a pathway or persistent trajectory over the longterm I Marriage and Career Propensity to commit crime is linked to lack of selfcontrol immediate shortterm gratification O Gottfredson and Hirschi 0 Poor selfcontrol is due to poor childrearing practices 0 Criminal propensity and criminal opportunity must be considered to explain criminal participation O The first and earliest pathway begins with stubborn behavior followed by defiance such as refusal and disobedience followed by authority avoidance such as truancy and running away from home 0 This pathway starts with minor covert behaviors such as lying and shoplifting followed by property damage including vandalism and later by more serious forms of property crimes such as burglary O Mostly aggressive acts make up the third pathway it starts with minor aggression such as annoying others and bullying followed by physical fighting including gang fighting and then by violence such as attacking someone and rape A view of criminology behavior that places emphasis on the changes people go through over the life course 0 Hans Eysenek Crime and Personality 1964 O The Gluecks Family Relations 1930s 0 Sampson and Laub Extension of the Gluecks Studies 1990s Theoretical Views studying changes in criminal offending patterns over a person39s entire life 0 Crime is a type of social problem rather than the product of other social problems these social problems cluster together and usually include Crime amp Justice in America EXAM STUDY GUIDE I Family dysfunction I Sexual and physical abuse I Substance abuse I Early pregnancy I Education underachievement I Unemployment 0 Age of Onset I Persistence and desistance I Gender and desistance 0 Life Course Fundamentals I Even as toddler s people begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their adult life course I Learn to transition these are sometimes interrupted I Criminality cannot be attributed to a single cause people are in uenced by different factors as they mature I Human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth this master trait directs behavior and shapes life events 0 Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990s L typical teenagers who get into minor trouble reduce frequency of offending as they mature to around age 18 0 begin offending at early age and continue well into adulthood individual traits rather than environment seem to have the greatest in uence on the life course persistence CHAPTER 10 0 forcible sexual intercourse by a male acquaintance of a woman during a voluntary social engagement in which the woman did not intend to submit to the sexual advances and resisted the acts by verbal refusals O orcible sexual intercourse with a spouse 0 sexual intercourse with someone below the age of consent which varies from state to state 0 Rape which occurs during commission of specified crimes such as assault and battery by means of dangerous weapon constitutes aggravated rape 0 Mental Impairment 0 Educational Dysfunction O Overwhelmingly Male Crime amp Justice in America EXAM STUDY GUIDE 0 When the subject is forced into subjugations by a member of their primary group O The subject reinforces their warlike attitude to the situation by taking personal responsibility for stopping the brutalization continuing to act out because of this 0 Continues to act out violently and get confidence by acting this way and builds to selfesteem feeling as if they have a knack for it and they incorporate it into their daily activities 0 This is known as the need to Show o stage they feel as if they can move onto bigger and better things A good example of this is Li l Dice from City of God 0 Emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence The unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another The crime of killing a human being without malice aforethought or otherwise in circumstances not amounting to murder 0 When committed by accident and misfortune in doing any lawful act by lawful means with usual ordinary caution and without any unlawful intent or by accident and misfortune in the heat of passion 0 The killing of a person in circumstances that allow the act to be regarded in law as without criminal guilt The conscious or reckless disregard of the consequences of one39s acts or omissions It entails something more than negligence but is satisfied by something less than acts or omissions for the very purpose of causing harm or with knowledge that harm will result O An unlawful killing that is both willful and premeditated meaning that it was committed after planning or quotlying in waitquot for the victim 0 An intentional killing that is not premeditated or planned nor committed in a reasonable quotheat of passionquot or a killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender39s obvious lack of concern for human life 0 Applies when someone commits a certain kind of felony and someone else dies in the course of it 0 Physical maltreatment or sexual molestation of a child 0 Any knowing intentional or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable adult 0 A crime motivated by racial sexual or other prejudice typically one involving violence Crime amp Justice in America EXAM STUDY GUIDE
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