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Sociology Exam 2

by: Jade Frederickson

Sociology Exam 2 Sociology 20213

Jade Frederickson
GPA 4.0

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review of chapters 5-7
Introductory Sociology
Dr. Hampton
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jade Frederickson on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Hampton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.

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Date Created: 03/24/16
SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 REVIEW Chapter 5 1. SOCIALIZATION is the process in which an individual learns what is expected of  him/her as a single person and as a part of society. It is also learning how to perceive the  world, how to behave in the world and how to develop an identity in the world. a. The process is carried out by agents of socialization, such as friends, families,  teachers, etc., who influence our self­concept, values, emotions and tastes. 2. Our social identity is thus influenced by social class, gender and race, all of which impact future opportunities and access to things later in life. 3. The relationship between social class and socialization: a. In 1979, MELVIN KOHN interviewed 200 working class and 200 middle class  couples who had at least one child of fifth­grade age.  b. Children of WORKING CLASS (hourly jobs) couples tended to promote  conformity to external authority, neatness and cleanliness, and following the  rules. i. Money matters; success comes from conforming to authority c. Children of MIDDLE CLASS couples tended to promote values such as  independence, self­direction and curiosity. They also promoted organized leisure  experiences and experiences that require logical reasoning. i. Education matters; success comes from initiative and assertiveness d. Parents’ social class (usually) determines a child’s aspirations. 4. The relationship between gender and socialization: a. SEX is one’s anatomical or biological male or femaleness. b. GENDER is a designation of masculinity or femininity; the psychological, social  and cultural values that identify as male or female. c. This process begins as soon as a child is born ­ in the hospital, blue blankets are  given to male children and pink blankets given to female children. i. Children tend to learn very early on (age 3) the differences between a boy  and a girl due to various activities they partake in or due to parents  reactions of their everyday actions. ii. Mothers tend to worry about safety issues and injuries with their daughters and disciplinary issues with their sons. iii. Mothers are more emotionally responsive to girls and encourage  independence with boys. Fathers encourage physical activity with their  sons. iv. As children grow older, more GENDER­TYPED ACTIVITIES are  encouraged: boys mow the lawn, shovel snow, take out the trash and do  yard work; girls will clean house, cook dinner, wash dishes and babysit  younger siblings. v. Parents also encourage gender socialization in the clothes, toys and books  they provide for their children. 5. The relationship between race/ethnicity and socialization: a. White children, as far as their social identity is concerned, usually learn about  how to handle the privileges associated with being white in a predominantly white society. i. “You can be anything you want to be” b. Children who are part of an ethno racial minority are given information about the  mainstream culture and then are instructed as to how their skin tone may or may  not affect the way they are treated in society. i. You may be neglected, mistreated or judged. ii. Conversations also include how to respond to the law enforcement  agencies. iii. Hard work alone may not get them where they deserve or where they  expected to be. c. Messages really are tailored to color 6. Social institutions as part of the socialization process: a. Education usually involves a TRACKING system in which students are placed  into groups based on their perceived ability i. The supposed purpose of this is to increase effectiveness and efficiency of  instruction ii. Those placed in the lower level tracks usually stay in the lower level  tracks 1. Consists of working class background students, or those of a racial  minority iii. Those placed on the higher, college tracks come from a middle class or  upper class backgrounds 1. Parents will be able to pay the school for all of the help they gave  their child iv. Tracking serves to increase social stratification and as a result, the  achievement and social gap grows v. Lack of equity (equal opportunity) vi. Violation of democratic values vii. Produces low self­conceptions of learning viii. Devaluing of self by those placed in lower tracks b. Religion develops a person in that it helps people formulate ideas about right and  wrong, gives people something bigger to believe in, and helps us form  connections and relationships. c. Mass Media involves newspapers, radio, magazines, television, etc. which teach  us about gender roles, and tell us what our social lives, values and trends should  be. Chapter 6 7. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT is the process by which people attempt to present  themselves in a favorable public image.  a. When we first meet someone, we form impressions of them based on age, race,  sex, nonverbal/verbal cues and physical cues. b. How we present ourselves to others in this initial “impression formation” is up to  us. 8. ERVING GOFFMAN (’59) portrays life as a series of social interactions in which a  person is motivated to sell a particular image to others. If we project the right image to  others, it will hopefully increase the likelihood of obtaining favorable outcomes from  others in social situations. a. This concept is known as DRAMATURGY: we are all like actors on a stage  putting on a theatrical performance. b. The goal of this is to put on an acceptable performance so that we can project the  image that we want to project. c. This is done by careful management of the FRONT AND BACK STAGE. i. Front stage is where people maintain appropriate appearance as they  interact with others (such as the front of a restaurant) ii. Back stage is where people can knowingly violate their impression  management performances (such as the back of a restaurant where there is  shouting or pushing). iii. PROPS, or objects that help convey identity, can also be used (such as  disposing of unwanted items when parents come to visit the college dorm). d. When we mishandle props, or violate the front/back stage, IDENTITES ARE  SPOILED. Impression management has failed. i. The credibility of an identity is ruined. ii. Order is disrupted and can be embarrassing to all involved. iii. Aligning actions, such as giving an account or making a disclaimer, need  to be taken in order to restore an identity. e. Stigmas also make it hard to reconcile or reform someone’s opinion of another  person. They come in three forms: i. Defects of the body (such as being overweight, unattractive, having a scar, having a tattoo) 1. Society has the “perfect” image of someone in the mind due to  Hollywood and the media ii. Defects of character iii. Membership in a devalued group Chapter 7 9. Group 1: Family Life a. Over time, the family has moved away from agricultural societies to ones more  focused on making money outside the home. The schools, instead of the families,  have also taken over educating children. This happened because economic  production moved from the home to the factory, as well as the fact that the harsh  realities of life became too difficult to shield from children. b. In 1900, many mothers were expected to work outside of the home. For white  mothers, this usually consisted of teaching or nursing, however, their income was  not expected to solely provide for the family. For poor white women, long, hard  hours were usually spent in the factories. For black women, working was almost a necessity, more often than not as a household slave. c. The US has not really had any trend of extended families living in the same  household because most people didn’t live long enough to see their grandchildren. Large families were really due to servants, apprentices, visitors or borders, and  because servants don’t really exist today, this has led to some decline in  household size. As well, more young people are living away from the home. 10. Group 2: Cultural Variation in Intimacy and Family a. In the US, monogamy is considered to be the cultural standard for which all other  relationships are judged. A marriage between one man and one woman is the only legally recognized and endorsed one by the IRS.  b. According the US Bureau of Census, a family consists of “two or more persons  who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption and who live together as one  household.” A household is composed of one or more people who occupy the  same housing unit. 11. Group 3: Family and Social Structure a. The text defines family as anyone who has a significant degree of emotional  closeness and sharing, even if they are not related. Law, however, states that  families are composed of marriage relationships. There are also cultural (and  legal) values about endogamy and exogamy. b. The Family and Medical Leave Act states that people are allowed to take a leave  of absence during pregnancy or in illness or injury for up to 12 weeks. This law  helps families take time off to care for new children, but doesn’t always allow  paid leave. It also makes no room for military service members. 12. Group 4: Social Diversity and Intimate Choices a. Exogamy is marriage outside of one’s social group, particularly direct family  members, otherwise it is considered incest. Endogamy is marriage inside a certain group, such as religion, ethnicity or social class. b. Social class is an important factor when it comes to who we marry because  individuals of the same social class tend to participate in similar activities, go to  the same schools, or live in the same type of neighborhoods. Marrying outside our social class could lead to unwanted tension and financial strain. 13. Group 5: Family Challenges a. Divorce has become much more acceptable in society nowadays, particularly  because it is so easy to achieve. It used to require that one spouse had committed  some type of transgression, but now it can simply be because the marriage doesn’t make people happy. It is also easier to obtain divorce because now women who  were previously under control of their husbands are more financially independent  and able to actually get a divorce without fear of starving to death. 14. Group 6: Family Violence a. Marriage has supposedly been deinstitutionalized because of 1. Changing division of labor and increased childbirth out of marriage, 2. Growth of cohabitation is  now more common (step families form without a remarriage), and 3. Movement  to legalize same­sex marriage. b. Marriage could continue to become deinstitutionalized and lean more towards  cohabitation, could fade away completely into another type of interpersonal  relationship, or become dominant and institutionalized once again. Readings 15. Reading would most likely suffice for reviewing, but otherwise, lecture notes and reading notes can be found under my profile on study soup


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