MNGT4400Exam2StudyGuide MNGT 4400
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Peyton Oglesby on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MNGT 4400 at Auburn University taught by Lucian Bifano in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Organizational Change in Business, management at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Exam 2 Study Guide MNGT 4400 Groupthink Drivers: o High group cohesiveness o Strong desire to maintain membership in the group o Premature striving for agreement on decisions Symptoms o Overestimation of the group Illusion of invulnerability Belief in the morality of the group o Closed mindedness Shared rationalization Stereotypes o Pressures toward uniformity Self-censorship Direct pressure Mind guarding Illusion of unanimity Problem Symptoms 1. Illusion on invulnerability 2. Inherent of morality of the group 3. Rationalization 4. Stereotypes of outsiders 5. Self-censorship 6. Direct pressure 7. Mind guards 8. Illusion of unanimity Problem causes Faulty group process Heuristics (problem-solving by trial & error) o Availability-committing info to memory o Representativeness- collecting, organizing, and analyzing data that doesn’t accurately reflect the current state o Anchoring-focus on a particular item Recommendations 1. Foster an open climate 2. Avoid sequestering the group from outside criticism 3. Assign everybody the role of “critical evaluator” 4. Avoid being too directive or exerting undue influence upon the group Visual representations can often allow faster and more accurate communication of key facts. Root cause analysis Things happen for a reason Not all causes are of equal importance If we understand root causes, particularly the important ones, and deal with them, we can get the outcomes we desire. 5 Whys “there is nothing magical about asking why 5 times, but in many cases it will get you to root cause” Advantages o Easy to teach o Easy to use o Introduces people to structured problem solving methods o Prevents “Band-Aid” solutions Drawbacks o Not repeatable o Not always data driven o Results can be easily biased o It doesn’t account for multiple causes Transforming Organizations-Why Firms Fail Lack of commitment Failure to shepherd the change from diagnosis through institutionalization Neglect “Program of the month” Common Errors 1. Allowing too much complacency 2. Failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition 3. Underestimating the power of vision 4. Under-communicating the vision by a factor of 10, 100 or 1,000 5. Permitting obstacles to block the new vision 6. Failing to create short term wins 7. Declaring victory too soon 8. Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture Consequences 1. Reengineering takes too long and costs too much 2. Changes don’t deliver expected results “Communicating in a clear and understandable fashion is challenging- especially across multiple languages, time zones, geographies and cultures.” A framework for bridging social distances The problem When teams consist of people from different cultures working apart from one another in different locations, social distance – or a lack of emotional connection – can cause miscommunications, misunderstanding, and distrust The Solution Identify and address five sources of social distance: structure, process, language, identity and technology The 6 drivers of Credibility 1. Discovering and knowing yourself – clarifying your values 2. Appreciating and valuing others – listening and appreciating diversity 3. Affirming shared values – finding common ground and creating community 4. Developing capacity – educating and creating a climate for learning 5. Being a role model – leading by example 6. Sustaining hope – finding a will and a way, giving and getting support Credibility: Change Agent Attributes Perceived by others as o Honest o Competent o Forward looking o Inspiring New Era Apparel Case Study Question of Character Review the discussion of these questions: 1. What are the key issues? 2. What risks and exposures exist for New Era Apparel? 3. What are the questions and positions you would expect different members of the board of directors to take? 4. What position would you take if you were a member of the board? 5. What risks and exposures exist for the members of the board? 6. Would you expect directors and officers insurance to indemnify the board members if there was a legal claim against Pleasanton and NEA? 7. What actions would you recommend if you were a member of NEA’s board? Kotter’s 8 Steps 1. Establish a sense of urgency 2. Create the guiding coalition Create a climate for change 3. Develop a change vision 4. Communicate the vision for Engage and enable the whole buy-in organization 5. Empower broad-based action 6. Generate short-term wins 7. Never let up Implement and sustain change 8. Incorporate change into the culture Review the discussion about how a change leader might use the 5-Step Sentiment Framework along with Kotter’s process for leading change Employee Perspective Step 1-Step 5 1. Discrepancy – there is a deviation from desired performance 2. Appropriateness – the proposed change will address the discrepancy 3. Efficacy – it is possible to successfully implement the change 4. Principal Support – there is leadership support for the change 5. Valence – the perceived personal benefit or loss from the change is understood The view of Yahoo! In 2012 when Marissa Mayer left Google and took over as CEO: Viewed by many in the industry as a company in decline since its stock price peak in 2000 … Arrogant and undisciplined Having made a huge mistake in not accepting Microsoft’s acquisition offer A company with the absence of accountability Lacking strategic focus Having an insane organizational structure Being over-reliant on revenues from failing dot-coms Criticisms of Mayer’s leadership A tendency to micromanage Tone-deaf communications Ending the company’s liberal work-at-home policy as she built an in- office nursery for her own newborn Habitual tardiness Stack ranking (forced performance ranking skews) Another Point-of-View Mayer brought unprecedented transparency to Yahoo She was right to cut back on telecommuting because an organization going through a reset requires much more face time from its employees The business she’s built or acquired are making money The company appears to be back on track for growth this year Organizational Change at IGM Gerstner sets five ninety-day priorities in his first meeting 1. Stop hemorrhaging cash 2. Make sure IBM will be profitable in 1994 to send a message to the world – and the IBM workforce – that the senior team had stabilized the company 3. Develop and implement a key customer strategy for 1993 and 1994 – one that will convince customers that IBM was back serving their interests, not just pushing “iron” down their throats to ease IBM’s short term financial pressure 4. Finish right-sizing by the beginning of the third quarter 5. Develop an intermediate-term business strategy … Then he asks each business unit leader for a 10pg report Product line Economics Long and short term key issues Customer needs Technical outlook Competitive analysis 1993-1994 outlook …Then he asks each one to describe their view of IBM as a whole What short-term steps could IBM take to get aggressive on o Sales o Customer relationships o Competitive attacks What should IBM be thinking about in its long-term and short term business strategies ...Finally he tells everyone to go out & manage the company Help “me” establish a travel schedule that will take me to customers & employees very early Let me know the meetings your are scheduled to hold over the next few weeks & recommend whether I should attend or not Don’t talk to the press about IBM’s problems One of Palmisano’s key focus items is operating earnings per share growth For the first time in IBM’s history, Palmisano tells investors IBM’s earnings per share growth objective and underlying plans for the period 2005 to 2010 Some of his priorities are: Growing value-add, high-margin segments of IBM Exiting low-margin commodity businesses Growth markets Global services An industry competitive expense structure Software Achieving the 2010 earnings per share roadmap Rometty’s opinion about priorities in IBM’s 2014 annual report IBM’s priorities are … o Remaking enterprise IT for the era of the cloud o Helping transform industries and professions with big data and analytics o Reimagining work by helping clients build systems of engagement underpinned by the imperative of security o Continuing to move to higher value o Addressing significant challenges in some of IBM’s businesses, principally hardware
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