×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Tulane - CHEM 2410 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Tulane - CHEM 2410 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

TULANE / Chemistry / CHEM 2410 / It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry 1
Professor: Carol zhang
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Orgo
Description: Notes from all of chapters 6, 7 and 8! Happy studying :)
Uploaded: 10/24/2015
51 Pages 36 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_onsel0tndql7-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sv42xi2tl27o-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q23sn23wagja-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pv4qms5ngykw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k2imadtt1gsb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_slexh9f7ywjf-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_lwv0r781nj8n-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_i28b5s6bb0j2-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_xfw0ly6lqgoh-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vm2lwh67vgic-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_1v6t0y6f9xvj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hz7td2mmvd5q-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_udxv4blwosin-4{list-style-type:none}

CHAPTER 6: CHEMICAL REACTIVITY AND MECHANISMSWe also discuss several other topics like In 2012, how many billions did tourists spend?

  • Gibbs free energy (Δ G o)
  • Δ G o = Δ H o - T (Δ S o)
  • Δ H o: enthalpy; Δ S o: entropy
  • Δ G o = -R(T)ln K eq

  • Δ H o= ∑ D bond breaking + ∑ D bond formation
  • ∑: summation
  • D: bond dissociation
  • D bond breaking: D is positive (for breaking) (because need energy to break)
  • D bond formation: this D (of formation) is negative. (energy release)

  • If we break weaker, form stronger, Δ H o is negative
  • If we break stronger, form weaker, Δ H o is positive.
  • Larger number ⇒ stronger bond
  • If K eq > 1 ⇒ Δ G o is negative (products favored)
  • If K eq < 1 ⇒ Δ G o is positive (reactants favored)
  • For most reactions, Δ G o carries the same sign as Δ H o 
  • Δ S o =entropy (disorderliness)

Don't forget about the age old question of It is a type of phonetics that study of the perception of speech sounds, what is it?

  • Elimination reaction
  • One molecule → two molecules
  • More disorderly: Δ S is positive (S increases)

  • Addition Reaction
  • 2 mol → 1 mol
  • Less disorder: Δ S is negative (S decreases)

If you want to learn more check out In what year did the tomb of mural paintings from the ozuka tumulus accidentally discovered?

  • -Δ G o → negative → exergonic → product more stable
  • +Δ G o → positive → endergonic → reactants more stable
  • System: Reactants and Products
  •  reaction in progress
  • Δ G o= net charge between reactants and products
  • Energy released into the environment (with - Δ G o)
  • Δ H o= (+) ∑ D bond breaking + (-) ∑ D bond formation
  • Δ H o⇒ endothermic
  • Δ H o⇒ exothermic
  • Δ G o usually has the same sign as Δ H o (not always)

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a density curve?

  • Example:

  • Δ S is positive (more disordered because forms more molecules)
  • Addition Reaction:

        

  • Δ S is negative (went from 2 mol → 1 mol)
  • Less disorderly

Δ G

Δ H

Δ S

-

-

+

+ or -
(depends on T)

-

-

+ or -
(depends on T)

+

+

+

+

-

If you want to learn more check out Who is harold innis?

  • NO (Δ) Change in S → basically created the same products

  • Substitution Reaction (Cl and OH simply switch)

We also discuss several other topics like What are the weather symbols in the surface analysis chart?

  • Less freedom --(heat)→ more freedom
  •  Δ S is positive
  • System is more disordered because more freedom within bonds
  • Fast vs. Slow Reactions
  • 1st Graph: FASTER; smaller E a (activation energy)
  • Rate of reaction = k[reactants]; k = reaction constant (determined by system or structure)
  • Rate faster with a higher concentration
  • To speed up reaction: reaction correct solvent to raise ground state energy of reactants
  • Lower energy of transition state


  • Will not occur if it is already in the tertiary unless it is producing resonance-stabilized carbocation (allylic carbocation)

Chapter 6: Class Notes                                                                10/09/15

 e- in orbital overlap stabilizes → hyperconjugation

  • Conjugation: continuous overlap of p orbitals

  • Hyperconjugation: stabilizing effect from “filled” G bond

  • Example, which is more stable?

  •  (more stable because of resonance)
  • Which C intermediate is more stable?
  •  Benzylic carbon is more stable than allylic.


CHAPTER 6

6.1.

  • Enthalpy- exchange of energy

  • At constant p, Δ H= q
  • q = heat
  • Change of kinetic energy

  • Δ H= amount of energy to break bond homolytically
  • Makes 2 uncharged radicals (with unpaired)

  • Homolytic
  • Heterolytic
  • Δ H o = total heat of reaction
  • +/positive= endothermic
  • -/negative= exothermic

6.2.

  • Entropy measure of disorder
  • +/positive is spontaneous (higher S is favored)
  • To increase entropy:
  • More molecules
  • More freedom of motion
  • More possible states

6.3. Gibbs Free Energy

  • Δ G = Δ H - T<Δ S
  • +/positive Δ G= endergonic
  • -/negative Δ G= exergonic

6.4. Equilibria

  • A + B ⇌ C + D
Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here