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TULANE / Chemistry / CHEM 2410 / It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

It is a study of how energy distributed under influence of entropy, wh

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry I
Professor: Carol zhang
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Orgo
Description: Notes from all of chapters 6, 7 and 8! Happy studying :)
Uploaded: 10/24/2015
51 Pages 112 Views 3 Unlocks
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CHAPTER 6: CHEMICAL REACTIVITY AND MECHANISMSWe also discuss several other topics like In recognizing native hawaiians, what happened during 1894?

  • Gibbs free energy (Δ G o)
  • Δ G o = Δ H o - T (Δ S o)
  • Δ H o: enthalpy; Δ S o: entropy
  • Δ G o = -R(T)ln K eq

  • Δ H o= ∑ D bond breaking + ∑ D bond formation
  • ∑: summation
  • D: bond dissociation
  • D bond breaking: D is positive (for breaking) (because need energy to break)
  • D bond formation: this D (of formation) is negative. (energy release)

  • If we break weaker, form stronger, Δ H o is negative
  • If we break stronger, form weaker, Δ H o is positive.
  • Larger number ⇒ stronger bond
  • If K eq > 1 ⇒ Δ G o is negative (products favored)
  • If K eq < 1 ⇒ Δ G o is positive (reactants favored)
  • For most reactions, Δ G o carries the same sign as Δ H o 
  • Δ S o =entropy (disorderliness)

We also discuss several other topics like What is phonotactic constraints?

  • Elimination reaction
  • One molecule → two molecules
  • More disorderly: Δ S is positive (S increases)

  • Addition Reaction
  • 2 mol → 1 mol
  • Less disorder: Δ S is negative (S decreases)

Don't forget about the age old question of In what year did the tomb of mural paintings from the ozuka tumulus accidentally discovered?

  • -Δ G o → negative → exergonic → product more stable
  • +Δ G o → positive → endergonic → reactants more stable
  • System: Reactants and Products
  •  reaction in progress
  • Δ G o= net charge between reactants and products
  • Energy released into the environment (with - Δ G o)
  • Δ H o= (+) ∑ D bond breaking + (-) ∑ D bond formation
  • Δ H o⇒ endothermic
  • Δ H o⇒ exothermic
  • Δ G o usually has the same sign as Δ H o (not always)

If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between population distribution and sampling distribution?
If you want to learn more check out What new media object can be transcoded into different formats?
If you want to learn more check out What are the weather symbols in the surface analysis chart?

  • Example:

  • Δ S is positive (more disordered because forms more molecules)
  • Addition Reaction:

        

  • Δ S is negative (went from 2 mol → 1 mol)
  • Less disorderly

Δ G

Δ H

Δ S

-

-

+

+ or -
(depends on T)

-

-

+ or -
(depends on T)

+

+

+

+

-

  • NO (Δ) Change in S → basically created the same products

  • Substitution Reaction (Cl and OH simply switch)

  • Less freedom --(heat)→ more freedom
  •  Δ S is positive
  • System is more disordered because more freedom within bonds
  • Fast vs. Slow Reactions
  • 1st Graph: FASTER; smaller E a (activation energy)
  • Rate of reaction = k[reactants]; k = reaction constant (determined by system or structure)
  • Rate faster with a higher concentration
  • To speed up reaction: reaction correct solvent to raise ground state energy of reactants
  • Lower energy of transition state


  • Will not occur if it is already in the tertiary unless it is producing resonance-stabilized carbocation (allylic carbocation)

Chapter 6: Class Notes                                                                10/09/15

 e- in orbital overlap stabilizes → hyperconjugation

  • Conjugation: continuous overlap of p orbitals

  • Hyperconjugation: stabilizing effect from “filled” G bond

  • Example, which is more stable?

  •  (more stable because of resonance)
  • Which C intermediate is more stable?
  •  Benzylic carbon is more stable than allylic.


CHAPTER 6

6.1.

  • Enthalpy- exchange of energy

  • At constant p, Δ H= q
  • q = heat
  • Change of kinetic energy

  • Δ H= amount of energy to break bond homolytically
  • Makes 2 uncharged radicals (with unpaired)

  • Homolytic
  • Heterolytic
  • Δ H o = total heat of reaction
  • +/positive= endothermic
  • -/negative= exothermic

6.2.

  • Entropy measure of disorder
  • +/positive is spontaneous (higher S is favored)
  • To increase entropy:
  • More molecules
  • More freedom of motion
  • More possible states

6.3. Gibbs Free Energy

  • Δ G = Δ H - T<Δ S
  • +/positive Δ G= endergonic
  • -/negative Δ G= exergonic

6.4. Equilibria

  • A + B ⇌ C + D
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