Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide SPPA 215
Popular in LANGUAGE DEVELOPMNT IN CHILDRN
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Schurott on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPPA 215 at Towson University taught by Kaitlyn P. Wilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see LANGUAGE DEVELOPMNT IN CHILDRN in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 Know True word vs PCF when given examples Chapter 6 Language Learning and Teaching Processes and Young Children 0 Cognition and language develop in parallel 0 Word acquisition 0 Eventbased knowledge I Sequences of events that are temporal used to form scripts o Taxonomic knowledge I Categories and classes of words things I eat food 0 Relationship between language and play I No words blocks I Signal dolls I Combining words play sequences I Limited working memoryattention advt for early lang learning 0 Comprehension and Production early vs late I Consider first 50 words understand 50 produce 10 I Context clues word order 9morphology Child Learning Strategies Toddlers and Preschoolers 0 Fastmapping 0 Gather info from thousands of words and quickly label a new word 0 Word Learning Strategies be able to identify if given an example 0 Reference Principle I Word stands for something ex cup 0 Extendability Principle I Assumed similarity between l reference ex my cupmoms cup 0 Whole Object Principle I Label refers to whole entity ex doggie refers to dog 0 Comprehension Strategies be able to identify given an example 0 Categorical Assumption I Extension of a label to related entities ex cups hold all liquids 0 Novel Namenameless Assumption I New word linked to previously unnamed referent ex parents point 0 Conventionality Assumption I Expectation that meanings stay consistent ex car is always called car 0 Expressive Language Strategies 0 Evocative Utterances I Child names something adult gives feedback 0 Hypothesis Testing I Child uses rising intonation to confirm meaning 0 Interrogative Utterances I Child will ask what an unnamed entity is includes pointing o Selective Imitation I Slightly more mature than child s productions 0 Bootstrapping 0 Ability to use what they know to figure out what they don t know Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 Children s Processes of Language Acquisition o Intention Reading I Attempting to comprehend communicative intention of an utterance Role of Production 3 basic options 0 Retrieve and repeat 0 Retrieve and tweak to fit 0 Produce something unique by combining word and phrase schemes Caregiver Teaching Techniques 0 Parents aid acquisition by modeling cueing prompting and responding I Prompting and cueingknow caregiver behavior that requires a toddler s response 0 Fillins o Elicited imitations 0 Questions I Later caregiver teaching strategies 0 Adult reformulates child s utterance into what adult thinks child meant 0 Tumabouts Fills adult s turn and then requires a turn by the child I Caregiver responding behaviors be able to apply 0 Expansion 0 Maintain child s word order while providing more mature form of utterance 0 Extension 0 A comment or reply to a child s utterance Relationship between language development and play 0 sequences in play syntactic complexity of language higher play higher lang Differences in children and mothers 0 Child differences I Intellect personality learning style 0 Cultural and social differences I Rolestatus of children I Social organization of caregiving I Folk beliefs about how children learn language 0 What are the most important traits of mothers across cultures and social groups when it comes to helping their children learn language I Sensitivity I Responsivity I Quality of home environment Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 Chapter 7 Toddler Language Development 0 Language growth after 1St year what happens at what rate how are gestures used now do they continue to use preword language forms 0 Learning to walk become independent interest in object functions parallel play 0 Words appear gradually o Convey what gestures did 0 Gestures coordinated with words pointing throwing o Triadic gaze more common w gestures now 0 First words and gestures 0 Types of gestures I Deictic gestures pointing and reaching I Iconic gestures Depicting or acting things out o Pragmatic FunctionsEarly Intentions identify these if given an utterance example 0 Control demands requests Representational discuss things or events Expressive during play to exclaim Social greetings farewells Tutorial practice w language forms 0 Procedural directing attention asking for clarification 0 First word sound structures What type of consonants are most common 0 Initially consists of single word utterances 12 syllables 0 Variations of pronunciation o Syllable constructionVCCVCVCV final consonant may be deleted 0 Initial lexiconvocab first 50 words 0 What words are most common least common etc I Nouns milk dog I Action words up give Modifiers mine dirty I Social no please I Functional this for 0 Know about noun lovers and noun leavers and what their word acquisition processes look like I Noun lovers high proportion of nouns in vocab tend to exhibit rapid increase in of words in lexicons I Noun leavers show greater balance between nouns and other words have more gradual increase in word acquisition 0 Forming concepts 0 Up to 18 months mutual exclusivity what is this I If words means X it can t mean Y or Z 0 Concept Formation Hypotheses o Semanticfeature hypothesis establish meaning through perceptual attributes consistent physical features I Child establishes meaning through static perceptual attributes 0 Shape movement size sound 0 O O O Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 o Functionalcore hypothesis I meaning of a word lies in its use or function I Motion features are most important 0 Refining Meaning extensions be able to identify from examples 0 Underextensions I Overly restricted meanings 0 Sally uses word up only when she sees her Winnie the Pooh cup 0 Overextensions I Meanins that are too broad 0 Noah calls all men daddy 0 Word Combination types 0 Word combinations I Two equivalent words with little intonation o Pivotschemas I more want look I Fill in slot with noveldifferent words 0 Itembased constructions I Follow word order rules No juice vs juice no I Morphological markers used plural verb tense 0 Necessary cognitive skills for word combinations 0 Plan multistep procedure I Play w shape sorter 0 Form abstractions across items I Push ball Push car 0 Create itembased constructions I Build the blocks crash with cars Phonological Development and rst words 0 Auditory Maps phoneme sound learning pattern 0 In uenced by what Know and apply concepts I Frequency of word 0 Occur more learned faster I Neighborhood density 0 How many other words differ by only 1 phoneme I Phonotactic probability 0 Likelihood of a sound sequence 0 Common phonological processes for toddlers understand and apply these 0 Reduplication can t pronounce both syllables I Water wawa o Assimilation changes consonants to matchc 39 D0gg0g o CVCV construction add V to make CVCV I Horse horsie 0 Open Syllables make syllableswords end in vowel I Teddybearteddyba o Cluster Reduction reduction of consonant clusters to one consonant I Spoon poon Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 0 What has a negative impact on language development 0 Ear infections 0 Too much TV 0 Delays or disabilities 0 Bilingualism 0 About 20 of US population 0 Impact on language development related to I Age learning each language I Community support for languages I Individual factors Chapter 8 Preschool Language Development 0 Pragmatic development 0 Child can learn language in context 0 Can start to talk about things that are not present past future hypothetical o Monologues what of utterances do these account for in 4 year olds 0 Talking to oneself I First when others are nearby I Then share topics with a listener 0 Account for 2030 of utterances at age 4 years old 0 Outloud monologues decline inaudible ones increase Conversational skills 0 Adapting to partners 0 Adapt to listener 0 Use elliptical responses know what these are and be able to identify an example I Omit redundant information 0 Assuming roles 0 Use of registers know and apply I Ex motherese I Age 4 Pitch and loudness are first variations seen 0 Topic maintenance abilities 0 Topics I Introduce name provide cohesion in conversation o Shading I Altering focus on topic 0 Maturing presuppositional skills what is this 0 Making assumptions about listener s background knowledge on topic amp adapting o Deictic terms what are these what does this mean 0 Used to direct attention make spatial contrasts I Ex herethere thisthat personal pronouns 0 Preschool intentions know about these and apply to examples and understand how they change over time 0 Control and representation I 70 of utterances in preschool years 0 Representational utterances shift from 0 Naming to statements questions and answers Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 0 Control Utterances become more diverse I Permission intention suggestion indirect request prohibition 0 Narratives what are these 0 Uninterrupted stream of language intended to hold a listener s attention and interest 0 Narrative levels apply and know stages of development I Centering 0 Story focuses on highlights of a topic 0 Very little plot lacks beginning middle and end 0 No concept of time I Chaining 0 Sequence of events that share attributes 0 Move directly from one event to another 0 Temporal chains I Sequencing but no plot and no cause and effect 0 Causal Chains I Sequencing with cause and effect and plot 0 Advanced Theory of Mind and narratives o Skill emerges about 4 years of age 0 Evidenced by inclusion of emotions for characters in stories 0 Better ToM better at presenting clear info and repairing breakdowns 0 Semantic Development 0 How many words do 3 year olds and 5 year olds have in their vocabularieslexicons I 3 year olds 900l000 words I 5 year olds 2200 words I Average child adds 5 new words each day from 18 mos6years 0 As vocab grows how do children develop organizational systems I Need a better organizational system I Need to understand how words are related to each other 0 Word Associations 0 Stopgo 0 Red white and blue 0 Words from similar contexts 0 Spoon bowl cup 0 Teacher circle time play 0 Relational Terms know what comes in what order in each of the categories and know what they mean I Interrogatives 0 Understand what is being asked before they can answer I Temporal 0 Word order word duration words of simultaneity I Physical 0 First learn opposites then acquire meanings Exam 2 Review Sheet SPPA 215 Fall 2015 I Locational 0 Under on in 9 next to 9 behind in back of in front of above I Kinship terms 0 Minimal understanding mommydaddy then brothersister Chapter 9 Preschool Language Development of Form 0 MLU what is it limitations 0 Mean length utterance 0 Measured in morphemes 0 Limitations I Rough estimate I No sentence complexity I Only accurate for English I Only applicable for up to 40 MLU Remember what a morpheme is And who described morpheme development first 0 Morpheme Development 0 Bound Morpheme typesdevelopmental order I Present Progressive ing I Regular Plural s I Possessive s I Regular Past Tense ed 0 Phrase Development what is a phrase o Unites of syntax that function as a single unit but are less than a sentence because it doesn t contain both a subject and a predicate o Noun phrases be able to identify from example I The girl who played piano 0 Verb phrases be able to identify from example I Say things about people things places and events 0 Eat eated 0 Sentence Development be able to identify examples of each of the below 0 Declarative I Basic form 0 Subject verb object o Doggy eating ice cream I Expansions o Auxiliaryhelping verbs added 0 The baby gave the dog his pacifier o Interrogative I First questions at oneword level with rising intonation 0 Ex horsie o Imperative I You is understood a demand request 0 Ex throw the ball to me 0 Negative I Not and n t attached to the verb I nobody never un
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