Study Guide for Test 2
Study Guide for Test 2 1020-01
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
Popular in History
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1020-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Michele White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
1 World Civilizations TEST 2 Studv Guide The Rise of Islamic Empires Early Islamic Expansion the Abbasid Empire Mongol takeover Tamerlane s Empire How and why did Islam spread so quickly and so effectively How did Islamic Empires deal with nonMuslims living in the House of Islam Who was Tughril Beg What was the role of the Sultan in the Abbasid Caliphate a Islam spread so quickly due to the fact of military religious and social factors The military was strong and their enemies were weak from fighting against each other for many years The religious and social factors were from Muslims and other people who moved from all over the continents to be in one place under the Islamic Empires Most of these people moving in were Islamic to begin with b The Islamic Empires dealt with nonMuslims by allowing them to live on the land but with certain rules and regulations The Jews and Christians could practice their faith but their place of worship could not be bigger than the smallest mosques in that region could not hold political office could not serve in the military their testimony was not acceptedvalid against Muslims in court and they had to pay a special head tax c Tughril Beg was the founder of the Seljuq dynasty which ruled in Iran Iraq Syria and Anatolia during the 11th 14th centuries Under his rule the Seljuqs assumed the leadership of the Islamic world by establishing political mastery over the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad d The role of the sultan in the Abbasid era was to be the head of the Islamic religion As ruler the sultan was initially inferior to the ruling caliph but generally governed with almost absolute authority in a particular area 2 The Ottoman Empire What were the origins of this empire How did the Ottomans conquer so much territory build upon your knowledge of early Islamic expansion How why and when did Byzantium fall to the Ottoman Turks What was the political structure of this empire What factors helped to keep this empire together What were their policies with regard to Dhimmis Was the empire in decline by 1800 Why a The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 the state grew into a mighty empire The empire reached its apex under Sulayman the Magnificent b The economic and social stability attained in the conquered provinces of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was very multinational and multilingual which allowed them to be able to interact with many people This empire was also the center of interactions between eastern and western worlds c In May of 1453 The Ottoman Empire captured the city of Constantinople under Sultan Mehmed II who had defeated an army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos Byzantium fell to the Ottoman Turks for many reasons Staring with when the Emperor of Byzantine sought financial help from the west side for help in defenses and such Byzantine had already begun losing territories to other empires making them weak and the Ottomans took this as their chance to take them down The Byzantine Empire could not receive help from Europe at this time because they were going through their own problems and the west was also facing many problems as well so Byzantine was left to stand by themselves d At the top was the Sultan below the sultan was the Grand Vizier top advisors then the Imperial Diwan council next was the Senior Officials then the Local Cavalry Elite and lastly were the Peasants e The reign of Sultan Suleyman marked the peak of the Ottoman power and prosperity as well as the highest development of its governmental social and economic systems Suleyman maintained a strong military managed the financial aspect and kept peace among the people f The dhimmis had their rights fully protected in their communities but as citizens in the Islamic state had certain restrictions and it was obligatory for them to pay a specific tax Dhimmis were excluded from specific duties that were assigned to Muslims and did not enjoy certain political rights reserved for Muslims but were otherwise equal under the laws of property contract and obligation Under sharia law the dhimmi communities were usually subjected to their special laws rather than some of the laws which were applicable only to the Muslim community g Decline in the Ottoman Empire was starting to show around the 1800 s because there was shifting in world trade patterns between Europe and Asia meaning they lost revenue Also European powers began to become offensive Austrian s pushed the Ottomans out of Hungry around the 1700 s and Russian s pushed them off of the Red Sea by the 1800 s 3 Africa Ghana Mali and Songhai What were the origins of Mali and Songhai How were all three empires structured and governed Why and how did Ghana and Mali fall When did Muslims start arriving in this part of the world Why were Muslims there Why did they stay How did various rulers contribute to the expansion of Islam in West Africa What effects did Islam have on the Western Sahelian region The origins of Mali came about when the founding father Mansa Sundiata and other mansa s at the time formed an alliance against the Soso Army After defeating the Soso Army all of the Mansa s at the time declared Mansa Sundiata as the king thus forming Mali The origins of Songhay came about when Sonni Sulayman Dandi declared war against Mali Sonni Ali later became the great conquering hero and began to build Songhay All three empires were structured like the following The King court nobles local hereditary chieftains then merchants farmers and slaves Ghana fell because over the course of many years it was weakened by subsequent frequent attacks and it was cutoff from international trade of salt gold and other important things the kingdom was vulnerable and unable to prevent defeat It was conquered and added into Mali Mali fell because there were disputes over succession weakened the crown and a number of vassal states declared their own independence most notably the Songhai of Gao This new state rapidly expanded into an empire completely eclipsing Mali and claiming much of their territory Muslims began showing up around 800 wanting to trade and because they wanted gold They eventually stayed and became merchants traders etc Each ruler began to convert themselves to Islam but keeping some beliefs they already had More Muslim scholars came down in bigger numbers more Muslims became judges and the kings would only hire Muslims therefore making more people wanting to convert The effect the Islam left on the Western Sahelian region was that the political in uence eventually led to Islamic dominance of all the Kingdoms of the Sahel region 4 The Byzantine Empire What are the origins of this empire Why was this an especially longlived and strong empire What were the basic characteristics of this empire How and when did EOC Eastern Orthodox Christianity come into being and how did it differ from the RC Roman Catholicism How and why did this empire fall What are some of the lasting accomplishments of the empire a In 330 AD Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a new Roman capital Constantinople Five years earlier at the Council of Nicaea Constantine had established Christianity as Rome s official religion b After the western side had broken off and fell the eastern side stood strong and tall This was a long lived empire because it was wealthy because it was the center of all trade the wealth was wisely dispersed into things like the military and defenses so they could build and protect their empire it was more urbanized lots of cities and people there was a large population of free land owning peasants making them willing to fight for their own land and it was a very well governed empire c The basic characteristics were maintaining high levels of political economic and cultural activity leaders saw themselves as Roman Emperors Constantinople was one of the best cities in the world trade cultural arts etc orthodox Christianity became the main religion and it weathered many attacks d Around 1054 the Easter Orthodox Christianity came into being because Byzantium wanted more state control they wanted bread baked with yeast and priests who could marry There were many reasons why it differed from Roman Catholicism Those ways are the Eastern Orthodox Christians had an actual leader the Emperor and a nominal head they sang in Greek they had leavened bread the priests would marry but the bishops and monks would not and they believed that the religious icons were imbued with power that could affect your life whereas the Roman Catholicism had a Pope as the head sang songs in Latin had unleavened bread ordained members were celibate and they had holy pictures and prayer aids e The Byzantine Empire fell because Turkish invaders began to press on the borders and the prosperous sources of tax revenue and food providing territories were cut off by the Turkish troop Also the loss at Manzikert ultimately destroyed the empire and the westEurope could not help f Some of the long lasting accomplishments of this empire were that of the Corpus Luris Civilis which was the body of civil law two brothers St Cyril and St Methodius traveled around to tell people about God and even made an alphabet and Emperor Justinian made it his life ambition to write Roman law The Easter Orthodox churches turned into Mosques later on 5 MedievalFeudal Europe and Economic Expansion Why how and when did feudalism come about How was feudal society structured What were the mutual rights and obligations of each member of society Was there an agricultural revolution during the High Middle Ages Why Be able to discuss the short and longterm effects of the apparent agricultural revolution a The people of Western Europe needed a source of protection from many invading threats with order As a result they invented a system in which people of higher classes provided protection for lower classes in return for their loyalty to them This allowed people to be safe and happy with cooperation between classes b People were bound to one another by promises of loyalty The land belonged to the monarch and then divided the land he did not want to lords The lords promised to assist him in times of war and when the lords and knights below the lord agreed to assist him The peasants made food and did other services for the kingdom and rented land in exchange for protection from the lord c Monarchs kept order and provided protection for their vassals in return for their loyalty Lords managed and defended land appointed officials to supervise the peasants and make sure they did their duties were judges and fought for people of higher rank or supplied an army Knights fought for their lord practiced chivalry had acts of gallantry and were loyal to their church and lord Peasants free peasants paid rent on the land they worked and serfs paid rent in the form of labor They grew food and ground grain paid taxes like yearly head money a tax and merchet d Yes there was an agricultural revolution Why Because the spread of civilization to Northern Europe brought with it the twofield system This was well suited to the climate of the Mediterranean with its hot dry summers and one growing season in the cooler wetter winters This more temperate climate of Northern Europe allowed growing seasons in both winter and summer Eventually the peasants divided their farmland into three fields one for winter crops one for summer crops and one to remain fallow The use of the fields was rotated each year Also they were able to take nitrogen out of the air rather than the soil 6 Consequences of Economic Expansion Revival of Trade and the Rise of Cities What social and economic conditions made possible the revival of longdistance trade What conditions helped contribute to urbanization What areas traded with one another What goods were exchanged Identify basic characteristics of a medieval city What were guilds and charters a There was no more warfare and barely any serfs left also international fairs opened up making trading easier b Urbanization came around because an over population on the manor Due to this over population serfs were offered the promise of freedom and only had to pay rent Also more people started moving to the cities where international fairs had happened making it easier for people to trade and build on the land Gold and silver as well as banking also helped the growth of urbanization There was a surplus of food c Italy traded with eastern Mediterranean sending out olive oil and receiving spices England France and German territories traded with Constantinople sending out metals wine cloth tin coal and wool Scandinavia traded with the Atlantic coast sending out fish fur pitch timber receiving leather fruits and honey d The characteristics of a medieval city were walls and towers that surrounded the city and people could only get in and out through gates Also London only had about 5000 people whereas Italian cities had 100000 people e A guild was a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants often having considerable power A charter was a written grant by a country s legislative or sovereign power by which an institution such as a company college or city is created and its rights and privileges are defined 7 Creation of Nation States Know how and why both England and France developed into relatively strong and stable nationstates during the High Middle Ages For England know about William the Conqueror 10661087 the Domesday Book 1086 and Shires Henry I 11001135 and the Exchequer Henry II 11541189 and Common Law King John 11991216 and Magna Carta 1215 and the rise of Parliament How did each of these help contribute to the creation of a unified England For France know about Hugh Capet 987996 Phillip Augustus 11801223 Louis IX 12261270 Phillip IV 1285 1314 Parlement and the Estates General How did each of these help contribute to the creation of a unified France a William the Conqueror starts as duke of Normandy battles Godwinson and becomes William the Conqueror also lays down the foundation of how things are today invents the Domesday Book which is a record of how much people owned Henry I The Exchequer Like the IRS tax collector Chancellor who is the head of the exchequer Henry II Common Law which is one Legal System King John lost most territories and if you did not pay taxes to the king you were thrown in jail and the Magna Carta which was the Great Charter of 61 clauses what the king could and could not do to the people including the two most important clauses No free man shall be seized or imprisoned except by the lawful judgement of his equal or by the law of the land And No taxation without consent of people He also marks the foundation of the law of the land is higher than the king himself king is not above the law of the land Henry III the creation of Parliament which is Two Houses Curia Regis and the House of Commons b Each of these help contribute to the creation of England by building the foundation of what is now present day England c Hugh Capet in 987 feudal lords elected Hugh as King he made the thrown hereditary and Capetian kings would rule France for 300 years Phillip II 10 Augustus was King John s enemy and made land acquisitions also made the Balli Louis IX Strengthened Royal Power by forbidding warfare and issued an ordinance prohibiting created peace and stability and produced a national currency and he also created Parlement Phillip IV crated the Estates General which was Clergy Nobility Townspeople d Each contributed to the creation of France by building the foundation of what is not present day France 8 Culture during the High Middle Ages Know the origins of universities How were they administered What was the curriculum What kinds of degrees were offered Who attended them What is scholasticism and who was St Thomas Aquinas Know the differences between Romanesque and Gothic architecture What does the construction of magnificent cathedrals tell us about medieval European society economy and religion a Univeritas Latin for guild or corporations of students or teachers and Bologna 1088 was the 1St university in Europe b They were administered by Roman law and the curriculum was the 7 Liberal Arts which included Trivium Arts and Quadrivium Sciences The only degree offered was a BA degree which was a masters but one could move on to get a graduate degree in a specific study including medicine law or theology Students who wanted to learn were the ones who attended these universities c Scholasticism method of learning or method of critical thinking which dominated medieval higher education specifically I scholasticism was successful union of Aristotelian Rationalism with the teachings of church St Thomas Aquinas opened the door up for Aristotle s teachings in the universities and he also came up with Summa Theologian 11 Romanesque Cathedrals 11th amp 12th centuries Normally in the shape of a cross rounded arches had massive thick walls to support heavy stone roofs small windows so as to not compromise the walls dark and mysterious interiors colonnades and wide naves amp transepts Gothic Cathedrals 12th amp 13th centuries Normally soared to the sky crossribbed vaults amp pointed arches ying buttresses and had thin walls with beautiful stained glass windows The building of monumental cathedrals in the middle ages was a re ection of faith and the channel for much of the creative energy of medieval European society It also brings the religion aspect into the society allowing room to grown in faith with God A lot of arts came from this as far as paintings and stained glass windows As well as boosting the economy in growth in the city
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