Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide BIO 120
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide 102215 Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 Light Microscopy Electron Microscopy Can view live and dead specimens Can only view dead specimens Only surface view of the specimen Internal view and many surface details Specimens stained for better detail Stains surface coat of gold 2D at image 3D surface image Lights ray used to illuminate Electron bean via cathode Magnifies up to 1500X Magnifies up to 100000X or more Cells are usually between 10100 nanometers Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Nucleoid no membrane around DNA Double membrane bound Nucleus No membrane bound organelles Membrane bound organelles Usually smaller in size Larger in size Lack Histone Contain Histone Peptidoglycan surrounding cell Cell walls made from cellulose Reproduces via transfer of DNA fragments Reproduces via Meiosis Compartmentalize functions Nucleus double membrane bound organelle where genetic material DNA is stored Ribosomes organelles that manufacture proteins free ribosomes located in cytosol bound ribosomes located in Endoplasmic Reticulum Nuclear Envelope Free Ribosomes preform glycolysis Bound Ribosomes make proteins for membranes for being stored and for export out of the cell secretion Vacuole storage centers for food and water Plant cells have a very large vacuole for water Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell Location of cellular respiration The Endomembrane System regulates protein traf c and preforms metabolic functions in the cell This System consists of Endoplasmic Reticulum Biosynthetic factory of the cell Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes lipids carbohydrates new Makes glycoproteins Membrane phospholipids and hormones Makes phospholipids for cytosol Detoxifies Membrane factory Golgi Apparatus shipping and receiving center of the cell 1 Vesicles move from Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi 2 Vesicles attach and the Golgi modifies and manufactures the products from the ER polypeptide 3 Vesicles carry products attach to membrane Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide 102215 Hatena and Nephroselmis Hatena a single celled consumer can absorb Nephroselmis a single celled organism that undergoes photosynthesis The consumer cell can then use the chloroplasts from its victim Nephroselmis to undergo photosynthesis to sustain itself This demonstrates endosymbiosis Both organisms benefit from the relationship For one sustenance and the other protection Microtubules hollow tubes that maintains cell shape and provides mobility Cilia and agella made from tubulin Located Microfilaments Two intertwined strands made out of Actin These maintain cell shape cause muscle contractions and is responsible for cytoplasmic streaming These are found in the plasma membrane Intermediate laments Fibrous coiled proteins made out of proteins such as Keratin These anchor the nucleus and other organelles Found only in some animals vertebrae located in the cytoplasm Extracellular matrix found in animal cells made up of glycoproteins and other carbohydrate based molecules mainly collagen This forms strong fibers outside the cell Plant Cell Walls Bacteria Cell Walls Made of Cellulose chitin Made of peptidoglycan Primary and Secondary Wall Plasmodesmata channels that connect cells into one living continuum Tight junctions plasma membranes of neighboring cells are close together This establishes a barrier that prevents extracellular uid from entering the cells E g Skin cells make us watertight Desmosomes fasten cells together into strong sheets these are anchored to the cytoplasm Responsible for attaching muscle cells to one another Gap junctions provide channels from one cell to another These consist of membrane proteins and allow ions sugars amino acids and other small molecules to pass between cells Chapter 7 Fluid Mosaic Model Protein molecules make up a membrane oating in a uid bilayer of lipids Membranes are made up of phospholipids amphipathic integral proteins interior of lipid bilayer glycolipids and glycoproteins Amphipathic molecule with both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic end Membranes with more unsaturated fats can remain uid at lower temperatures due to the kinked tails that don t allow the molecules to stack together Membranes with more saturated fats must remain at higher temperatures The at lipid tails allow the molecules to stack together and become rigid Functions of Membrane Proteins Transport Proteins creates hydrophilic channel across the membrane Enzymes exposed active sites that provide a metabolic pathway Signal Transduction active site that receives a chemical message eg Hormones These proteins relay messages to the inside of the cell CellCell Recognition these proteins serve as ID tags that recognize other membrane proteins Intercellular Joining Neighboring cells can join together to form junctions Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide 102215 Attachment to Cytoskeleton and ECM Maintain cell shape and stabilize other proteins C02 and O2 relatively nonpolar but dissolve easily into water Pass easily through the membrane H20 and Glucose polar do not pass easily Ions hydrophilic do not pass easily Some pass easily and others cannot due to the membrane s selective permeability Diffusion the movement of solute from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Osmosis the movement of water from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Facilitated diffusion the movement of molecules across the membrane when aided by transport proteins Hypotonic cell is in an environment in which the solute concentration is less on the outside and higher on the inside of the membrane The cell swells Isotonic Concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane cell is relatively unaffected Hypertonic solute concentration is higher on the outside of the cell The cell loses water and shrivels Plasmolysis plasma pulls away from the cell wall in several places as the cell loses water Causes the plant to wilt Passive transport diffusion of a substance across a membrane without expending energy This follows a solute s concentration gradient Aquaporins allow water to rapidly move across the membrane Active transport the movement of a solute across the membrane against its concentration gradient SodiumPotassium Pump preforms active transport 1 Sodium binds to SodiumPotassium Pump Sodium binding creates ATP 3 Sodium molecules are released 2 Potassium bind to SodiumPotassium Pump Loss of phosphate groups restores Pumps original shape 2 Potassium are released into the cell QMPWP Membrane potential voltage across the membrane uneven distribution of anions and cations The inside of the cell is negatively charged Membrane potential is maintained by transport proteins called an electrogenic pump and the proton pump which pumps H ions out of the cell Ion pumps help store energy for ATP synthesis Digitalis foxglove blocks SodiumPotassium Pump and causes Xanthopsia seeing yellows and Coronas auras of light Chapter 8 1St Law of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed It can only change forms 2nd Law of Thermodynamics In a closed system disorder tend to increase Entrophy disorder in the universe order can increase locally with energy eg High potential energy of a boulder on a hill can create damage when it begins to roll Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide 102215 Metabolism sum of all and organism s processes Catabolism processes of breaking down such as cellular respiration Anabolism use energy to build new complicated molecules such as the synthesis of a protein from amino acids Metabolic pathways pathway that begins with a certain molecule which goes through a series of reactions in steps to produce a certain product Spontaneous Reaction a reaction that does not require energy and increases disorder Not synonymous with fast Free Energy is always negative for this type of reaction Free energy Energy in a system that is available for work Free energy can be used to predict if a reaction will be spontaneous or not It can help determine what changes can occur without energy consumption Exergonic reaction process with a net release of free energy These reactions can occur spontaneously Endergonic reactions reactions that require energy cause a positive change in free energy ATP adenosine triphosphate consists of adenosine ribose and three phosphate groups Energy releasing molecule used in metabolic reactions such as cellular respiration ATP powers cellular work by joining endergonic and exergonic reactions Enzyme protein catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the Activation Energy of a reaction Enzymes can denature and lose 3D structure and function Competitive inhibitors substrates that compete with others for an enzyme s active site Noncompetitive inhibitors substrate that binds to a part of the enzyme that is other than the active site and changes the shape of the active site so that no other substrates can bound to it Allosteric regulation occurs when a protein s function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule at another site This either activates or deactivates the enzyme Where there is more available oxygen the binding of one oxygen to hemoglobin increases it s affinity for oxygen at other sites Feedback inhibition occurs when the end product of a metabolic reaction acts as an inhibitor for that enzyme such as in isoleucine synthesis Chapter 9 Stages of Respiration l Glycolysis occurs in cytosol 1 glucose used to make 2 pyruvate ATP NADH ADP Phosphofructokinase important checkpoint inhibits ATP 2 Citric Acid Cycle Matrix input of Acetyl CoA outputs C02 NADH FADH2 ATP Each time Acetyl CoA in combines with oxaloacetate products released 3 Oxidative Phosphorlyation inner membrane 4 Electron Transport Chain series of enzymessteps Electron transfer powers production of ATP 5 Chemiosmosis Types of Fermentation 1 Alcohol BakingBrewing Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH Final product 9 Ethanol 2 Lactic Acid cheese yogurts muscle cells Pyruvate 9 Lactic AcidLactase Bio 120 Exam 2 Study Guide 102215 Refer to Figure 917 in textbook for Fermentation Process Fermentation and Respiration are both processes for producing ATP both use glycolysis and natural fuels to produce pyruvate Fermentation Respiration Produces 2 ATP Produces 32 ATP Final electron receptor Pyruvate Final electron receptor NADH Redox reactions transfer of electrons from one reactant to another reductionoxidization Both Respiration and Fermentation use electron carriers such as NADHNADFADH2 Substratelevel phosphorylation ADP 9 ATP Oxidative phosphorylation ATP 9 ADP During Oxidative Phosphorylation chemiosmosis couples the Electron Transport Chain to ATP synthesis Where are the enzymes of the electron transport chain located Inner membrane of the mitochondria ATP synthase enzyme that makes ATP from ADP 1 H ions run down their gradient and enter channel in membrane Ions enter binding sites Within a rotor changing the subunit so that the rotor spins Each H takes one turn then passes into the mitochondrial matrix Spinning of the rotor causes the internal rod to spin Turning of the rod activates catalyst sits that produce ATP from ADP 9593 Examples to discuss and relate to the 5 content topics of this class 0 Digitalis and membrane proteins NaKATPase inhibition Making mead honey Wine alcohol fermentation 0 Eating Greenland shark urea ammonia via bacterial urease fermentation example 0 Ethanol metabolism in primates ADH4 as an example of a protein that has benefits and drawbacks for organisms that have it 0 Elodea undergoes both respiration and photosynthesis and how to use bromothymol blue to collect data Which serve as evidence of this
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