POB Test #2 Study Guide
POB Test #2 Study Guide Biology 210
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carter Buuck on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 210 at Linfield College taught by Anne Krutchen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology in Biology at Linfield College.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Carter Buuck Bio Test 2 Study Guide mean What is the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes a The fluid mosaic model states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it i Peripheral proteins go side to side on surface ii Channel proteins create a channel through the middle of the membrane iii Transport Membrane protein functions 1 Molecules can move directly through protein channels 2 Can move molecules up gradient if ATP is put in iv Enzyme activity 1 A protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its active site open for molecules v Signal transduction 1 A chemical messenger fits specifically into a protein s binding site and the protein relays the message of the messenger to the inside the cell vi Cellcell recognition 1 Integral proteins from cells touch and allows the cell to decide if it should eat phagocytize the other cell or not vii lntercellularjoining 1 lntegral proteins from different cells join together in different types of junctions skin cells viii Attachment to the cytoskeleton 1 Components of the cytoskeleton may be stuck to membrane proteins which helps maintain cell shape What are osmosis and diffusion What do hypertonic hypotonic and isotonic a Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane to create equilibrium b Diffusion The movement of particles of any substance so that they spread out into the available space to create equilibrium c Hypertonic A hypertonic solution has more solutes than the cell so therefore water will leave the cell to balance the concentrations d Hypotonic The cell contains more solutes than the environment so it will take in water e lsotonic There is equilibrium between the solutes in the cell and outside of the cell 3 How are small hydrophobic molecules transported across the membrane How are small polar molecules transported Large polar molecules lons a Hydrophobic molecules 02 CO2 N2 do not need a chanel protein and are transported across the membrane through simple diffusion passive transport b Small polar molecules H20 glycerol also pass through the membrane through simple diffusion just slower c Large polar molecules amino acids glucose nucleotides and ions cannot just simply diffuse across the membrane because of their size and their charge therefore they must use facilitated diffusion which has two different forms i Channel proteins 1 Provide passageways for certain molecules to cross the membrane 2 Also include gated channels which open and close in response to a stimulus ii Carrier proteins 1 The protein undergoes a change in shape that allow it to take in and transport a certain molecule across the membrane 2 Requires no energy so it is passive diffusion iii Active transport 1 Active transport is used for helping maintain concentrations of small solutes that differ from the external concentration and pumping a molecule up its gradient 2 Requires ATP 3 Sodium potassium pump a High K low Na b ATP is used to pump out Na and pump K to maintain concentration levels 4 What is the semiconservative model for DNA replication Semiconlsewative Model of DNA Replication The parent strand is separated creating two single strands Each strand is need as a template for the eemplementary strand shown in light purple b The two big rules is that strands must be synthesized from the 5 end to the 3 end and that traditional base pairing must occur 5 How does DNA replication occur in bacteria a Replication begins at the origin b DNA molecule is unzipped by Helicase c Primase places down primer on the leading strand and the strand is synthesized continuously in 5 3 direction by DNA Pol III ol Primase places the RNA primer on the lagging strand e DNA Pol III synthesizes new DNA strand by adding nucleotides to an RNA primer or a preexisting DNA strand f DNA Pol I then comes through and corrects mistakes wrong base pairing from 5 end to 3 end and replaces them with the correct DNA nucleotides g DNA ligase then connects the different Okazaki fragments to complete the replication 6 Why is ATP an excellent molecule for carrying energy How does it transfer energy to other reactions a ATP is an excellent molecule for carrying energy because it carries a lot of energy in its phosphate bonds i It transfers energy by having those bonds broken down by hydrolysis and that energy is then transferred to another molecule or lost as entropy 7 What are redox reactions How do they transfer energy a Redox reactions Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants also called oxidation reduction reactions b They transfer energy by one substance gaining electrons and the other losing electrons i Oxidation A substance loses electrons ii Reduction A substance gains electrons iii Some redox reactions do not transfer electrons but change the electron sharing in covalent bonds 8 How does photosynthesis generate ATP What is the source of the electron for the electron transport chain a Photosynthesis generate ATP through the electron transport chain and hydrogen gradient i A water molecule is broken down and the electron is placed into the photosystem ii The electron moves down the electron transport chain and this allows for hydrogen ions to move against the gradient and into the cell iii Once the H concentration has built up they move down their concentration gradient and out of the membrane 1 They move through ATP synthase which gains mechanical energy that allows for it to turn and combine a phosphate group with ADP to create ATP 9 What are the differences between cyclic photophosphorylation and noncyclic photophosphorylation a Cyclic phosphorylation i Only produces ATP ii Only has Photosystem l iii Same electron is used b Noncyclic i Creates ATP and NADPH which go to Calvin cycle to create sugar ii Photosystem l and photosystem II iii Different electron must be used every time c Cyclic evolved rst because it s simpler and all it does is take light to excite an electron to create ATP 10 How does the Calvin cycle convert carbon dioxide to sugar What are the starting and ending products of the cycle a Carbon xation The Calvin cycle incorporates C02 molecules into the cycle one at a time and attaches them to a 5 carbon sugar RuBP b Rubisco is the enzyme that catalyzes this rst step of the cycle c This temporarily creates an unstable 6 carbon sugar which breaks down into two 2carbon sugars d Reduction Each 3carbon molecules receives an extra phosphate from ATP giving it two Phosphates per 3carbon molecule which turns ATP into ADP e NADPH donates two electrons to the molecule and reduces it and it also loses a phosphate group f This creates the product G3P a sugar g Starting product I C02 h End products i GBP 11 What is substratelevel phosphorylation What is oxidative phosphorylation a Substrate level phosphorylation is when a phosphate is removed from a molecule that helps turn ADP into ATP i Seen in glycolysis b Oxidative phosphorylation is the conversion of ADP to ATP through the redox reactions of the electron transport chain i Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation 12 What are the starting and ending products of glycolysis What are the possible fates of pyruvate a Starting product i Glucose C6H1206 b Ending products i 4 ATP net gain of 2 ATP ii 2 NADH iii 2 Pyruvates 3carbon sugars iv H2O c Fates of pyruvate i Pyruvate can be taken to the citric acid cycle where it is converted to Acetyl CoA ii It can also be used in fermentation where it is converted to ethanol or some type of alcohol 13 What are the starting and ending products of the citric acid cycle How does it generate ATP a Starting products i Pyruvate converted into acetyl CoA b Ending products Two CO2 molecules ii NAD to NADH 3x iii FAD to FADH2 iv ATP v Each glucose produces two Acetyl CoA s so the yield is technically 4 C02 2 ATP 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 c ATP is generated from directly from substrate level phosphorylation or it can be generated by GTP a product of the citric acid cycle that is similar to ATP by adding a phosphate to ADP 14 What are the structures found in all bacteria How do bacteria divide What are the mechanisms of vertical and horizontal gene transfer in bacteria a All bacteria contain a cell membrane nucleoid and ribosomes b Bacteria divide by replication see 5 c Vertical gene transfer i Mother is same as daughter H RepHcann iii Binary fission d Horizontal gene transfer i Conjugation 1 Bacteria are joined by sex pilus 2 Allows for one organism to get something that the only the other organism has ii Transformation 1 Cell takes in DNA fragments 2 Integrates it into chromosomes 3 Or degrades it and uses it as food iii Transduction 1 Viruses used to transfer DNA across bacteria 2 Virus injects cell with DNA 3 Host DNA is broken and virus DNA is made 4 Broken down bacteria DNA can accidentally be placed in virus carrier 5 This carrier injects the original host DNA in a new cell to create diversity 15 How do Grampositive bacteria differ from Gramnegative bacteria a Gram positive bacteria contain a peptidoglycan cell wall very thick and remain purple b Gram negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer but that is covered by a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane i The thin wall allows for the purple coloring to be washed away by alcohol and reveals its red color 16 What are photoautotrophs photoheterotrophs chemoautrotrophs and chemoheterotrophs a Photoautotrophs i Light energy source ii CO2 carbon source iii Plants and photosynthetic bacteria b Chemoautotrophs i Inorganic compound energy source ii C02 carbon source iii Certain prokaryotes c Photoheterotrophs i Light energy source ii Organic compounds carbon source iii Certain prokaryotes d Chemoheterotrophs i Organic compound energy source ii Organic compound carbon source iii Many prokaryotes fungi animals humans 17 What are the differences between the three domains of life bacteria archaea and eukarya a Graph drawn in cass b Archaea i Koracheotoa 1 Hydrothermal vents 2 High temperature 3 High salinity ii Euryarchaeota 1 Methanogens a Make methane 2 Thermophiles a Heat 3 Halophiles salt iii Crenarchaeota 1 Marine 2 Love sulfur iv Nanoarchaeota 1 No de ning characteristics Fermentation NAD gains electrons from glycolysis to create NADH Donates those electrons to create ethanol and return NADH to NAD Used in absence of oxygen
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