Module 10 Study Guide
Module 10 Study Guide SPED 3020e
Popular in Characteristics of Individuals with Mild Disabilities
Popular in Special Education
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by SC Jordan Allgood on Friday October 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPED 3020e at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Tina Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Characteristics of Individuals with Mild Disabilities in Special Education at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Module 10 Key Concepts and Terminology 1 High Incidence Disabilities Students With highincidence disabilities are the most prevalent among children and youth With disabilities in US Schools These disabilities include a EBD b LD 0 MID d OHI ADHD SI and Highfunctioning autism Low Incidence Disabilities Students With lowincidence disabilities are the least prevalent These disabilities include a OI b VI 0 DHH d OHI stickle cell anemia epilepsy cancer heart conditions etc e TBI DHH OI OHI TBI VI SI Georgia Definition Service Providers Case Managers Appropriate Accommodations a OI Orthopedic ImpairmentPhysical Disabilities I Definition Orthopedic impairment refers to a child Whose severe orthopedic impairments adversely affects their educational performance to the degree that the child requires special education This term may include 1 Impairment caused by congenital anomalies e g deformity or absence of some limb 2 Impairment caused by disease poliomyelitis osteogenesis imperfecta muscular dystrophy bone tuberculosis etc 3 Impairment from other causes e g cerebral palsy amputations and fractures or burns that cause contractures 34 CFR 3008C8 Secondary disabilities may be present including but not limited to visual impairment hearing impairment communication impairment andor intellectual disability II Service provider A teacher certified in OI must provide services if this is the student s primary disability Service providers need to learn about the student s specific areas of impairment and the actions required to make the general education program accessible to the maximum extent possible III Appropriate Accommodations The student should receive services in a cotaught classroom by any special education teacher b OHI Other Health Impairments Other Health Impairments that occur among school learners are epilepsy diabetes asthma cancer heart conditions HIVAIDS allergies and ADHD I Definition Other health impairment means having limited strength vitality or alertness including a heightened alertness to environmental II stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that 1 Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma attention deficit disorder or attention deficient hyperactivity disorder diabetes epilepsy or heart condition hemophilia lead poisoning leukemia nephritis rheumatic fever sickle cell anemia and Tourette Syndrome and 2 Adversely affects a child s educational performance 34 CFR 3008c9 In some cases heightened awareness to environmental stimulus results in difficulties with starting staying on and completing tasks making transitions between tasks interacting with others following directions producing work consistently and organizing multistep tasks Service Provider and Case Manager Students with OHI may be on your caseload certification in Special Education General Curriculum Consultative or served by any special education teacher according to the IEP c Visual Impairments I II III Appropriate Accommodations 1 MildModerate Visual Impairment Low Vision 0 Can use vision to process print for learning with the aid of visual devices magnifiers 0 Effectiveness is reduced due to fatigue resulting from energy required to process visual material effectively 2 SevereProfound Visual Impairments Blind 0 Can not use vision effectively for learning or functional purposes and must rely on adaptive devices and includes the use of Braille The vision impairment even with correction must adversely impact a child s education performance If a student s vision is corrected with glasses and the impairment does not impact educational performance the student would not qualify for special education services Service Provider Students with Visual Impairment must receive services from a teacher certified in VI although the student could receive additional services from any special education teachers Definition A child with a visual impairment is one whose vision even with correction adversely impacts a child s educational performance 34 CPR 3008c13 Examples are children whose visual impairments may result from congenital defects eye diseases or injuries to the eye The term includes both visual impairment and blindness as follows 1 Blind refers to a child whose visual acuity is 20200 or less in the better eye after correction or who has a limitation in the field of vision that subtends an angle of 20 degrees Some children who are legally blind have useful vision and may read print 2 Visually impaired refers to a child Whose visual acuity falls Within the range of 2070 to 20200 in the better eye after correction or who have a limitation in the field of vision that adversely impacts educational progress a Progressive visual disorders Children Whose current visual acuity is greater than 2070 but Who have a medically indicated expectation of visual deterioration may be considered for vision impaired eligibility based on documentation of the visual deterioration from the child s optometrist or ophthalmologist d DeafHard of Hearing I II III Appropriate Accommodations 1 MildModerate Hearing Loss Hard of Hearing 0 Can use hearing for learning With amplification and other accommodations 0 Learning effectiveness may be impacted due to the inaccuracy and inefficiency in processing auditory information 2 SevereProfound Hearing Loss Deaf 0 Cannot use auditory inputhearing effectively for learning 0 Alternative means of communication must be used Case Manager Students With HI must have a case manager Who is certified in HI if this is the student s primary disability Definition A child Who is deaf or hard of hearing is one Who exhibits a hearing loss that Whether permanent or uctuating interferes With the acquisition or maintenance of auditory skills necessary for the normal development of speech language and academic achievement and therefore adversely affects a child s educational performance See 34 CPR 3008c3 amp 5 1 A child Who is deaf can be characterized by the absence of enough measurable hearing usually a pure tone average of 6690 decibels American National Standards Institute Without amplification such that the primary sensory input for communication may be other than the auditory channel 2 A child Who is hard of hearing can be characterized by the absence of enough measurable hearing usually a pure tone average range of 30 65 decibels American National Standards Institute Without amplification that the ability to communicate is adversely affected however the child Who is hard of hearing typically relies upon the auditory channel as the primary sensory input for communication e TBI Traumatic Brain Injury I II Case Manager students With TBI may be on your caseload if you are certified in Special Education General Curriculum Definition Traumatic Brain Injury TBI refers to an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or both that adversely III affects the child39s educational performance The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments which are immediate or delayed in one or more areas such as cognition language memory attention reasoning abstract thinking judgment problem solving sensory perceptual and motor abilities psychosocial behavior physical functions speech and information processing The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative in nature brain injuries induced by birth trauma 34 CFR 3008c 12 Acceptable Accommodations Successful reentry into the school environment after sustaining a brain injury may require adjustments to the environment the learningrelearning of skills and the use of various compensatory aides Interventions provided for these students involve rehabilitative services Communication DisordersSpeech and Language Impairment SI I II III Service Provider students eligible for SI must receive services from a speechlanguage pathologist Case Manager if the SI is the primary disability the SLP will be the case manager If the SI is the secondary disability the special education teacher Will be the case manager Definition Speech or language impairment refers to a communication disorder such as stuttering impaired articulation language or voice impairment that adversely affects a child s educational performance A speech or language impairment may be congenital or acquired It refers to impairments in the areas of articulation uency voice or language Individuals may demonstrate one or any combination of speech or language impairments A speech or language impairment may be a primary disability or it may be secondary to other disabilities 34 CFR 3008c11 1 Speech Sound Production Impairment eg articulation impairment atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions omissions additions or distortions that interferes With intelligibility in conversational speech and obstructs learning successful verbal communication in the educational setting The term may include the atypical production of speech sounds resulting from phonology motor or other issues The term speech sound impairment does not include a Inconsistent or situational errors b Communication problems primarily from regional dialectic andor cultural differences c Speech sound errors at or above age level according to established researchbased developmental norms speech that is intelligible and Without documented evidence of adverse affect on educational performance d Physical structures e g missing teeth unrepaired cleft lip andor palate are the primary cause of the speech sound impairment or e Children Who exhibit tongue thrust behavior Without an associated speech sound impairment 2 Language Impairment impaired comprehension andor use of spoken language Which may also impair written andor other symbol systems and is negatively impacting the child s ability to participate in the classroom environment The impairment may involve in any combination the form of language phonology morphology and syntax the content of language semantics andor the use of language in communication pragmatics that is adversely affecting the child s educational performance The term language impairment does not include a Children Who are in the normal stages of second language acquisitionlearning and Whose communication problems result from English being a secondary language unless it is also determined that they have a speech language impairment in their nativeprimary language b Children Who have regional dialectic andor cultural differences c Children Who have auditory processing disorders not accompanied by language impairment d Children Who have anxiety disorders e g selective mutism unless it is also determined that they have a speech language impairment There must be a documented speechlanguage impairment that adversely affects the educational performance for these children to qualify for special education services 3 Fluency Impairment interruption in the ow of speech characterized by an atypical rate or rhythm andor repetitions in sounds syllables words and phrases that significantly reduces the speaker s ability to participate Within the learning environment Excessive tension struggling behaviors and secondary characteristics may accompany uency impairments Secondary characteristics are defined as ritualistic behaviors or movements that accompany dys uencies Ritualistic behaviors may include avoidance of specific sounds in words Fluency impairment includes disorders such as stuttering and cluttering It does not include dys uencies evident in only one setting or reported by one observer 4 VoiceResonance Impairment interruption in one or more processes of pitch quality intensity or resonance resonation that significantly reduces the speaker s ability to communicate effectively VoiceResonance impairment includes aphonia or the abnormal production of vocal quality pitch loudness resonance andor duration Which is inappropriate for an individual s age andor gender The term voiceresonance impairment does not refer to a Anxiety disorders e g selective mutism b Differences that are the direct result of regional dialectic andor cultural differences c Differences related to medical issues not directly related to the vocal mechanism e g laryngitis allergies asthma laryngopharyngeal re ux eg acid re ux of the throat colds abnormal tonsils or adenoids shortterm vocal abuse or misuse neurological pathology d Vocal impairments that are found to be the direct result of or symptom of a medical condition unless the impairment impacts the child s performance in the educational environment and is amenable to improvement with therapeutic intervention 4 Levels of Severity TBI OI AUTOHI TBI Mild or severe level of impact May result in physical or sensory impairment emotional disturbance cognitive problems andor language problems Temporary or longlasting impairment Recovery progress often erratic OHI can be mild or severe in impact 01 Can be mild or severe in impact children served in a program for orthopedic impairments should be functioning no lower than criteria outlined for mild intellectual disabilities AUT Severe Autism Mid HighFunctioning Autism Mild Asperger s Syndrome Severity of impact is affected by level of intellectual functioning and degree of social communication and interaction deficits 5 Autism Spectrum Disorder AUT Georgia Definition and Eligibility and Placement Definition Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability generally evident before age three that adversely affects a child39s educational performance and significantly affects developmental rates and sequences verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction and participation Other characteristics often associated with autism spectrum disorder are unusual responses to sensory experiences engagement in repetitive activities and stereotypical movements and resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines Autism does not apply if a child s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance as defined in d Children with autism spectrum disorder vary widely in their abilities and behavior 34 CFR 3008c1i The term of autism spectrum disorder includes all subtypes of Pervasive Developmental Disorder such as Autistic Disorder Rett s Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified provided the child s educational performance is adversely affected and the child meets the eligibility criteria Autism spectrum disorder may exist concurrently with other areas of disability Evaluations and Assessments The following evaluations and assessments shall be utilized to determine the presence of the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder II III IV Comprehensive psychological evaluation to include a formal assessment of intellectual functioning and an assessment of adaptive behavior Educational evaluation to include an assessment of educational performance and current functioning levels Communication evaluation to include assessment of verbal and nonverbal communication prosody linguistics including intonation rhythm and focus in speech and pragmatic language utilizing both formal and informal measures Behavioral evaluations to include assessment of social interaction and participation peer and adult interactions capacity to relate to others stereotypical behaviors resistance to change atypical responses to sensory stimuli persistent preoccupation With or attachment to objects and other behaviors often associated With autism spectrum disorder Developmental history to include developmental differences and delays and age of onset Which is typically before the age of three A child may be diagnosed as a child With autism spectrum disorder after age three if the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder are met Eligibility and Placement Eligibility shall be based on assessment of the five characteristic areas associated With autism spectrum disorder The assessments shall minimally document that each of the characteristic areas of 1 developmental rates and sequences 2 social interaction and participation and 3 verbal and nonverbal communication are affected The adverse effect on a child39s educational performance shall be documented and based on the following criteria I II III Developmental rates and sequences A child exhibits delays arrests andor inconsistencies in the acquisition of motor sensory social cognitive or communication skills Areas of precocious or advanced skill development may also be present While other skills may develop at typical or extremely depressed rates The order of skill acquisition frequently differs from typical developmental patterns Social interaction and participation A child displays difficulties andor idiosyncratic differences in interacting With people and participating in events Often a child is unable to establish and maintain reciprocal relationships With people A child may seek consistency in environmental events to the point of exhibiting rigidity in routines Communication verbal andor nonverbal A child displays a basic deficit in the capacity to use verbal language for social communication both receptively and expressively Characteristics may involve both deviance and delay Verbal language may be absent or if present may lack usual communicative form or the child may have a nonverbal communication impairment Some children With autism may have good verbal language but have significant problems in the effective social or pragmatic use of communication IV Sensory processing A child may exhibit unusual repetitive or unconventional responses to sensory stimuli of any kind A child39s responses may vary from low to high levels of sensitivity V Repertoire of activities and interests A child may engage in repetitive activities andor may display marked distress over changes insistence on following routines and a persistent preoccupation with or attachment to objects The capacity to use objects in an appropriate or functional manner may be absent arrested or delayed A child may have difficulties displaying a range of interests andor imaginative play A child may exhibit stereotypical body movements A child with autism spectrum disorder may be served by any appropriately certified teacher in any educational program as described in the child39s individualized education program IEP The identification of autism spectrum disorder for educational programming does not dictate a specific placement however it is based on the assessed strengths weaknesses and individual goals and objectives of the child 6 Developmental rates and sequences A child exhibits delays arrests andor inconsistencies in the acquisition of motor sensory social cognitive or communication skills Areas of precocious or advanced skill development may also be present while other skills may develop at typical or extremely depressed rates The order of skill acquisition frequently differs from typical developmental patterns 7 Social interaction and participation A child displays difficulties andor idiosyncratic differences in interacting with people and participating in events Often a child is unable to establish and maintain reciprocal relationships with people A child may seek consistency in environmental events to the point of exhibiting rigidity in routines 8 Communication verbalnonverbal A child displays a basic deficit in the capacity to use verbal language for social communication both receptively and expressively Characteristics may involve both deviance and delay Verbal language may be absent or if present may lack usual communicative form or the child may have a nonverbal communication impairment Some children with autism may have good verbal language but have significant problems in the effective social or pragmatic use of communication 9 Sensory processing A child may exhibit unusual repetitive or unconventional responses to sensory stimuli of any kind A child39s responses may vary from low to high levels of sensitivity 10 Repertoire of activities and interests ll 12 13 A child may engage in repetitive activities andor may display marked distress over changes insistence on following routines and a persistent preoccupation With or attachment to objects The capacity to use objects in an appropriate or functional manner may be absent arrested or delayed A child may have difficulties displaying a range of interests andor imaginative play A child may exhibit stereotypical body movements Asperger s Syndrome Students With Asperger s Syndrome differ from students With other ASD s in that their impairment is primarily Within the social interaction and pragmatic language m They do not display the cognitive and language deficits more common to students With more severe autistic disorders Instead they are identified according to the DSMIVTR criteria by a severe and sustained qualitative impairment related to social interactions accompanied by evidence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior activities and interests APA 2000 Students With Asperger s syndrome are also frequently characterized by poor attention skills In particular they have difficulty focusing on the most relevant stimuli These characteristics combined With their obsessive interests in particular topics and their welldeveloped language skills often lead teachers to assume that these students could be more successful in school if they just applied themselves To successfully assist students With Asperger s syndrome in a general education classroom teachers must understand how these annoying behaviors relate to their condition and then work With the students their parents and special educators to design supportive interventions B amhill 2001 Social Skills interventions are valuable particularly When combined With structured teaching strategies Safran 2001 HFA HighFunctioning autism HFA presents considerable diagnostic challenge to schools and medical personnel HFA is often initially confused With ADHD or an anxiety disorder and controversy continues about Whether Asperger s Syndrome and HFA are the same or different conditions Hartley amp Sikora 2009 Mayes amp Calhoun 2003 It is generally true that as IQ increases the severity of autistic tendencies decreases Which often results in a delay of diagnosis until late elementary grades One constant issue involves determining Whether there is a line between Asperger s syndrome and HFA Some make the case that there is only the autism spectrum With a continuum for functional characteristics from low to high functioning However others hold that HFA differs from Asperger s syndrome because language development delays are not present in learners With Asperger s ASD Autism Spectrum Disorders are developmental disabilities affecting communication and social interaction With or Without cognitive impairment In Georgia Auti Spectrum Disorder isabbrevi ted as AUT 14 15 ASD is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction usually evident before age 3 that adversely affects a child s educational performance Characteristics of ASD Qualitative impairment in social interaction as manifested by two of the following a Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eyeto eye contact facial expression body postures and gestures to regulate social interactions b Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to the developmental level c A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment interest or achievements with other people eg by a lack of showing bringing or pointing out objects of interest to other people d Lack of social or emotional reciprocity Qualitative impairments in communication manifested by at least one of the following a Delay in or total lack of the development of spoken language not accompanied by the attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gestures and mime b In individuals with adequate speech marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others c Stereotyped and repetitive use of language idiosyncratic language d Lack of varied spontaneous makebelieve play or social imitative play appropriate to the developmental level Restricted and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior interests activities as manifested by at least one of the following a Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal in intensity or focus b Apparently in exible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals c Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms e g hand or finger apping or twisting or complex whole body movements d Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas with onset prior to age 3 years a Social interaction b Language as used in social communication c Symbolic or imaginative play Cognition May display mild to profound cognitive impairment Prevalence of ASD Autism Spectrum disorders are considered lowincidence conditions with only about 39 percent of the schoolage population and 28 percent of students receiving special education services classified in this category 1996 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 34254 1998 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 53675 2000 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 80324 2002 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 118502 2004 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 166645 2006 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 224594 2008 Total Enrollment of students with Autism ages 621 292818 Although autism is generally considered a disorder with more severe effects an increasing number of these students appear to be those functioning in the milder range of impairment with diagnoses of highfunctioning autism or Asperger s syndrome becoming more common 36 of students with autism in 2008 received a significant portion gt80 percent of their educational services within general education Possible Explanations for Increasing Prevalence of ASD 1 Effect of adding learners in the mild range 2 Adding Asperger s syndrome may have led to new or more accurate identifications 3 Trends similar to the increases when learning disabilities were named and added to IDEA 4 Possible subtle shifts among the judgmental categories of LD ADHD EBD 5 Is there any other unidentified cause 16 Causes of ASD 1 Genetic factors 2 Brain differences 3 Neurotransmitters 4 Prenatal in uences on functional connectivity needed for language development 5 Unknown possible causes The following DOES NOT cause ASD 1 Distant unresponsive parenting refrigerator mother syndrome 2 Adverse reaction to vaccines 17 Social Interaction Patterns Three interactional patterns 1 Aloof 2 Passive 3 Active but odd Deficits in Theory of Mind difficulty reading emotional messages that others display particularly with their eyes tent to interpret verbal and nonverbal messages literally At the milder end of impairment students may have difficulty reading the social cues of adults or other children in their environment Pragmatic language skills for initiating maintaining and terminating a social conversation are generally underdeveloped or awkward Boutot 2007 18 19 At the moderate to severe level of impairment a learner may make little or no effort to interact With others Issues surrounding assessment of ASD Once all the information is gathered the answers are often still not clear Once challenge is to challenge among ASDs and other conditions Among possible comorbid or alternative diagnoses are intellectual disability developmental language disorders hearing or visual deficits obsessivecompulsive disorder ADHD Tourette s syndrome depression anxiety and other psychiatric diagnosis The team must determine Whether the individual should be diagnosed With ASD another condition or both Volkmar amp Klin 2005 Wing 2005 The second decision relates to the question of subtypes Within pervasive developmental disordersautism spectrum disorders It has been generally held that there at least three subtypes a Typical autism With social communication and behavioral deficits along With intellectual functioning deficits in the moderate to severe range b Asperger s syndrome With social and behavioral characteristics but With adequate language skills and average or high intellectual functioning c Atypical autism included in the PDDNOS category Questions remain about the legitimacy of an identification status of highfunctioning autism as a separate identified subtype composed of learners With autistic behavioral characteristics but Who also display intellectual functioning in the mild or borderline range Volkmar State amp Klin 2008 questions that Will likely be addressed in the upcoming DSM revision Strengths of students With ASD 1 People on the autism spectrum tend to be particularly skilled at perceiving details as opposed to Whole gestalts 2 Children With ASD do better than their typically developing peers 3 Children With ASD of better than neurotypical children on the embedded in more complex patterns or drawings 4 People With ASD are bale to pick out seemingly irrelevant details that others miss 5 Individuals With autism possess strong local analysis or What some researchers refer to as enhanced perceptual functioning Mottron et al 2006 6 Individuals With ASD are also particularly good at What he has termed systemizing BaronCohen 2003
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