Introduction to Ethics: Unit 1-4 Review
Introduction to Ethics: Unit 1-4 Review PHI 125
College of Lake County
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by denisekuylen on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 125 at College of Lake County taught by Shanti Chu in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at College of Lake County.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
Introduction to Ethics Doing Ethics Textbook Unit 1 Ethics and the Examined Lifel Chapter 1 1 What is Philosophy a Love of wisdom b Wisdom is being open to knowledge and learning from others c The nature of knowledge to questions on contemporary social issues as rape culture and political revolution i Ex Slut walk d There are no direct answers within philosophy things are always being questioned Metaphysics reality multiple realities Ontology existence quotto bequot Epistemological knowledge SocialPolitical how do we interact with one another Happiness ourishing Ethics Concerns what is right and wrong Descriptive Making a claim about reality Prescriptive How things should beought to be I J Ethics Moral Philosophy the philosophy and study of morality a Morality refers to the beliefs concerning right and wrong good and bad beliefs that can include judgments values rules principles and theories b You cannot escape ethics c It39s concerned with values d To not do ethics is to stay locked in an intellectual limbo where exploration of ethics and personal moral progress aren39t really possible i To not do ethics can mean you39re not embracing your individuality or making your own decisions 1 The Ethical Landscape a Ethics is a branch of Philosophy moral philosophy i What is part of the ethical approach Critical reasoning the careful systematic evaluation of a statement b A process used in all fields not just ethics Commented i1 Thinking about what you re doing and why you re doing it How you re living the examined life Why you felt this why doing this Good or bad Descriptive Ethics Social Sciences 0 Making a claim about reality 0 Trying to understand how people behave when dealing with ethical issues Normative EthicsPrescriptive o How things should beought to be 0 Study of principlesrules about our judgmentbehaviors Metaethics 0 Study of meaninglogic behind our ethical beliefs Applied Ethics 0 Application of moral norms to specific behaviorsactions In every division of ethics it39s important to distinguish values and obligations i Value what is morally good bad blameworthy or praiseworthy a EX quotShe is a good personquot ii Obligation concept or judgment what is obligatory or a duty or what we should or ought to do We use both terms to refer to actions i Different Types of Values a How do we measure the value of things why do people think they39re more superior to animals b Many things have value in one39s life but it may not be equal to other s c Instrumentally Extrinsically Valuable they are valuable as a means to something else i EX A pen is good because it could be used to write a letter d IntrinsicIntrinsically Valuable valuable in itself i EX Happiness pleasure virtue and beauty 1 The Elements of Ethics a Doing Ethics involves requires critical reasoning the consideration of reasons for whatever statements moral or otherwise are in question b The backbone of critical reasoning logical argument a III Helps us keep our feelings about moral issues in perspective c The Universal Perspective i The Principle of Universalizability the idea that a moral statement a principle rule or judgment that applies in one situation must apply in all other situations that are relevantly similar Moral statement can be applied in similar moral situations all contexts cultures etc EX Saying that lying is wrong in a particular situation then you implicitly agree that lying is wrong for anyone in relevantly similar situations i III It cannot be true that reasons apply in a specific case do not apply to other cases that are similar in all relevant respects d The Principle of Impartiality welfare and interests of all individuals should be given we should treat people the same treat others equally EX You cut your finger with a knife and go to an ER someone there is having a heart attack who should be seen first The principle can be violated because their problem is greater than yours Chapter 2 l Subjectivism Relativism and Emotivism e Moral Objectivism Universal moral norms and beliefs regardless of culture i EX quotHonor killing is morally wrong no matter where it39s done or who does itquot f Culture Relativism An action is right of a culture approves it culture deems what is rightwrong i EX quotIn societies that approve honor killing the practice is morally rightquot and vice versa g Subjective Relativism The view that an action is morally right if one approves of it i EX Honor killing may be right for you but definitely not for me h Emotivism Not based on truthfalsity focused on feelings and emotions i EX Honor killing is wrong if you and others feel that it is morally wrong Unit 2 Abortion amp Kant 1 Abortion Induced Abortion The deliberate termination of a pregnancy by surgical or medical means i The unintentional termination of a pregnancy is known as miscarriage ii An abortion performed to save the life and or health of the mother is called therapeutic abortion 1 These type of abortions aren t seen as a problem morally The development of an unborn fetus begins at conception i Or fertilization when a sperm cell enters an ovum and the two merge into a single cell called zygote Certain stages into the fetal development are considered important in an abortion debate EX Quickening 1620 weeks into a pregnancy when the mother could feel the mother moving EX Viability 2324 weeks the fetus can possibly live outside of the mother 2 Moral Theories An actutilitarian would say that an abortion is right morally if it results in the greatest overall happiness everyone considered 0 It would be morally wrong if it s seen to possibly cause unhappiness 0 However the birth of a child could create happiness A ruleutilitarian could also view abortion as either morally right or wrong depending on the rule being followed and how much new happiness results from adhering to it 0 Abortion is not morally permissible except to save the mother s life would maximize happiness Many people argue a premise that a fetus is or is not a person an entity with full moral rights If a Kantian believes that the fetus is a person then they would insist that the fetus has all the rights and dignity as any other adult person If a Kantian does not believe that the fetus could be considered a person abortion could be justified to protect the rights and dignity of the mother who is a person Natural law theorists to them believe that a fetus is a person with full moral rights and that it s morally wrong to kill the innocent 3 Moral Arguments Conservatives prolife Liberal prochoice or Moderates o Conservatives believe that abortion is almost never permissible unless it s to save the mother s life 0 Liberals believe that abortions are always almost always permissible o Moderates people in the middle can take intermediate approaches between conservative Fundamental Principles of Metaphysics of Morals Kant Moral Philosopher Humans have many con icted feelings that we need a reason as a guide for our conduct and ethical behavior O Moral LaW Absomtea unChanginga and uniVersal Commented i2 ImplicationConsequence Our actions must be done for the sake of the moral law unchangingabsolute 1 Good will Necessary for talents guides them because a good will is good in itself 0 Doing your duty for duty s sake 0 Right thing o Goodness Act out of duty not inclination 0 Reason Practical faculty enables us to act in a line with duty not inclination o Enables us to have good will II Intentionality What we consciously aim to do I What we should aim to do act in line with duty because it is universal it doesn t like our feelings 0 Follow universal unchanging moral law Moral worth Comes from the origins of the reasons not the effects 0 Action has to come right from the right intentions rather than the right consequence III Universality Never act in a way where you wouldn t want that action to be a Universal Law 0 Categorical Imperative Objectively necessary universal principle 0 An action is necessary to itself without reference to an end I It s good in itself not for the sake of someone else 0 Good in itself be consistent I Universal conformity of will to moral law Eypothetical Imperative Practical necessity of a possible action as a means to something else that Commented i3 Not a universal command is willed 0 Action must be done for the sake of an end IV Categories of Being 0 Human beingsPersons Rational beings that eXist as valuable ends in themselves never a means but should be objects of respect 0 Categorical Imperative of Humanity Rational nature eXists as an ends to itself 123 0 Consequences Murder lying unjust because it treats people like they re a means to an end 0 Autonomy of the will Acting in accordance with one s own will being freed from our wantsinclinations O iDUtYi Praetical reStrajnt on behaVior Commented i4 Impacts everyone to the same degree 0 Enables us to act in line with the universal law 0 Things Being whose existence does not depend on will but on nature not rational beings can be used as a means to an end They only have relative value 0 Animals ecosystem objects that which is not rational Unit 3 Aristotle s Virtue and Sexual Morality Virtue Ethics 0 rue goalof humans is budaimonid Commented i5 Focus What should it be 0 irtuel Give out actions moral value Everyone being has an end which is naturally aims toward 0 Intellectual wisdom rationality prudentconsistent using caution teleology O Moral HoneStya loyalty Courage 10V6 Commented i6 Happiness flourishing 0 Result of habiteveryone has the potential but not everyone acts on it Living up to one s potential Living up to function Ethics of Care Emphasizes close personal relationships love compassion and sympathy lt Commented i7 Stable characteristic of action and o Gendered Ethics feelings according to the model of excellence 0 Male Ethics Abstract rights justice and duty 0 Female Ethics Close personal relationships love etc Nicomachean Ethics Lifestyles 3 Different Types 1 Pleasure Enjoyment appetites hedonism majority if mankind 2 Political Happiness with virtue as an end goal public decent life ie Emma Watson 3 Contemplative Re ection thought Most sufficient activity ie A Buddhist 0 Actions Can make us justunjust 0 Virtue of Character What do we think is painfulpleasurable How do we apply it to others 0 How do we do a virtuous actionl 0 Just actions must be done the way a virtuous person would do them not enough to do just actions without being virtuous and vice versa Decide on a firm decision Wirtuel and the Soul l Feelings 2 Faculties rational logical 3 States of Character Virtue What makes a human being good fulfill your goal 0 Virtue is character 0 Must be done at the right times about the right things towards the right people for the right end an done in the right way 0 Doctrine of the Mean Middle path between excess or efficiency 0 Ex BraveryCourage Fearful gt Overly Confident 0 Not every action contains a feelingmean I There is no choice involved I Ex Hatred anger jealousy greed Preconditions of Virtue o Woluntary Actionsl Intentionally not forced you know what you re doing Commented i8 Agent must decide whether the conditions are right right state of mind Ex Not sending a text when you re angry Commented i9 AgencyWill what is right action 0 Not from ignorance Ethics of Sex and Marriage Conventional View Sex is morally acceptable only between one man and one woman who are legally married to each other 0 Catholic Church Purpose of sex is to procreate 0 Premarital Sex Conception and abortion are immoral I Group sex masturbation homosexual acts are immoral Liberal View Sex is morally acceptable if basic moral standards are respected and sexual activity between two informed consenting adults Moderate View Sex is permissible married or not as long as the consenting partners have a deep emotional connection 0 Love affection caring commitment Moral Views and Sex Virtue allows us to be flexible quot Commented i10 A process from decision making free will Not feelingsappetites Kant Conventional approach not using someone as a meansend Utilitarian Sexual activity is moral as long as it promotes the GHP Greatest Happiness Possible Homosexuality Sexual relations between people of the same sex 0 Conventionalist Not morally acceptable because sex and marriage should be between a man and a woman 0 Liberal Not morally relevant because if they consent that it s okay Unit 4 Feminism Sex Biological Genetic identity malefemale intersexes Gender CultureSocially constructed identity related to sex Stereotype Expectations imposed on genders of how to act perform dress behave etc 0 Male Stereotype 0 Not emotional rigid rational masculine strongmentally and physically o Fighter aggressive 0 Winners 0 Independent 0 Female Stereotype 0 Emotional irrational crazy 0 Cook homemaker 0 SubordinateObedient Feminism Prowomen status women are valuable independent 0 Resisting patriarchy Ethics from the Standpoint of Women Stereotype Privation inherent in women women are good for reproduction I EmotionaL incaplable of being rational I Incapable of objective detachment I Goodness Obedient silence service 0 Effectimpact men s lives I Creating an ethics that s free of gendered biasl Ethics of Caring Could it justify women s servitude 0 Not an objective point 0 Our relational existence 0 We are defined in relation to one another Commented i11 This is the reality we live in and we have to deal with it
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