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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Spandana Maitra

Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 2301 002

Spandana Maitra
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Sarah Kucker

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About this Document

This study guide goes over everything included in our class study guide outline and includes visuals and examples.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Sarah Kucker
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Spandana Maitra on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2301 002 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Sarah Kucker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 185 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 10/24/15
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 2301002 with Dr Sarah Kucker This exam covers Learning Condition Behaviorism Consciousness Sleep Memory Language Though Cognition and Cognitive Development Learning Conditioning and Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Pavlov A Russian scientist who accidentally discovered classical conditioning by using a dog s ability to salivate when food is brought in front of it He was originally studying saliva in aiding digestion Ultimately he discovered the relationship between an unconditioned stimulus an unconditioned response a neutral stimulus a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response Scenario A dog is brought food and he salivates Off in the distance a bell rings Originally it has no connection to the situation but ultimately the bell is rung before food appears before the dog so eventually whenever a bell is rung the dog has learned to salivate expecting food Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that naturally triggers a response In this scenario it is the food The unconditioned stimulus stays as it is throughout the conditioning process Unconditioned Response A naturally occurring response re ex to the unconditioned stimulus In this scenario it is the dog salivating The unconditioned response becomes the conditioned response after conditioning has fully occurred Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that hasn t been paired with the unconditioned stimulus and brings no response In this scenario it is the ringing bell The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus after conditioning has fully occurred Conditioned Stimulus A onceneutral stimulus that ends up triggering the conditioned response In this scenario it is the bell ringing after conditioning has occurred Conditioned Response A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus but now a conditioned stimulus In this scenario it would be the dog salivating whenever a bell rings Extinction Elimination of a learned response as the conditioned stimulus is no longer presented Generalization A process by which the conditioned response is observed even though the conditioned stimulus is a bit different Ex With Little Albert John Watson caused a loud noise to make him cry and a little white rat would also scamper across the room which made Little Albert fear small uffy creatures because he knew that then a loud noise would come with it and scare him Not only with a rat it also caused him to fear rabbits Santa Clause and similar white and uffy things Discrimination Capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Ex A trumpet causes someone to jump but they are able to distinguish between a tuba and any other wind instrument and doesn t jump when they hear them Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a behavioroutcome relationship it s associating a voluntary response and a good or bad consequence E Thorndike established a puzzle box he placed a cat inside a box and when the cat was able to figure out the puzzlequot it would find itself out of the box and treated with a reward He recorded how long it took for the cat to get out Law of Effect Rewarded behaviors are more likely to recur while punished behaviors aren t likely to be repeated BF Skinner established the Skinner box with rats similar to the cat puzzle box He put a rat in a box and put tricks in the box which would then provide treats for the rat inside the box if it figured them out Positive Reinforcement Adding something to increase a certain behavior Ex Giving a child candy every time they went to the bathroom by themselves for potty training Negative Reinforcement Taking something away to increase behavior Ex To get your little sister from bothering you while studying to watch a movie you can take away the time you spend with her if she comes in and disturbs you Positive Punishment Adding something to decrease a specific behavior Ex Having your brother take out the trash that week every time he goes into your room without permission Negative Punishment Taking something away to decrease a behavior Ex taking away a child s TV time for every time he she doesn t clean their room Schedules of Reinforcement 1 Fixedratio reinforcing behavior after a set number of responses 2 Variableratio Reinforce behavior after an unpredictable number of responses Fixedinterval Reinforce a response after a fixed time period 4 Variableinterval reinforce first response after varying time intervals The hardest to determine and to extinguish the habit of ex Gambling the hardest to determine how it works and the hardest to get rid of in terms of habit Shaping Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior Ex If I m supposed to turn off the lights as I get close and close to the light switch I am reinforced with claps from the people around me 9 Observational Learning Observational Learning is a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others aka mimicking Albert Bandura lead a study with Bobo dolls in which adults either acted with the doll in a positive way and hugged it played tea party with it and read to it while other adults acted violently with the Bobo doll and punched it hit it kicked it etc When kids were shown one or the other the ones with the negatively acting adults acted negatively as well taking a hammer and hitting it using a toy gun and shooting it etc Implicit Learning Implicit learning is learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process of the products of information acquisition Ex Knowing which foods are considered breakfast foodsquot when you weren t explicitly told Some forms of learning start out explicitly and become implicit over time Consciousness and Sleep Consciousness A person s subjective experience of the world and the mind There are 4 basic properties of consciousness Intentionality consciousness directed towards a specific item Unity undivided attention Selectivity including some things to be conscious of but not others Transience Tendency to change our consciousness and focus Consciousness overall deals with attention and willful control There are examples of selective attention Inattentional Blindness Failure to see some visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere Change blindness failure to notice changes in the environment when focused on something else Cocktail party effect some things are more salient and capture attention easier Ex In a noisy and crowded party you re more likely to hear your name being called Circadian Rhythm The regular bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24 hour period the biological clock waking and sleeping cycle Stages Sleep occurs in a repeating 5stage pattern that occurs over 90 minutes 1 Awake and alert Awake but drowsy Stage 1 NREM Sleep Stage 2 NREM Sleep Stage 3 NREM Sleep Stage 4 NREM sleep REM Sleep N991990N REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Dream sleepquot a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and high level of brain activity During this time voluntary motor control is suppressed The amygdala visual areas motor cortex and brain stem are more active during REM sleep while the prefrontal cortex is less active Sleep helps with brain restoration repairing damaged neurons storing and rebuilding memories of the day s experiences promotes creative problem solving and encourages general growth so sleep deprivation causes a lot of problems Memory Process of encoding and retrieving information over time Encoding getting information perceptions thoughts feelings into memory Storage retaining information in memory over time Retrieval recalling or using previously encoded and stored information getting the information back out Memory Model I AH t Rehearsal Envlronment en Ion shortterm Longterm Input Sensory memory memory memory Retrieval l Rehearsal Recall 100p Some memories are processed automaticallyunconsciously while others are processed effortfullyconsciously This memory model is a conscious cycle of encoding storing and retrieving information Information processing There are 3 ways of encoding 1 Elaborate Encoding semantic process of actively relating new information to knowledge that s already in memory lower left frontal lobe 2 Visual imagery encoding Process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures occipital lobe 3 Organizational encoding process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items Storage 0 Sensory memory storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less No rehearsal leads to less memory o Shortterm memory storage that holds information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute You can hold up to 7 2 pieces of information Serial position effect 100 50 Words recalled 96 Primacy intermediate Recency Position in sequence I Primacy tendency to remember words at the beginning of the list I Recency Tendency to remember words most recent or at the end of the list Rehearsal Keeping information in shortterm memory by mentally repeating it Chunking Combining small pieces of information into large clusters that are held better in shortterm memory Working memory active in maintenance of information in shortterm memory 0 Longterm memory is divided into multiple types branches 1 Explicit declarative conscious recall I Semantic factual knowledge I Episodic experienced events 2 Implicit non declarative unconscious recall I Procedural motorrecognition skills Knowing howquot I Priming enhanced identification or getting you ready for something ex Subliminal advertising Loss dealing with longterm memory Natural Decay memory traces fade over time Ebbinghaus s forgetting curve retention of information drops over time with significant drop initially then slows regardless of scale more time learning repetition less decay Interference Other items in storage get confused with what you re trying to recall I Retroactive Interference situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier I Proactive Interference Situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later Massed Concentrated practice vs Distributed Practice Distributed Practice Practice VS I I I I Concentrated Distributed practice is better for longterm memory while massed is better for shortterm Amnesia I Anterograde Amnesia inability to transfer information from the shortterm store to the long term store I Retrograde Amnesia Inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date usually the date of an injury or operation Retrieval I Recall or using previously encoded and stored information getting information back out I Recall Bringing previously learned information into conscious awareness I Recognition correctly identifying previously learned information I Retrieval Cues external information that helps being stored information to mind I Encoding specificity principle Idea that a retrieval cue can help serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which information was initially encoded Reconstructing memory Elizabeth Loftus study subject shown video of car accident and asked either how fast were cars when they made contactquot of how fast were cars when they smashed into each otherquot Answers varied based on how question was worded Memories are not videos or concrete images of past events things can affect our reconstruction of past events current mood new information expectancies prior experiences etc Memory misattribution assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source False recognition feeling of familiarity about something that hasn t been encountered before Language and Communication Language system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and to convey meaning Communication generic term for conveying information between individuals human or not through verbal or nonverbal means Production vs comprehension Broca s Area left frontal cortex language comprehension saying Wernicke s Area left temporal cortex language comprehension understanding Humans are more complex and are symbolic representative while other animals use clear communication tools Ex Honeybees quotdancequot to show other honeybees where the pollen is Language Theories Nativism Belief that there are centers for acquiring and processing language Chomsky s Language Acquisition Device exposure to language is not required we are hardwired Empiricism nothing quotspecialquot about language it s a tool we have developed because of our evolved brains and through exposure SocioCultural shared mutual understanding key language develops as result of social nature Evolutionary Adaptive to our survival changes over generations Properties of Language communicative structured arbitrary novelproducing generative Parts of language Phonemes smallest unit of sound that s recognizable as speech rather than random noise Ex A b th Morphemes the smallest meaningful units of language ex Boy hit ball Syntax rules for the ways in which words can be combines to make sense Semantics expressing meaning in language Pragmatics rules or knowledge for how language is used Ex Taking turns in conversations eye gaze Discourse conversation Steps in language Cooing 1 2 months sounds other than crying usually vowels not particular to language Babbling 6 months languagespecific sounds vowels and consonant Single words 10 12 months holophrases usually uses nouns fast mapping Word combining 18 24 months telegraphic speechquot complete sentences by age 3 Grammaradultlike complexity 6 years know rules of language but vocab continues to grow By 2 12 years you know 600 words by kindergarten you know 10000 words by 5th grade you know 50000 words and by being a college freshman you know 200000 words Children hear around 10000 words a day and learn up to 6 words a day yet their bodies and brains are immature infant Sensitive critical period time period in which an organism is especially susceptible to change learning Ex Prenatal Werker study development of phonemic discrimination in native language Found out that we are born with wide abilities we recognize speech sounds in all languages but as we get older we only narrowinto our native language Thought and cognition Linguistic determinism language and thoughts interact Whorfian Hypothesis language alters thought words gt sounds in terms of activating thoughts words we use help process thoughts 0 Thought determines language Development of thought Stability vs change ex Your hair color usually stays constant as you grow older while your height changes Continuous vs discontinuous Ex tree growth is continuous the tree simply gets taller whereas a caterpillar builds a cocoon and then becomes a butter y as it grows Category vs Concept Category group of things in the world that go together Concept the thing or representation in your head that allows you to group items Theories Nature modules in brain different parts of brain for different things Nurture learned from experience Prototype vs exemplar theory Prototype theory we classify new objects by comparing them to the prototype or most typical member of a category Ex Comparing a dog you see or an animal you see to a Golden Retriever Exemplar Theory we classify new objects by comparing them to all category members in memory Prototypes A holistic process involving image processing deals with the visual cortex and left hemisphere Exemplars analysis and decisionmaking deals with right hemisphere and Basal Ganglia Heuristics fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decisionmaking but doesn t guarantee that a solution will be reached Deals with logic algorithms probability and availability in memory Problem solving solving a similar problem and apply solution to ease at hand analogical problem solving analogy Functional fixedness framing of a problem can limit our ability to solve it Ex When given a problem to mount a candle on the wall given only thumb tacks and a box of matches we think it can t be done but if you use the box from the match box and set the candle in there you can mount the candle in the box on the wall with thumb tacks Cognitive Development Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Development change over time occurs in multiple areas neural brain maturation motor development social development cognitive development Piaget Father of development Believed that children are constructivists construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences quotLittle scientists Equilibration people balance their knowledge to create stable understanding When in disequilibrium need to adapt change something 0 Assimilation incorporate information into an existing schema Ex Since this looks like a ball it is a ball 0 Accommodation Adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experience Ex Hmmthis is new Let s call it a quotworm y rubbertoy Piaget stages 0 Sensorimotor Birth 2 years understand world through senses or actions Object performance the idea that objects continue to exist even then they re not visible 0 Preoperational 2 7 years understands world through language and mental images Symbolic Play an object can be represented by another item Ex A pen can be used as a microphone Theory of mind People s ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict Ex When a child is given a box of crayons full of candles the younger children thought that the teddy bear knew that it was filled with candles whereas the older kids knew that the teddy bear also thought it was filled with crayons 0 Concrete operational 7 12 years understands world through logical thinking and categories Conservation the notion that properties such as mass volume ad number remain the same despite changes in forms of objects 0 Formal operational 12 years understands world through hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning Children can think deeply about concrete events and can reason abstractly and hypothetically ex Algebra logic Vygotsky Social cognitive development Cognitive development occurs in interpersonal contact though interactions with others Guided participation knowledgeable individuals guide children s learning is critical part of sociocultural process Sharp contrast from Piaget who believed that children could understand world on their own Zone of Proximal Development range between what children can do unsupported and they what they can do with optimal support I What I can39t do Zone of Proximal What I can Development do wit help What 1 quot 1 Ioint attention infants and social partners focus on common referent Attachment an emotional bond with a specific person that s enduring across time and space Harlow s Monkeys infant Rhesus monkeys separated from mother at birth and raised in semiisolation Despite being weaned on either cloth mother monkey or wire mother monkey monkey prefers the cloth mother due to comfort even though she doesn t provide food Attachment is rooted in early social interactions with adult caregiver secure base Ainsworth and the strange situation measured and classified the security of an infant s attachment based on observable behavior 0 Created the strange situation paradigm for measuring security of an infant s attachment based on observable behavior 0 Infant s mom leaves If they have a secure attachment the child gets upset but calms down If they have an insecure attachment the child either ignores the mom or is so upset that they can t be calmed down o Infant s mom comes back If they have a secure attachment the child is glad to see the mom and is comforted If they have an insecure attachment the child becomes clingy loves hate the mom or ignores the mom Pictures used httpbloglearningelevatedcomwpcontentluploadsZZO10111Convsdistpng http cdn5simplypsychologyorg MultiStoreModel20j pg httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediaen994Serial positionpng httpiO1ialiimgcomphotov119570569292014 Spiky Worm Puffer Balljpg 220x220jpg http wwwinnovativelearningcom educational psychologydevelopmentzone proximaldevelopmentpng


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