New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 7 Learning

by: Melantha Liu

Chapter 7 Learning PSYCH 202

Melantha Liu
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

For the upcoming test! This is the comprehensive version of the note you are going to have to prepare for your exam! This note includes the information from the powerpoint, book as well as my notes...
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melantha Liu on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Patricia Coffey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


Reviews for Chapter 7 Learning


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/24/15
KEEP CALM AND LVE PSYCHLGY 1 Definition a Learning the acquisition of new knowledge skills or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner Classical conditioning a phenomenon that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response Unconditioned stimulus US something that reliably produces naturally occurring reaction in an organism Unconditioned response UR a reflective reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus CS a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism Conditioned response CR a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus Acquisition the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US and presented together Secondorder conditioning conditioning in which the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning Extinction the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented Spontaneous recovery the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period Generalization a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition Discrimination the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Biological preparedness a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others Operant conditioning a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism s behavior determine whether that behavior will be repeated in the future Law of effect the principle that behaviors that are followed by a quotsatisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an quotunpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated Operant behavior behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment Reinforcer any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Punisher any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Fixed interval schedule Fl an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed times provided that the appropriate response is made t Variable interval schedule VI an operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement u Fixed ratio schedule FR an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made v Variable ratio schedule VR an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses w Intermittent reinforcement an operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement x Intermittentreinforcement effect the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittentreinforcement schedules resist extinction more than those maintained under continuous reinforcement y Shaping learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior 2 Latent learning a condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future aa Cognitive map a mental representation of the physical features of the environment bb Observational learning a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others cc Diffusion chain a phenomenon that occurs when individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serves a model from which other individuals learn the behavior dd Implicit learning learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition ee Habituation a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response 2 The Development of Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments a Classicalconditioning i When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response first studied by Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 ii Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex The learning depends on what is happening BEFORE the response b Types of classical conditioning i Delay conditioning cerebellum motor skills and learning 1 CS is followed immediately by the US and overlap and end in the same time a Eg Bell rings and continues to ring until food is served b Not aware not depend on the relationship between the US and CS ii Trace conditioning hippocampus cerebellum 1 Brief interval of time after the tone ends and before the air puff is delivered a Eg Bell rings then stop and after a while the food is delivered b Aware of the relationship between Us and CS 2 NB if hippocampus is damaged has delay conditioning but impaired trace conditioning amnesic patients iii Fear conditioning amygdala 1 If amygdala is damaged no freezing responses or the autonomic responses c CC more passively more neutral feel different sensations warm and fussy afraid neutrally occurred by the stimulus BEFORE UNCONSCIOUS d eg bit by a dog air puff physical response immediately war trauma e OC less passively AFTER CONSCIOUS gt US UR Conditioning Neutral stimulus US After conditioning CS CR F U R E 6 Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company f Pavlov s dog experiment g First unconditional conditioning not learned voluntary physical response 3 Pavlov s Dog Research a US UNLEARNED stimulus Food UR UNLEARNED response Salivate The US automatically elicits the UR reflex The US was m and the UR was Salivating Then conditioning also known as learning occurs CSConditionedLearned Stimulus Bell CR ConditionedLearned Response Salivate to Bell No longer need US to get what was UR salivate Slightly less strong when it is only bell rather than implicit or explicit learning can be the neutral stimulus for the response rr393anhfbgpo39 4 The Development of Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments l Unconditioned response UR Reflexive reaction that is mul 5 For dogs a Learned cues and pair in that environment b When in a kitchen 9 salivate c Grab the leash 9 go for a walk d Put on coat 9 stay at home alone 6 The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning a Acquisition Phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together b Extinction Gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented i Dog does not see food when hearing the bell the cc eliminated no longer salivated does not erase the memory but less active c Spontaneous recovery Tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period 24hour 24hour rest rest I 1 First 1 Second spontaneous spontaneous recoverg I 1 recovery CS alone I l CS alone Drops of saliva elicited by CS Trials F U R E 6 5 Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company 65 Extinction During acquisition the CSUS pairings lead to increased learning such that the CS can produce the CR However if the CS is presented without the US eventually the CR extinguishes Later if the CS is presented alone it will produce a weak CR known as spontaneous recovery This CR will quickly extinguish if the US does not appear 7 The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning a Secondorder conditioning a stimulus that was previously neutral eg a light is paired with a conditioned stimulus eg a tone that has been conditioning with food to produce salivating this is the quotfirstquot order to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus b EXAMPLE 1 i Bell with food9 1st order conditioning ii Bell amp light with food 9 2nOI order conditioning c EXAMPLE 2 i D big dog afraid ii Small dog not afraid 8 PTSD amp Classical Conditioning a b Pairing of trauma experience with a previously neutral cue song place Generalization Process by which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition Discrimination Capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli 9 Video of classical conditioning a b c Turning off the computer sound Give him sugar constantly classical conditioning 10 Other Examples of Classical Conditioning a Tuner 11 a Iqu Salivating in response to thought of food Sexual interests Drug overdoses Cocaine and money pairing Advertising Anticipatory Nausea chemo therapy and vomiting pair with cues associated with chemo therapy See the capitalized word which is paired with the CS gets vomited Advertising something about person gives different feelings J to people classica conditioning in action Drug for temporary relief Cause physiological response that helps body prepare for the drug Overdose occur when somebody developed drug tolerance in one condition to another new condition not the similar environment not similar conditional stimulus So no conditioned preparation 9 hits body full force Setting functions as the CS brain works to counteract effects CR CR as a protective function in new locations either is reduced or does not occur at all Cue exposure therapies as treatment Eg i quotCorona extra beer 9 relaxing vocation ii Conditioning sexual arousal 1 US erotic imagerygt UR arousal CS previously neutragt CR sexual arousal to CS Picture of high heels Pair children with sexual pictures child pornography P PWN 12 Beyond Pavlov s Drool Emotional Learning Involves Classical Conditioning a Positive and Negative emotions are acquired initially and maintained as a result of classical conditioning processes 13 Conditioned Emotional Response CER a An emotionally charged conditioned response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus b EXAMPLE MUSIC i Music can be ii Music played in funeral sad iii Music played in wartime iv Music played in different circumstances give people different feelings 14 John Watson The Case of Little Albert 9 immoral experiment a Applied Pavlov s Associative Learning Classical Conditioning to Albert s Emotional Learning of Fear 15 Video by John Watson a Before Conditioning i US Noise ii UR Fearful Crying b During Conditioning i US paired with UR CS white rat c After Conditioning i CR Fearful Crying gt CS white rat d Stimulus generation i tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned ii In this Little Albert case he was afraid of dogs cats and other animals besides rats iii OR iv The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response e Stimulus substitution i In other words it is a learning process by which a subject comes to respond in a specific way to a previously neutral stimulus after the suggest repeatedly encounters the neutral stimulus together with another stimulus that already elicits the response ii OR iii Classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together 16 Little Albert Video clip illustrates O Hobart Mowrer s TwoFactor Theory of Learning a ClassicalConditioning i Little albert fear response b Operant Conditioning i Learning through avoidance ii Avoidance learning iii The individual learns a response to get away from CS iv Avoiding the CS fear involves negative reinforcement removal of negative experience v Extinction cannot occur vi Avoidance is rewarded after the response to get away from CS vii Example 1 Don t want to get on a plane drive instead 2 Extinction can not occur since no experience of negative feelings 3 Avoid of the plane never get on a plane plane phobia expands 17 Systematic Desensitization A Treatment for Phobias a Systematic desensitization i Graduated exposure theory to help overcome phobias or anxiety disorders such as PTSD b Based on classical conditioning principals c Encourage people to do so operate conditioning 18 Phobias a Classified under Anxiety Disorders b Involve panic attacks typically if exposed to feared situation intense fear response c Agoraphobia fear panic attacks i where the sufferer perceives the environment to be dangerous uncomfortable or unsafe ii If don t know things about new place stay at home or go with others to save them from having panic attacks d Social phobia i An intense fear in one or more social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life e Specific phobia heights snakes closed spaces etc 19 Systematic Desensitization of Phobias a Systematic desensitization SD takes classical conditioning into realm of cognition b Visual imagery amp mental associations are actively engaged A quotcognitivebehavioral method of treatment using the principle of counter conditioning d Counterconditioning the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive actions with the stimulus i CSCR1 fear 9 CSCRZ relaxation ii Counterconditioning can not be terrified and happy at the same time iii Pair the terrified one with happy situation or stimulus iv Make behavior change for the patient 20 Counterconditioning scales a The SD Technique b 1 The therapist with the client develops a hierarchy of feared situations scale of 1 to 10 c CS s eg seeing pictures of snakes lt1gt to napping with a Boa around your neck lt10gt d 2 Next person is taught relaxation coping imagery and skills e Such as breathing skills help them calm down f 3 Then client applies learned skills while imagining CS s 21 Phobias Start With Classical Conditioning But Maintained With Operant Conditioning In Vivo Desensitization Video clip9 Video clip of Virtual Desensitization Helping make the visualization real a Exposing the fear is the key to help them cope with the fear b Fear decreases when you are still around with the fear c Step by step hierarchy to handle anxiety through virtual technology d Mimic the real situation of their phobia 22 Operant conditioning a The conseguences of behavior determine the probability that the behavior will occur ggain b OR c The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses The learning depends on what happens AFTER the response 23 Howls Operant Conditioning Different from Classical Conditioning a quotOperantquot is Skinner s word for behavior that operates on the environment that have effects which are instrumental in producing desired results b So instrumental learning operant conditioning c Does not have to be consciously aware of this CC d Aware of the result and certain action based on the result of the action you decide you may or may not to respond 0C 24 Video BF Skinner Harvard University a Behavior intern process mental or Behaviros is environmental variable Behavior occurs for different situations Consequences occur If the stimulus present be Want to do something you create the similar environment Eg pigeon in a skinner box Operant conditioning When turn left when turn in circle with repeat open of the grain box on the left Pigeon gets to learn to do various things point out current number play music Effect strengthening reinforcing consequences in follow up What are the Basic Concepts in r Positive and Negative Reinforcement anything that strengthen the behavior Shaping gradually reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement and their effects on learning People will engage in behavior that is being reinforced Eg 1 pigeon learning things gambling Eg 2 Las Vegas lights and money as reward keep pulling down the lever to win money even though the amount of money maybe less h Involve cognitive process because be conditioned to do that or be rewarded quotquotranhrbeosr anhrbslosr 26 Reinforcement Increases Behavior a Skinner built on Thorndike s law of effect and coined the term quot He used the quotSkinner box to illustrate shaping Reinforces can be quotprimaryquot or secondary Primary air water basic necessity for survival Secondary money good grade positive but not necessary 9906 27 Both Reinforcement and Punishment Can Be Positive or Negative a Punishment reduces the probability of behavior b Positive reinforcement reward increases chances of behavior ADD c Negative reinforcement increases behavior by removing aversive stimuli REMOVE 28 SHAPING is rewarding of gradual approximations to the desired behavior a learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior 29 Both Reinforcement and Punishment Can Be Positive or Negative a Positive punishment decreases behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus adding an opposite stimulus b Negative punishment decreases the probability of behavior by removing a positive stimulus subtracting the positive stimulus c Effectiveness of parental punishment d Punishment decrease behavior e Reinforcement increase behavior f Punishment can be effective if it is predictable g some punishment accelerates escape i Eg parental punishment ii Do wrong thing 9 grounded9sleep over at other houses to get away the punishment m Negative Applies StlmUlUS Removes Stimulus Reinforcement Increases the Positive Nm ve giggled Reinforcement Reinforcement behavior Punishment Decreases the Negative frequency of undesirable Punishment Punishment behavior h What we thought we were rewarding maybe considered as the punishment for other people i Eg Stay in jail Good for enough food and water j So quotWhat is the behavior response to what people research carrier consider maybe different 30 Schedule of reinforcement Operant Conditioning Is Influenced by Schedules of Reinforcement a Ratio schedules are based on units of behavior and produce fast learning i when specific number of responses is made b Interval schedules are based on units of time and produce slower learning fig 613 i Particular average number of responses is made i Behavior is reinforced based on an average time d Fixed schedules when reinforcement stopsbehavior stops 9predictable i Fixed time intervals appropriate response is made ii If not paying salary stop working e Examples i 1 Fixed Schedules 1 Fixed Ratio every 5th box filled 2 Fixed Interval scheduled exams ii 2 Variable Schedules 1 Variable Ratio slot machines 2 Variable Interval pop quizzes iii 0R iv 1 Fixed Schedules 1 Fixed Ratio if ask 3 times for every 5 times you get reward 2 Fixed Interval raise every year v 2 Variable Schedules 1 Variable Ratio keep whining and every 3 or 8th time you will get some candy 2 Variable Interval boss checks work periodically 31 The Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning a Schedules of reinforcement b Intermittent reinforcement When only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement produce slightly higher rates of responding and are more resistant to extinction intermittentreinforcement effect c Most resistant to extinguishing behaviors d Intermittent reinforcement effect i The fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement 32 Animal Training and Coaching Teaching Tip a Start with FR 11 then fade to partial schedules with increasingly infrequent reinforcement b Variable i Los Vegas gambling 33 To Identify Contingent Responses What is the Behavior Doing a Increasing i Give Positive Stimulus Positive Reinforcement ii Take Away Negative Stimulus Negative Reinforcement b Decreasing i Give Negative Stimulus Positive Punishment ii Take Away Positive Stimulus Negative Punishment 34 Punishment The Fundamental Idea a Punishment refers to the process of weakening or reducing the probability of behavior b Is an aversive stimulus always a punisher the case of the class clown i Example 1 1 Residentialtreatment 2 Do very well 3 Get to go home 4 Do very bad ii Example 2 1 Prison 2 Did not experience punishment in their eyes 35 Why is punishment often ineffective the case of the speeding ticket a People start to remember when they will avoid speeding in certain areas b Get reinforced or rewarded when they did not get caught while speeding in other districts 36 Examples of Reinforcement Positive and Negative Events a a parent gives in to a whining child buys candy child hugs Children get positive reinforcement keep whining Parents get negative reinforcement keep giving candies What behavior is negatively reinforced for parent Hint Identify the quotaversive stimulus that is removed in this case it is then identify which behavior that immediately preceded the removal of the aversive stimulus is likely to increase in frequency in this case it is 9906 37 When does play become work The quotOverjustification Effect a when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person39s intrinsic motivation to perform a task b Why use external reward i It can change likelihood of engaging in behavior by changing meaning c What if the behavior is already rewarding i Called overjustification because reward provides unneeded justification for the behavior d Something which is naturally fun can become external focus reward clapping attention of others e Something is going to happen anyway gets rewarded changes the meaning of the action f Examples i Straight A for 5 bucks ii Reward kids drawing kids stop drawing naturally wait until the reward iii Volunteer VS getting paid iv Not quite as nice as the feelings from volunteer 38 How is Operant Conditioning Different from Classical Conditioning a ClassicalConditioning i Organism is passive ii Responses are reflexes unconscious iii Responses are elicited iv Reinforcement is unrelated to learning the association b Operant Conditioning i Organism is active ii Responses are voluntary conscious iii Responses are emitted iv Reinforcement is contingent on desired response v How environment is responding to your behavior 39 Other learnings a Latent Learning i Occurs without any obvious reinforcement ii A condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future 1 Experiment rats to a complex maze over 2 weeks a Control group no food reward improved but not so much b Regular reinforcements group errors decreased steadily over time c Latent learning group no food for 10 days and rewards for 7 days errors less than the regular reinforcement group b Implicit learning i Learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition ii Habituation 1 a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response a When first moved in to a house near the local airport you feel the noises are so deafening But when you live there long enough you will think the noises are not deafening anymore b Aplysia a creature sea plug no hippocampus can function habituation c Rats implicit and explicit memories hippocampusdamage explicit memory has nothing to do with the habituation d Amnesia patients hippocampusdamage implicit memory still function they don t explicit memory of having sandwiches 15 minuets earlier It is the implicit memory that suggests the habituation which shows that they are too full to take another sandwich 2 Complex behaviors such as languages use or socialization can also be learned through an implicit process iii Explicit instructions 1 Increased brain activity in he prefrontal cortex parietal cortex hippocampus iv Implicit instructions 1 Decreased brain activity in the occipital region visual processing 40 Social Learning Theory a Focuses on the importance of observing and modeling behaviors attitudes emotions Learning involves cognitive behavioral and environmental influences Studies of Modeling seemed to prove to the Social Learning Theorists that d We do not need to be shaped directly our behavior is influenced by observational learning and cognitive processes 41 Bandura amp Bobo launch social learning theory a Children with the Bobo doll b Saw the video that children beating up the Bobo doll c Children get more aggressive after watching that video 42 Results from a Classic Experiment by Albert Bandura Revealing the Influence of Modeling of Aggressive Behavior in Social Learning c 8 2 IE 0 8 2 to 2 2 9 U a 8 8 U C 2 5 a O 2 a People observing violence in the experiment may become more aggressive 43 Bandura s Social Learning with Phobias a Research that a child afraid of a dog but is able to observe child playing with dog repeatedly will significantly reduce fear of dog b Implication Phobias respond to social learning process 44 Neural Elements of Observational Learning a Diffusion chain a phenomenon that occurs when individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn the behavior b Mirror neurons fire to observational learning in humans as well as other animal specnes Mirror Neuron System Area 40 Regions in the frontal lobe area 44 and parietal lobe area 40 are thought to be part of the mirror neuron system in humans c Represented in the frontal and parietal lobes d If appropriate neurons fire when another organism is seen performing an action it could indicate an awareness of intentionality or that the animal is anticipating a likely course of future actions e fMRI studies show the w brain areas to be activated when one engages in a task g observes another engage in the task f Observational learning of motor skills depends on the motor cortex g TMS studies Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation measure the connection between the brain and a muscle to evaluate damage from stroke sclerosis amyotrophic movement disorders motor neuron disease and injuries and other disorders affecting the M and other cranial nerves and the spinal cordEl 45 How is learning influenced by the biology of reward a Brain Functioning in LearningReward i ii iii iv v vi Dopamine involved in motivationemotion Crucial for positive reinforcement Absence reduces drivemotor control Dopamine is the pleasurerelated neurotransmitter9 rewards Parkinson s disease people have low or no level of dopamine9 NO feeling of rewards positive reinforcement Experience of pleasure results from activation of dopamine neurons in nucleus accumbens limbic system vii Amphetamine cocaine increase dopamine viii Secondary reinforcers Money grades ix May activate dopamine systems b What is the Biological Basis of Reward I Is a Model of Reward ii Dopamine Signals Reward Electrode implanted in brain FIGURE 619 Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company 619 lntracranial SelfStimulation ltICSSgt TMS studies A rat will selfadminister electricity to pleasure centers dopamine in the brain9 46 Dopamine Signals Reward a ICSS lntracranial selfstimulation activates dopamine receptors i 9 deliver brief electrical pulses into specific regions of their own brains that are considered to be part of the brain s reward pathways mediating both natural and ICSS reward b Interfering with dopamine eliminates ICSS and other naturally motivated behaviors c Nucleus Accumbens activation i processing rewarding stimuli reinforcing stimuli eg food and water and those which are both rewarding and reinforcing addictive drugs sex and exercise ii selectively activated during the perception of pleasant emotionally arousing pictures and during mental imagery of pleasant emotional scenes d Secondary reinforcers rely on dopamine e Drug use and addiction 9 Amphetamine cocaine 47 Pleasure centers a Nucleus accumbens secrete dopamine b Hypothalamus a portion of the brain that contains a number of small m with a variety of functions One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland hypophysis c Medial forebrain bundle a tract containing fibers from the basal olfactory regions the periamygdaloid region and the septal nuclei as well as fibers from brainstem regions including the ventral tegmental area d Relations between them i Medial forebrain bundle FMB is a pathway that meanders its way from the midbrain through the hypothalamus into the nucleus accumbens prefrontal septum codex nucleus accumbens amygdala


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.