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Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivations

by: Melantha Liu

Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivations PSYCH 202

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Madison > Psychlogy > PSYCH 202 > Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivations
Melantha Liu
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey

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For the upcoming test! This note has included everything you can possibly name. I read through all the information in the book, powerpoint, my notes as well as other websites. You will ace the exam...
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melantha Liu on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Patricia Coffey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 10/24/15
Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivations 1 Definition a Emotion a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity JamesLange theory a theory which assert that stimuli trigger activity in the ANS autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain Cannonbard theory a theory which assets that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the ANS autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain Twofactor theory a theory which assets that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal Appraisal an evaluation of the emotionrelevant aspect of a stimulus Emotion regulation the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one s emotional experience Reappraisal changing one s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotioneliciting stimulus Emotional expression any observable sign of an emotional state Universality hypothesis emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone Six emotions fear anger disgust happy sadness surprise Facial feedback hypothesis emotional expressions can cause he emotional experiences they signify Display rules norms for the control of emotional expression Valence as used in psychology especially in discussing emotions means the intrinsic attractiveness positive valence or aversiveness negative valence of an event object or situation However the term is also used to Characterize and categorize specific emotions Two Dimensions of Emotions Motivation the purpose for or psychological cause of an action Hedonic principle the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain Drive an internal state generated by departure from physiological optimality Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake 9 high level of ghrelin hungry but suppressed and ignored by people Metabolism the rate at which energy is used Mortalitysalience hypothesis the prediction that people who are reminded of their own mortality will work to reinforce their cultural worldviews Intrinsic motivation a motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding Extrinsic motivation a motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to reward w Conscious motivation when one is aware Unconscious motivation when one is not aware y Need for achievement the motivation to solve worthwhile problems 2 Overjustification effect when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person39s intrinsic motivation to perform a task aa Approach motivation a motivation to experience positive outcomes bb Avoidance motivation a motivation not to experience negative outcomes cc 2 Needs Drives and Arousal Motivate Behavior a Motivation involves factors that energize initiate direct and sustain behavior b Needs are states of deficiency c Maslow s influential concept of a quothierarchy of needs helped shape quothumanistic psychology belonging and lime Sa f etg Physiological Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company Needs produce states of arousal which drive behavior Negative feedback helps maintain homeostasis stable equilibrium i 1 If have no needs have been met hierarchy of needs9 normally would have cues and signs to meet the needs ii 2 Discomfort something is not happening negative feedback d e Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs f 8 3 YerkesDodson Law a Hull proposed that specific aroused drive states increase in proportion to amount of deprivation Behaviors that consistently reduce drives and arousal become habit c Incentives are external motivators and are culturally determined d Optimal arousal YerkesDodson law fig 96 Optimal Performance Low High Arousal Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company i Optimal arousal 1 The y axis can be emotional or functioning 2 Low arousal high arousal not good thing 3 Just OPTIMAL arousal level is the most suitable 4 Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake Extrinsic vs Intrinsic motivation external and internal Curiosity play and exploratory drive Children are naturally curious no need to give rewards Creativity and problemsolving Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation Overjustification effect Control theory and selfperception anhrbslesrsv 5 basic motivations a Motivation for food i Needs energy orexigenic signal switch hunger on lateral hypothalamus 1 When destroyed starve to death ii Do not need energy anorexigenic signal turn hunger off ventromedial hypothalamus 1 When destroyed gorge to death iii Ghrelin a hormone in stomach to signal brain to switch hunger on iv Leptin chemical secreted by fat cells brain to switch hunger off v Obesity 1 Reasons a Result from biochemical abnormalities9 often leptin resistant brain does not shut hunger off b Often eat when we are not hungry to reduce negative emotions or eat out of habit c Nature designed us to overeat b Motivation for sex i Dihydroepiandosterone DH EA hormone of initial onset of sexual desire produce at 6 ii Males and females produce testosterone and estrogen males have more testosterone and females have more estrogen iii Testosterone is the hormonal basis of the sex drive in both men and women 6 Psychological motivations a Terror management theory Mortalitysalience hypothesis b Culture worldview a shield that buffers us against the anxiety that knowledge of our own mortality creates 7 Humans Have a Fundamental Need to Belong a The need to belong is a basic motive that drives behavior and influences cognition and emotion Notbelonging increases risk for health problems including emotional distress c Social exclusion theory i People become anxious while feeling being excluded from a group ii State of deficiency motivated to fix that 1 Social support is a buffer against negative outcomes stress 8 People Seek Others When They Are Anxious a Isolation produces anxiety but anxiety motivates the desire for company b Misery loves miserable company notjust any company c Social comparison theory i Comparing with other people ii Prefer to be with people with samesimilar experience iii Friends finished job hunting in the future but you did not iv Less comfortable hanging out with them 1 Same with during happy times 80 U L d 19 0 15 a 3 9 2 4 3917 O O C U go 20 S C G U 8 D m o Low anxietg High anxietg Condition Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright w w Norton amp Company i 1 Prefer to be with people going through the same experience ii Who do you want to wait with iii According to the chart people tend to choose be with the people with same or similar experience iv For the social anxiety people tend to go with the same person MAYBE 9 Introduction to Emotional Processes a Emotions are complex reactions that engage our bodies and minds at multiple levels gt Expressive behavior external behavior smiles Cognitive how we feel think about something that make you mad will make you mad again What is the differences between physiological and expressive 1 See the different theories in No 8 10 Emotions Have a Physiological Component a The Facial Feedback Hypothesis facial movement can influence emotional experience Response facial expressions we made Practice smile muscles happier Activate frown muscle9 more negative depression Concept if we smile we will be happy Fake until make it c Botox amp emotions i ii iii iv v vi Paralyze muscles in your face Cosmetically beauty Can not smile naturally Research suggests that the emotions can be influenced More negative mood states Freezing the face9 alter facial feedback facial movement can influence emotional experience 11 Different theories FIGURE 107 JamesLange Theorg Heart pounding trembling sweating running awag CannonBard Theorg Heart pounding trembling sweating running awag Schachter Singer Twofactor Theorg Heart pounding 39 trembling sweating z running awag 39 A gt quotThat is one scaru bear l39m afraid of itquot Fear Psychological Science 2nd Edition Copyright W W Norton amp Company Either way is true JamesLange Theory 1 Physiological automatics take you to the fear emotion 2 Physiological emotion CannonBard Theory 1 No thought involved 2 Emotion and physiological simultaneously SchachterSinger Twofactor Theory 1 Physiological response and cognitive response emotions 2 Physiologica cognitive emotion 3 Will be different if you are excited about the bear in order to capture it with your camera change the emotion completely a Experiment i Injection of epinephrine giving increasing in blood pressure heart rate blood flow to the brain blood sugar levels and respiration ii An experimenter acted different emotions to two groups of people iii Informed group adding more inferences of the emotions annoying people more annoying etc iv Uninformed group in the search of this symptoms overestimate their emotions v Anger fear sadness 9 higher heart rate 9 than disgust vi Anger9 higher finger temperature 9 than fear 12 The fast and slow pathways of fear a Fast pathway thalamus directly to the amygdala i people can be afraid of something before they know what it is ii because through the cortex is a slow pathway b Slow pathway thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala a JamesLange b CannonBard c Twofactor 13 Excitation Transfer Video a Intensive motion experience9 can be transferred into other things fear love disgust b To find certain situations that propel people to fall in love9 Danger can provoke passion c Experiment i 1 Attractive young woman on the scary bridge ii 2 Ask man to fill in the survey iii 3 Show them a picture iv 4 Asked to write a story and give the phone number v 5 Same schedule but change to a safe bridge vi Stories are more romantic when in the scary bridge more people called her from the scary bridge than the safe bridge d Want to make people fall in love take them to scary scenes 14 Are there universal crossculturally evident emotions a Six emotions happiness sadness anger disgust fear surprise are recognized as universal b They exist across cultures and are independent of cultural contexts of expression i Fear expression with the mouth flattened ii Surprise expression with the mouth wide open 15 Some of the Evidence a Actors posed in photos to express emotions Photos shown to members of literate Swedes Japanese Kenyans and preliterate isolated New Guinea tribe cultures persons asked to identify the emotions being portrayed b Results Judgments of portrayed emotions were essentially similar across cultures c New Guinea tribesmen asked to portray emotions appropriate to various simple situations i quotYour friend has come and you are happy ii quotYour child has died iii quotYou are angry and about to fight iv quotYou see a dead pig that has been lying there for a long time d Their pictures were taken while portraying the emotion e Photos were shown to American college students whose judgments closely matched the emotions the tribesmen tried to convey f Children born blind cry smile and laugh under essentially the same conditions that elicit these reactions in sighted children same emotional behaviors g Much the same is true of children born both blind and deaf i Innater present for people expressions and emotions are not learned from others 16 Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion a Facial expressions across cultures reveal universal emotions anger fear disgust happiness sadness surprise that may be biologically based b Display rules govern how and when emotions are exhibited control emotions and facial expressions c Gender differences in display rules guide emotional expression and reflect norms i People may try to suppress their facial expressions according to the different circumstances 17 Cultural Dependence of Emotional Displays a Emotional experience may be relatively independent of culture but culturally dependent quotdisplay rules control expression b Example Japanese and American subjects both watched a gruesome film of a primitive puberty rite while being filmed unknowingly in and out of presence of labcoated experimenter c Results i Show disgusting videos to Japanese and American ii Alone or present iii Present9 display rule activates iv Alone9 make the expressions they want v If alone Japanese and American9 same expression vi If present with the officials or researchers9 display rules 18 Conclusions Universality and Display Rules a Cultural norms affect expression display rules more than experience of basic universal emotions b It is likely there is a dampening or augmenting effect on emotional experience due to display rules affected by cultural conditions and circumstances i Facial feedback hypothesis facial movement can influence emotional experience 19 The Face is Critical to Emotional Expression Experience a Facialfeedback perspective b Facial Expression as Causative 20 Emotion Systems Are Lateralized in the Brain a Individual differences in relative cerebral asymmetry are associated with dispositional affective style b Lefthemisphere dominant persons show greater positive affect and right hemisphere dominance predicts negative affect ii Left H 9 Positive 9 low stress reactivity iii Right H9 Negative 9 high stress reactivity iv lndividualdifferences 21 Evidence suggests that extreme rightprefrontal activation is associated with a 1 larger decreases in natural killer NK cells in response to stress reduced immune functioning 2 Higher plasma cortisol levels cortisol is a stressrelated hormone 3 deficits in reducing negative affect once it arises d When exposed to pictures or other negative stimuli designed to be stressful RightActive Subjects quotrecoverquot much more slowly from emotional challenge e This suggests a deficiency in the stressresponse systems of such persons i Negative state9 weaker immune functioning ii Left H9 bounce back more quickly iii Right H9 difficult to let go the negative emotions f This deficit may be best conceptualized as a generalized failure of inhibitory control over negative affective arousal and experience g Conclusion po 22 Can people become more cerebrally leftactive a The systematic training of the mind the cultivation of happiness the genuine inner transformation by deliberately selecting and focusing on positive mental states and challenging negative mental states is possible the wring in our brains is not static High arousal O Alarmed Excited Astonished Afraid Aroused O Delighted Tense 0 Angry O Distressed Glad O Annoyed Ha Negative 0 Frustrated PPY posnwe valence valence Pleased Satisfied O Miserable Content 0 Depressed Serene 0 Sad Calm O Bored At ease Gloomy O Dmopy Relaxed O Tired Sleepy Low arousal 23 a Figure 82 Two Dimensions of Emotion Just as cities can be mapped by their longitude and latitude emotions can be mapped by their arousal and valence DANIEL L SCHACTER DANIEL T GILBERT DANIEL M WEGNER Introducing Psychology Second Edition Copyright 2013 2011 by Worth Publishers b Valence as used in psychology especially in discussing emotions means the intrinsic attractiveness positive valence or aversiveness negative valence of an event object or situation However the term is also used to characterize and categorize specific emotions c Emotions can be described by their location on the two dimension of Arousal and Valence 24 Coping Is a Process a Individual Differences make some people stress resistant and others stress vulnerable b People with hardiness personality traits of commitment challenge control show less negative responses to stressful events c Social Support facilitates stressmanagement and promotes resilience i quothardiness bounce back very quickly survive even when terrible things happened ii Social support also promotes resilience iii Being excluded anxious social support as buffer 25 The Regulation of Emotion a Emotion regulation the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one s emotional experience b Reappraisal changing one s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotioneliciting stimulus i Lost my job no money ii 0R iii Lost my job yeah I had hated that job 26 The Importance of quotEmotional Intelligence a Background Data Mischel s quotMarshmallow Test demonstrates the importance of emotional regulation especially ability to exercise delay of gratification i fouryearolds were given the choice of having one marshmallow immediately or waiting until the experimenter returned and then receiving two marshmallows one marshmallow right now or waiting for two 27 Results of Marshmallow Version a Children who at age four were able to delay gratification were BETTER more welladjusted adolescents they handled stress better were more confident and selfreliant and were more persistent in attaining goals Children who controlled their impulses were more successful academically The first group scored an average of 210 points higher on the SAT and had higher grade point averages Goleman 1995 anhrbslosr 28 Delayed Gratification Videoclip The ability to resist the temptation for an immediate reward and wait for a later reward a Chocolate motivation Between 4 and 5 One piece now or whole bar in 10 minutes Under 4 years old 5 only 6 years old can be aware of the time Want the whole bar 9906 f While waiting some children start to have fun cold cognition use of logical and rational thinkinq in coqnitive processinq while others just wait M cognition which a person39s thinking is influenced by their emotional state 29 Goleman s 5 Aptitudes of Emotional Intelligence a 1 selfawareness 2 selfsoothing 3 selfmotivation 4 empathy 5 effective relating i Things that go beyond cognitive intelligence ii Emotional recognize the positive things in environment 9906 30 Emotions continued a quotIt is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite of intelligence it is not the triumph of heart over head it is the unique intersection of both Caruso 31 Summary a Emotions are complex reactions fully integrated with the whole of psychological existence b Emotions are rooted in neurobiological processes that are integrated with how we learn remember think behave and experience ourselves and the world around us c Emotions and emotional learning are key to our level of health and adaptation to the world


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