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Gen. Psychology EXAM TWO

by: Jovani Jones

Gen. Psychology EXAM TWO PSYCH 1000 - 02

Jovani Jones
GPA 3.2
General Psychology
Dennis Miller

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General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Study Guide
Miller, Psychology
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/24/15
Chapter Five 51 53 Sensation is the detection of physical stimuli in the environment Perception is our conscious experience of the stimuli Bottomup processing is based on the features of a stimuli in the environment Topdown processing is based on context and expectations Transduction is the process in which sensory stimuli are translated into signals the brain understands Transduction happens at sensory receptors cells in each sense organ Sensory receptors send messages to the thalamus which sends projections to the cortical areas for perceptual processing Absolute Threshold is the minimum detectable amount of energy required to activate a sensory receptor Difference Threshold is the amount of energy change necessary for a sensory receptor to detect change in stimulation The signaldetection theory is about the subjective nature of detecting a stimulus Sensory adaptation occurs when sensory receptors stop responding to unchanging stimuli The brain will integrate diverse neural inputs to produce stable representations Vision is the most important sense because if provides the most information about the world Visual Transduction occurs when light enters the eye and activates the photoreceptors rods and cones Rods allow night vision Cones allow color vision and activity The human retina has three types of cones Each type responds best to one type of wavelength in light whether it be long medium or short Color Blindness results from the absence of photopigments sensitive to short medium or long wavelengths The Trichromatic Theory explains how three types of cones account for all of the colors we see The OpponentProcess Theory explains why we experience negative afterimages Gestalt principles of perceptual organization describe innate brain processes that put information into organized wholes Binocular and Monocular Depth Cues permit the perception of depth from a two dimensional retinal image Visual illusions can arise when the eye receives conflicting evidencefor example a size cue that does not agree with a distance cue Object constancies enable us to perceive images accurately even when the raw stimuli are incomplete 0 Sound is created when sound waves travel through the auditory canal to the eardrum producing vibrations in the cochlea a fluidfilled canal in the inner ear 0 The sensory receptors for audition are hair cells 0 Hair cells bend when pressure waves build up in the fluid of the cochlea The hair cells movement activates neurons in the auditory nerve o The vestibular system allows us to maintain balance when it receives signals from the semicircular canals in the inner ear 0 Temporal and Place Coding are responsible for the perception of pitch Lowfrequency sounds result from temporal coding the highfrequency sound waves are encoded by the location of the hair cells along the basilar membrane 0 Cochlear implants directly stimulate the auditory nerve correcting hearing loss caused by lack of hair cells in the inner ear 54 0 Each taste experience is composed of a mixture of five basic qualities Sweet Sour Salty Bitter and Umami savory 0 People lose more than half their taste buds by the age of 20 o Supertasters and children can be picky eaters due to the intense nature of their taste expe ences 0 Cultural factors influence taste perception Foods consumed by breastfeeding mothers influence taste preference in their offspring o Tactile Stimulation gives rise to the sense of touch 0 Haptic receptors process information about temperature and pressure 0 Haptic receptors send signals to the thalamus which projects to the primary somasensory cortex in the parietal lobe 0 Pain receptors are located all over the body but most pain is signaled by haptic receptors in the skin 0 Fast myelinated fibers process information about sharp sudden pain Slow nonmyelinated fibers process chronic dull pain 0 According to the gate control theory pain perception involves both a painful stimulus and spinal cord processing of the signal 0 Ways to decrease pain include activating touch or other senses mental distraction and thinking pleasant thoughts Chapter Six 61 o Behaviorism founded by John B Watson focuses on observable aspects of learning 0 There are three types of learning Nonassociative Associative and Observational o Associative learning processes include classical and operant conditioning o The Nonassociative learning processeshabituation and sensitizationare simple forms of learning Habituation ends in decreased responding after repeated presentation of a stimulus Sensitization results in increased responding after repeated presentations of a stimulus o Kandel s work on the aplysia had shown that habituation and sensitization occur through alteration in neurotransmitter release 62 0 Ivan Pavlov made the Classical Conditioning Theory to account for the learned association between neutral stimuli and reflexive behaviors o Conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus CS becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus US and begins to elicit a conditioned response CRthat is the response normally elicited by the US 0 For learning to happen the CS needs to predict the US not be next to it 0 Animals are biologically prepared to make connections between stimuli that are potentially dangerous The biological preparation to fear specific objects helps animals avoid possible dangers facilitating survival 0 The RescorlaWagner Model states that the degree which conditioning occurs is determined by the extent to which the US is unexpected or surprising with stronger effects occurring with positive prediction errors 0 The neurotransmitter dopamine is released into the brain after positive prediction errors Dopamine is no longer released when no surprise is associated with CS presentation 0 Classical conditioning explains the development of phobias and contributes to drug addiction Accordingly techniques based on classical conditioning may be used to treat fears and drug addiction 63 0 Classical conditioning involves the learned association between two events By contrast operant conditioning involves the learned association between a behavior and its consequences 0 B F Skinner developed the concept of operant conditioning to explain why some behaviors are repeated and others are not 0 Reinforcement raises a behavior s likelihood of being repeated Punishment reduces that erHhood 0 Four schedules of reinforcement have been identified variable ratio fixed ratio variable interval and fixed interval Each schedule has a different effect on behavior 0 Positive reinforcement and punishment involve the administration of a stimulus Negative reinforcement and punishment involve the removal of a stimulus o Skinner maintained that operant conditioning could explain all behavior Contemporary theorists recognize that biological predispositions and cognitive processes influence other animals ability to learn 0 An animal s biological makeup constrains the types of behaviors the animal can learn 0 Latent Learning takes place without reinforcement Latent learning may not influence behavior until a reinforcer is introduced 0 Dopamine activity underlies reinforcement in part by its role in prediction error 64 o Humans learn behavior by observing the behavior of others 0 We tend to imitate o Attractive models 0 Those with high status 0 Those similar to us 0 Those we admire 0 Through Vicarious Learning we learn about an action s consequences We are more likely to perform a behavior when a model has been rewarded for the behavior than when a model has been punished for the behavior 0 Lab research indicates that media violence increases aggressive behavior decreases prosocial behavior and desensitizes children to violence 0 Monkeys may be able to learn fear by observation if the behavior is biologically adaptive Humans can learn fear by observation and the amygdala plays a role in such learning 0 Mirror Neurons which fire when a behavior is observed and performed may in involved in learning about and predicting what others think Mirror neurons can also be involved in empathy the emotional response of feeling what someone else is experiencing Chapter Seven 71 0 Memory is the capacity of the nervous system to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge 0 Three important phases of memory are encoding storage retrieval Encoding is processing info so it can be stored storage is the retention of encoded representations and retrieval is the active recall of stored info 0 Memory is distributed across many brain areas including the hippocampus medial temporal lobes and cortical sensory areas 0 Consolidation is the neural process by which encoded info becomes stored in memory 0 Reconsolidation describes the neural and epigenetic processes that take place when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval This model may explain why and how memories change over time 72 o Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed three parts to memory sensory shortterm and longterm memory 0 Sensory memory stores info from each of the five senses for less than one second enabling the brain to perceive the world as a continuous stream Iconic memory visual sensory memory Echoic memory is auditory sensory memory 0 Today shortterm memory is more accurately considered working memory an active info processing system 0 Info can be held in working memory for 2030 seconds Working memory span is approx seven items plusminus two The number of items in working memory can be increased by chunking organizing info into meaningful units Longterm memory is the relatively permanent storage of large amounts of info The Serial Position Effect and studies of memory impairment suggest that longterm memory is distinct from working memory Info is transferred from working memory to longterm memory if it is repeatedly rehearsed is people pay attention to details or if it helps adaptation to an environment According to the levels of processing model memory is enhanced by deeper encoding Maintenance Rehearsalrepeating an item over and overleads to shallow encoding and poor recall Elaborative Rehearsal links new info with old leading to deep encoding and better recall Schemas are cognitive structures that help us perceive organize and use info Schemas can lead to biased encoding based on cultural expectations According to association network models of memory info is stored in the brain in nodes and nodes are connected via networks to many other nodes Activating one node result in spreading activation to all associated nodes within the network Retrieval Cues help with recall According to the Encoding Specificity Principle any stimulus encoded with an experience can serve as a retrieval cue Internal and external cues can also serve as retrieval cues Mnemonics such as the method of loci are learning strategies that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues Longterm memory is composed of many systems Explicit Memory is the system underlying conscious episodic and semantic memories Episodic Memory is memory for personal past experiences Semantic Memory is memory for personal past experiences Episodic and semantic memory systems are different Certain types of brain damage can disrupt the formation of episodic memories but spare semantic memories Info retrieved from explicit memory is call declarative memory because it is knowledge that can be declared The system underlying unconscious memories is call implicit memory Implicit memory can influence decision making by making info seem familiar in the absence of conscious awareness that the into was previously encountered Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habhs Prospective Memory involves remembering to do something at a future time Schacter 1999 identified seven sins of memory The first three are useful and necessary and useful for survival since they reduce memory for irrelevant info 0 Transience o Absentmindedness Blocking Persistence ALL FOUR RELATED TO FORGE39I39I39INGREMEBERING Misattribution Suggestibility o Bias DISTORTIONS OF MEMORY o Transience is memory decay that happens over time Transience is likely caused by interference o Retroactive Interference is the loss of memory due to replacement by newer info Proactive Interference is the failure to store a new memory because of interference by an older memory 0 Blocking is a common temporary inability to remember something known Blocking is a retrieval failure likely caused by interference o Absentmindedness is forgetfulness caused by shallow encoding o Amnesia is the inability to retrieve large amounts of info from longterm memory Amnesia is atypical and can be caused by brain injuries diseases or trauma 0 Retrograde Amnesia is the loss of memories from the past Anterograde Amnesia is the inability to store new memories Patient H M suffered from anterograde amnesia o Persistence is the remembering of unwanted memories usually encountered under stressful circumstances 0 Reconsolidation can reduce persistence but only for recent memories 0 HDAC Inhibitors may help erase old persistent memories but additional research is needed Further erasing memories can pose ethical concerns 0000 0 Memory Bias is the changing of memories so they become consistent with current beliefs Memory bias affects individuals groups and societies 0 Flashbulb Memories are vivid episodic memories of important or emotionally arousing events Flashbulb memories are recalled no more accurately than other episodic memories although people often report them with more confidence 0 Source Misattribution is the distortion of the circumstances surrounding a memory The False Fame Effect the Sleeper Effect Source Amnesia and Cryptomnesia are examples 0 Eyewitness Testimony is susceptible to error due to Suggestibility Confirmation Bias and False Memory 0 False memories are created as a result of the natural tendency to form mental representations of stories The mental representations can then become incorporated as true episodic memories Most people are susceptible to forming false memories of events that could have happened but not events that are unlikely to have occurred 0 Legitimacy of repressed memories continue to be debated by contemporary psychologists many of whom argue that such memories may be implanted by suggestive techniques Chapter Eight 81 o Cognition is thinking and understandingprocesses studied by cognitive psychologists Knowledge about the world is stored in the brain as representations This storage makes thought possible Analogue Representations are images that include characteristics of actual objects Symbolic Representations are abstract representations with no real connection to actual objects Mental Maps will use both analogue and symbolic representations Categorization is grouping objectsevents based on shared properties to increase thinking efficiency According to the Prototype Model the individual forms a concept around a category and then chooses a prototype that best represents said concept According to the Exemplar Model the individual forms a concept by combining all the examples of a category ever experienced by the individual Schemas are categories used to organize information Schemas usually work because situations and appropriate behaviors follow general rules Scripts are schemas that are adaptive because they minimize attentional requirements and help people avoid dangerous situations Reinforcing stereotypes and biases are negative consequences of schemas Decision Making is selecting the best alternative from among several options According to normative theories of decision making people make decisions by choosing options that will provide the greatest gain However people do not always follow this rule Descriptive theories of decision making try to realistically account for the variability such as biases and irrationality in how people decide People often use heuristics or mental shortcuts to make decisions Four common ones are relative comparisons AnchoringFraming Availability Representativeness and Affective The paradox of choice is that people prefer to have more choices but increasing their options decreases their decision making ability and satisfaction with decisions Problem Solving is finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal Problem solving can be improved by breaking problems into subgoals restructuring the problem working backward from the goal or transferring an effective strategy from an analogous situation Mental Sets and Functional Fixedness inhibit problem solving Insight is the sudden realization of a solution to a problem Insight can be facilitated by overcoming functional fixedness Language is a system of communication using sounds and symbols Morphemes are the smallest units of language that have meaning Phonemes are the basic sounds of speech and the building blocks of language A network of left hemisphere brain regionsincluding Broca s Area in the frontal lobes and Wernicke s Area at the junction of the temporal and parietal lobesgovern speech production and comprehension o In the Linguistic Relativity Theory language determines or influences thought 0 Speech progresses from baby coosIaughing 9 single words 9 combination of words 9 speechacquisition of around 60000 words 0 Behaviorists believed that language was learned through operant conditioning but research shows that children acquire language even in the absence of reinforcement o Noam Chomsky proposed instead that humans are born with an innate capability for language called the Language Acquisition Device which contains universal grammar rules Through experience with other speakers children acquire the rules specific to their native language 0 For many adults reading is automatic and effortless We are able to derive accurate meanings even from misspelled words 0 Phonics is a method of teaching reading by associating letters with phonemes Phonics is the best way to teach basic reading skills especially for people unfamiliar with reading 0 World Language is a method of teaching reading by emphasizing the meanings of words and how words are connected in sentences Whole language may help encourage reading 0 People with Dyslexia a reading disorder have trouble reading spelling and writing even though they have normal levels of intelligence 84 0 Intelligence is the ability to use knowledge to reason make decisions solve problems understand complex ideas learn quickly and adapt to environmental changes 0 Two standardized tests of intelligence are aptitude tests which assess ability and potential and achievement tests which measured gathered knowledge 0 The StandfordBinet children and the WAIS adults are commonly used intelligence tests 0 Intelligence Quotient IQ is derived by dividing mental age by chronological age then multiplying the rest by 100 o IQ tests have been shown to be valid measures of intelligence Perseverance zeal and willingness to work long hours are also important for developing expertise 0 General Intelligence g is the idea that one general factor underlies intelligence The factor may consist of two components 0 Fluid Intelligence The ability to think logically about abstract concepts without any previous any prior knowledge 0 Crystallized Intelligence Knowledge gathered over time 0 Several theories suggest multiple intelligences such as Emotional Intelligence people s success in social situations More research is needed to determine whether or not multiple intelligences exist 0 High IQ is related to increased speed of mental processing as measured by reaction time and inspection time tasks 0 Working memory may be related to intelligence for tasks that require attention 0 People high on fluid intelligence have been found to have a greater density of neural cell bodies gray matter in the frontal lobes an area of the brain that regulates the working memory o Savants have minimal intellectual capabilities in most domains but at a young age they show exceptional ability in some intelligent process 0 This is like a genetic component to intelligence that involves many genes but environment will play a larger role in how intelligence is expressed o Epigenetics offers an explanation for how intelligence may develop by describing how environmental influences such as enrichment and education can permit gene expression to raise synaptic connections and brain efficiency to increase intelligence 0 There is no overall difference in intelligence between men and women although men tend to score higher on standardized tests of math and visuospatial processing Women score higher on tests of writing and language use 0 With standardized tests white European Americans tend to score 1015 points higher than AfricanAmericans There is no clear basis for understanding this difference but environmental factors play a huge role 0 Stereotype Threat is a negative effect on test performance caused by the belief that the testtaker s performance will reflect a negative stereotype about that testtaker s group A few methods exist to counteract that threat Chapter Nine 91 o The Prenatal Period is from conception sperm egg zygote through birth Approx 40 weeks after conception o 2 weeks2 months prenatally the developing organism is called an embryo and begins to form into organ systems The embryo is vulnerable to Teratogens environmental toxins that include chemicals and drugs o In 2 months prenatally organ systems form the heart starts beating and a fetus develops o In early fetal development brain development begins Myelination of spinal cord begins in the first trimester Brain myelination happens during the second trimester 0 Many neurons are formed at birth but neural development via synaptic connections continues through early adulthood Synaptic Pruning is the reduction of synaptic connections due to nonuse o Genetics and environment influence development 0 Dynamic Systems Theory views development as a selforganized process guided by biology but altered by environmental experiences 0 Infants are capable of learning though formation of explicit longterm memories does not occur until about the age of 18 months 0 All humans experience Infantile Amnesia the inability to remember events before the age of 3 or 4 Infantile amnesia may disappear with the development of language 0 An Attachment is a strong emotional connection that can motivate care protection and social support 0 Harry Harlow s research demonstrated that attachments form because of comfort not food 0 65 percent of infants show a Secure Attachment Style expressing confidence in unknown environments as long as the caregiver is present o 35 percent of infants display an Insecure Attachment Style and might avoid contact with caregiver or they might switch between approach and avoidance behaviors o The hormone Oxytocin plays a role in attachment 92 o Piaget believed that cognitive development occurred in four stages 0 Sensorimotor 02 years 0 Preoperational 27 years 0 Concrete Operational 712 years 0 Formal Operational 12Adulthood 0 Babies develop schemas in the Sensorimotor Stage With Assimilation and Accommodation children revise of adjust schemas so they are useful throughout their lives 0 Even though Piaget s theory correctly describes a lot of how cognitive skills develop it may underestimate early knowledge 0 Another theory like Vygotsky emphasized that cognitive development is guided by cultural expectations and interactions with others 0 Theory of Mind is the ability to understand that other people have mental states that can motivate their behavior Theory of mind is developed by 15 months and is related to frontal lobe development 0 Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Reasoning suggests that moral decisions are based on trying to avoid personal harm trying to gain approval from others or having true moral concern for sanctity of life 0 Theories of moral reasoning have been criticized for being gender and culture biased and for ignoring emotional aspects of moral decisions 0 The Social lntuitionist Model says that moral judgments reflect automatic emotional responses rather than conscious decisions based on more rules 0 Moral thinking involves the prefrontal cortex the insula and the amygdala are three of the brain areas involved in moral thinking 93 o Puberty is the onset of sexual maturity that marks the beginning of adolescence Biology and environment affect the timing of puberty 0 During puberty changing hormone levels stimulate physical changes 0 Since frontal lobes mature slower than the brain reward systems adolescents may act on impulse and take risks Adolescence is not characterized by as much emotional turmoil as is commonly believed o Erikson proposed a theory of psychological development that described a series of challenges individuals must overcome from birth through old age Adolescents are challenged to develop an adult identity 0 Physical and cognitive changes along with environmental and societal pressures to prepare for the future prompt adolescents to question their identities 0 Gender Identity personal beliefs about one being male or female develops during adolescence This and gender roles are strongly influenced by biology and environment 0 Ethnic Identity might be crucial in adolescent s sense of self especially if their particular ethnic group struggles within the dominant culture 0 Adolescents use peer groups to help them feel a sense of belonging and acceptance 0 Parents influence peer group identification religious choices and values 0 Adulthood requires people to meet certain challenges such as physical and cognitive changes getting marries and raising a family 0 In general married people are healthier and happier than people who are single or cohabitating and this advantage is more pronounced in men 0 Effective Communication can keep marriages happy and satisfying especially after childbirth 0 People seek meaning in their lives the older they get 0 Thoughtful planning and social support can make all the phases of adulthood seem rewarding 0 Even though older adults are often characterized as feeble and senile they are for the most part healthy alert and vital 0 Older people are more satisfied with their lives than younger adults are 0 People tend to maintain their intelligence in very old age as there are declines in memory and speed of mental processing 0 Engaging in social physical and mental activities can help keep mental skills sharp iClicker Questions Review amp Answer as needed 1 Because the brain cannot process physical stimuli directly it must convert the stimuli into chemical and electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain This process is known as a Coarse coding b Signal detection c Sensory adaptation d Transduction Kayla hated the taste of broccoli However after a stroke the hatred disappeared All other aspects of her perception of food arewere unchanged Her stroke most likely affected her a Hypothalamus b Medulla c Thalamus d Gustatory cortex e Amygdala An odor is most likely encoded by an a Single receptor specialized for that odor b Activation pattern across several receptor types c Single olfactory and single gustatory receptor d Activation pattern across several olfactory and gustatory receptor types Jazeel has 150 stations available on his car radio however when he drives he always selects the same channel What type of learning s represented by this behavior a Neophobia b The mere exposure effect c Habituation d Sensitization Jazeel experiences moderate back pain from a compressed vertebra however when he is stressed at work his back pain is very intense What type of learning is represented by this behavior a Neophobia b The mere exposure effect c Habituation d Sensitization n quotPavlov s dogs what his the salivation following the metronome a US b UR c CS d CR Emily is driving to work during a heavy snowstorm when the brake lights on the car ahead of her come on She hits her brakes but is unable to avoid hitting the car She is badly shaken up in the accident The next time she is driving in the snow she notices that she tenses up every time she sees brake lights come on ahead of her The brake lights are the a US b UR c CS d CR n quotPavlov s Dogs how would Pavlov extinguish ie produce extinction of the CR a Repeatedly present the CS with the US b Repeatedly present the CS without the US c Repeatedly present the US without the UR d Repeatedly present the US with the UR Alexander is four years old One night his parents decided to light a fire in the family room fireplace A burning emberjumped out of the fireplace and landed on Alexander s leg creating a nasty burn He cried because the burn hurt A week later when Alexander s parents start to light another fire in the fireplace Alexander begins to cry What is the unconditioned stimulus US 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The burning ember The fireplace Crying when his parents start to light another fire Crying after being burnt by the ember Allie is afraid of her neighbor s large dog She then becomes afraid of any dog she sees on the street and eventually she fears even pictures of dogs or toy dogs This change in her fear of dogs represents a Secondorder conditioning b Generalization c Discrimination d Extinction What causes extinction a The conditioned response is no longer rewarding to the organism b The unconditioned stimulus no longer evokes a response from the organism c The organism learns that the conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the unconditioned stimulus d Spontaneous recovery fails to occur He strongest associations between a US and a CS occur when a They are presented at the same time b The US is presented slightly before the CS c The CS is presented slightly before the US d The CR is presented during the CS In the RescolaWagner model the more surprising the US is the greater the need for an organism to it using a CS a Condition b Predict c Fear d Reinforce n conditioned taste aversion described by Garcia what is the CR a Radiation b The flavored solution eg Kool Aid c Illness after radiation d Illness after flavored solution According to the work of Shepard Siegel an addict s usual large dose is most like to produce an overdose in which setting a In a novel setting b In a familiar setting c The setting is unimportant d None are correct The school of behaviorism proposed by John Watson was based on the belief that a Anything can be learned by any living organism b Animals and humans are born with the potential to learn just about anything c Behavior is conditioned unlike cognitions of the mind d Animals learn via behavioral principles whereas humans learn via cognitive principles goo9 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Reinforcement is to punishment as is to a Before after b Awareness wariness c Increase decrease d Decrease increase Which is the best example of positive punishment a When a rat presses the lever it receives a painful shock the rat often presses the lever b When a rat presses the lever it receives a sweet treat the rat often presses the lever c When a rat presses the lever a painful shock is removed the rat often presses the lever d When a rat presses the lever a sweet treat is removed the rat rarely presses the lever Which is the best example of negative reinforcement a When a rat presses the lever it receives a painful shock the rat rarely presses the lever b When a rat presses the lever it receives a sweet treat the rat often presses the lever c When a rat presses the lever a painful shock is removed the rat often presses the lever d When a rat presses the lever a sweet treat is removed the rat rarely presses the lever Eddie hates doing his homework but loves playing with his Nintendo When he does his homework his mother allows him to play with his Nintendo Which best represents the learning of Eddie s mother is using a Positive reinforcement with a primary reinforce b Positive reinforcement with the Premack Principle c Positive punishment with a secondary reinforce d Positive punishment with a Premack Principle Sheldon wants Penny to speak in a low voice When she speaks in a low voice he gives her a chocolate Sheldon s modifying Penny s behavior by a Positive reinforcement b Negative reinforcement c Positive punishment d Negative punishment Sheldon wants Leonard to stop complaining When Leonard complains Sheldon squirts him with water Sheldon is modifying Leonard s behavior by a Positive reinforcement b Negative reinforcement c Positive punishment d Negative punishment Suppose your boss provides free coffee and donuts each morning at precisely 1030 am The first people there get the best choice of donuts You re going to the place where the donuts are each day is reinforced on which schedule a Fixed ratio b Variable ratio c Fixed interval d Variable interval A professor gives unannounced quizzes at unpredictable times Therefore students must study equally every night Which type of schedule of reinforcement is this a Fixed ratio b Variable ratio c Fixed interval d Variable interval 25 When listening in class you are class material walking home from class listening to music 26 27 28 you are class information and taking the exam you are class information a Retrieving encoding storing b Storing retrieving encoding c Encoding storing retrieving cunahi book anger dht plant hunger paper sadness sunshine music disease surprise fired love test pizza electricity As a researcher participant you study the list of words above When you are asked to recall the list which of the following words are you most likely to have trouble remembering a Book b Electricity c Music d Curtain Peter is taking the final exam and needs to know a term from Chapter 7 What part of the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model is used a Retrieval from longterm memory b Encoding to longterm memory c Maintenance rehearsal within shortterm memory d Attention from sensory to shortterm memory Lois is trying to learn the three parts of the memory model by repeating the names again and again What part of the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model is used a Retrieval from longterm memory b Maintenance rehearsal within shortterm memory 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 c Attention from sensory to shortterm memory d Maintenance rehearsal within sensory memory Which of these types of memory can store the largest amount of information That is which one has the greatest capacity a Sensory memory b Shortterm memory c Longterm memory d All three have an equal capacity For a professional baseball player his memory of the rules of baseball is a type of a Semantic memory b Episodic memory c Procedural memory d Implicit memory e Both C and D are correct Which of the following is an example of episodic memory a Remembering how to ride a bicycle b Remembering the name of your elementary school c Remembering what happened your first day of elementary school d Remembering how to throw a football e Both A and D are correct You study psychology class your freshman and sophomore years of college but the take an anthropology class your senior year You have trouble learning anthropology because of all the psych you learned This effect is most likely due to interference a Proactive b Retroactive Based on the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model what is altered in Clive Wearing a Longterm memory is absent b Inability to encode information c Shortterm memory is absent d Inability to retrieve information e Sensory memory is absent Early in development the nervous system begins as a a Tune surrounding a fluidfilled cavity b Spherical structure in the center of the embryo c Diffuse system of cells scattered throughout the body d Single layer of cells covering the heart and other internal organs What term describes the movement of primitive neurons and glia within the developing nervous system a Differentiation b Migration c Myelination d Proliferation An axon that does not receive enough neurotrophins from a target cell will 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Branch out and form other synapses on other cells Manufactures its own neurotrophins Degenerate and die Fail to reabsorb transmitters that have already been release goo9 Harlow did an experiment with infant rhesus monkeys requiring them to make a choice between an imitation mother that provided contact comfort or one that provided food The results demonstrate that for this species a Food is the most important reinforcement Food is used as a method for tension reduction in the young Contact comfort is more important than food particularly during stress Infants were distressed because the mother providing contact comfort did not supply food The strangesituation test was designed to allow psychologists to assess a How infants respond to separation and reunion with their mothers b An infant s tendencies to seek or avoid novelty c A mother s response to a fearful infant d The level of social skill an infant has acquired Which best reflects secure attachment a A baby is upset when his mother leaves his sight but he is quickly comforted when she returns b A baby is calm when his mother leaves and he ignores her when she returns A baby is very upset when his mother leaves When she returns he wants to be both with and away from her Cognitive structures that help us perceive organize process and use information are referred to as a Sensory memory b Working memory c Schemas d Flashbulb memories A child has been playing football with her older brothers and is pretty good throwing a completed pass Now her brothers attempt to teach her how to play basketball She keeps throwing the basketball like she throws a football She is unable to make a single basket Why is she having trouble a She s using accommodation when she should use assimilation b She s using assimilation when she should be using accommodation An investigator covers a toy and watches whether a child removes the cover to retrieve the toy The investigator is probably testing whether the child has the concept of a Conservation b Identity achievement c Assimilation d Object permanence What did Piaget mean by the term egocentric b c d a Seeing the world only from your own perspective b Selfish c Having a welldefined individually chosen identity d Withdrawn shay and inhibited 44 According to Piaget a child who has the concept of conservation understands that a The weight and mass of an object stay the same when the shape changes b One should work out a strategy before starting on a complex task c An object continues to exist even when one does not see it d A group of people has to take turns talking to one another and then listening 45 19yearold Daphne started college convinced that she wanted to major in prelaw But a summer internship at a law firm after hear freshman year convinced her that she has no real interest in practicing law She is now very anxious because she is not sure what she wants to do as a career She enjoys working with children but worries that she won t be able to support herself as a teacher Her parents are pushing her to switch to a business track and consider an MBA program but Daphne took accounting in high school and really disliked it Which best describe the status of Daphne s identity crisis for her career a Identity Achievement b Identity Moratorium c Identity Foreclosure d Identity Diffusion 46 How are marriage and health related Married individuals are healthier than singles Married females are healthier then singles but married males are not Single males are healthier than any other group Marital status appears unrelated to health status 9969


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