Music 80C Study Guide – on Everything Else
Music 80C Study Guide – on Everything Else MUSC 80C - 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Garcia on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUSC 80C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Polansky,L. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
Music 80C Study Guide on Everything Else Forbidden Planet 1956 Louis amp Bebe Barron a married couple whom the first completely electronic soundtrack that is featured in this film The soundtrack was made using their homemade oscillators and ring modulators The plot of this film is based on Shakespeare s The Temptest These songs from the soundtrack are the ones you need to know Ancient Krell Music httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvoNKhju6Pryg Main Title Sequence httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvvoyDAXZ6uo Mind Booster httpswwwyoutubecomwatchv2DtgMafRK Electronic Music Pretty much all music that exists today is electronic music because electronic music is music of which electricity plays a part in the process of creation whether it be the use of an electronic tuner a microphone etc Human Ear Cannot hear above 20000 Hz The ear drums are transducers transform information from sound waves to perceived sound Presbycusis is the loss of sensitivity in the ear which stops the response of high frequency Sound is physics perception Involves 1 something moving 2 something transmitting the results of that movement 3 somethingsomeone hearing the result of that movement here s a rule All sound is reflected by vibration but not all vibration is sound Acoustics What happens before we hear sound Something moves air is displaced Amplitude refers to the changes in pressure of this air which is now displaced how much air moves A function is a graph which records amplitude over time Frequency is the rate at which air fluctuates how fast air moves which is measured in hertz Hz Sampling is the recording of the value of a displacement in time amplitude at a certain frequency Standard sampling rates include 441 kHz 48 kHz or 96 kHz Intensity is what happens to amplitude at a certain time of displacement Psychoacoutics How we perceive sound the logarithmic perception of sound Intensity is how we perceive how much air moves as sound intensity is our perception of amplitude Pitch is how we perceive how fast something is moving as sound pitch is our perception of frequency slow frequency low pitch fast frequency high pitch Loudness how we perceive amplitude at a certain time of displacement measured in decibels loudness is our perception of intensity Timbre spectral configurations dynamics transitions pitch amp amplitude related effects sociocultural factors amp everything else that is not amplitude amp frequency Acoustics Psychoacoustics Psychoacoustics is always experienced at a lesser values than what is expressed in acoustics That is the value of acoustics must be more than the output expressed in psychoacoustics in order for it to be perceived as it is expected to Let that sink in The Nyquist Theory states that the rate at which sound is sampled has to be at least 2 times that at which sound is produced Increasing decibels by 10 doubles the perception of loudness Fletcher Munson Curves are graphs that show amplitude over frequency tell us how much intensity is needed at a certain frequency in order to produce the same perceived loudness at a different frequency Cutting wave frequencies in half lowers pitch by one octave doubling frequencies raises pitch by one octave Anthropod Acoustics Middle C is 500 Hz Human speech is 5Khz 0 decibels does not equal silence it is the threshold of human hearing 140 decibels is the human pain threshold Digital Representation of Sound Analog to Digital Converter ADC converts sound to numerical values Digital to Analog Converter DAC converts numerical numbers back to sound Analog information is continuous amp waveforms are nice and smooth Digital information is not continuous amp waveforms are chunky Larger bit width better resolution of sound 8 bits 1 byte 1000 bytes 1 KB 1000 KB 1 MB on a 74 minute CD 600 MB can be stored Data compression is expressing the same information in a smaller string of symbols Early electronic musicians Luigi Russolo who wrote The Art of Noises and is the artist of The City Awakens 19131914 He also said this the art of noises should not limit itself to an imitative reproduction httpswww youtube com watch vC3KMbSkYNI James Tenney who was a part of the Fluxus movement a group of experimental electronic musicians who Yoko Ono played a part in leading Dr Thaddeu Cahill who invented the telharmonium the first electronic organ and whose performance on the device was broadcasted over telephone wires Ondes Martenot who created a variety of different speakers called Ondes Marenot diffusers Johanna Beyer who is often credited as the first electronic music composer for her Music of the Spheres httpswwwyoutubecomwatch v RE VFN7A6 4 Pierre Schaeffer the pioneer of musique concr te and the idea of the sonorous object with his piece Etude Aux Chemins De Fer Railroad Study 1948 httpswww youtube com watch vN9p0q8u6 bA Kerlheinz Stockhausen and his piece Kontakte 1958 1960 httpswww youtube com watch vchV12266fk Steve Reich and his piece Come Out 1966 https www youtube com watch vg0WVh1 DON50 Women in Electronic Music Laurie Anderson New York Social Life 1977 and quotOh Superman 1982 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvmLonWmMFnQ httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvQH2x5pARGdE Pauline Oliveros Bye Bye Butterfly 1965 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvDMCTxkaLHw Laurie Speigel who created Music Mouse and whose work is included on the Voyager Soundtrack She also created an application called GR00VE on which she created her piece Appalachian Grove 1974 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvTFaUAAjOubg Johanna M Beyer the mysterious German American composer of Music of the Spheres 1938 whom died of ALS in the 405 httpswwwyoutubecomwatch v RE VFN7A6 4 John Cage In his In Defense of Satiequot claims that quottime and length are the most essential parts of music not harmony because harmony disregards silence In his Lecture on Nothing he utilizes spacing to exemplify this importance of silence He also uses an analogy of music and silence to milk and a glass Cage even has a silent piece called 433 Cage s musical structures based on the relationships of lengths of time 13 Music ofJohn Cage Cage s 4 Foundations 1 Structure how the piece is organized 2 Method how time is cut up 3 Material what fills the time that has been cut up 4 Form what the final product is His piece Imaginary Landscape 1 was created based on these 4 foundations and filled with the sounds of records from old radio stations His piece William s Mix uses the lChing hexagram to introduce chance the method of composition This score Is 192 pages long and took about 1 year to create Tom Erbe recreated William s Mix in a true performance meaning he used all the same methods but filled it with different sounds Musique Concrete Pioneered by Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Barband is also associated Is music constructed by mixing recorded sounds Is based on the idea of the sonorous object which is the sound that the instrument makes Acousmatics is a quotnoise that one hears without seeing what causes it 77 Schaeffer Acousmatics Futurist Music Pioneered by Luigi Russolo Focus on the evolution of music 6 families of the Futurist Orchestra 1 roars thunderings explosions hissing roars bangs booms 2 whistiling hissing puffing 3 whispers murmurs mumbing muttering gurgling 4 screeching creeking rustling humming crackling rubbing 5 noises obtained by beating on metals woods skins stones potteryetc 6 voices of animals amp people shouts screams shrieks wails hoots howls death rattles sobsquot Russolo The Art of Noises Programmed Control When quotparameters of an entire selection of sounds are specified by the composer prior to the recording operation 23 Moog Introduction to Programmed Control Classes of programmed control 1 the sequencer 2 the punched paper tape recorder 3 the hybrid system 4 the largedigital computer Automated Compositions Push Button Bertha 1956 is one of the first music experiments realized with a computer made on the system DATARON at the end of a research conducted by Martin Klein and Douglas Bolitho httpwwwmusicainformaticaorgtopicspushbuttonberthaphp llliac Suite 1956 was created on the ILLIAC computer system made by Larajen Hiller amp Leonard lssacson httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvn0njBFLQSk8 European Algorithmic Music John Myhill Scherzo a Tre Voce Otto Laske Gotfried Michael Koenig composed the programs PROJECTl amp PROJECTZ Guest Speakers Phil Burk lecture quotMaking Computers Go Beep for Fun amp Profit as a young man Burk built a homemade synthesizer he calls quotShoebox Synth He has worked for Google and Android His song Yuppies in the Jungle is available on soundcloud David Kant lecture quotGetting Machines to Act Like People amp Make Music makes an analogy of listening to sound and interpreting its source to that of facing away from the ocean staring at handkerchiefs and interpreting what can be seen out in the ocean Kant is a graduate student here at UCSC He has a band called Happy Valley Band which covers computer interpretation ofsound
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