Psych 202 Midterm
Psych 202 Midterm psy 202
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alejandra Miranda on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psy 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Psychology 202 Midterm 1 Review Major themes Areas of psych Science that have advance 1020 years Psychoanalysis Freud Treatment that helps people understand themselves their relationships and how they behave in the world Introspection the examination or observation of one39s own mental and emotional processes Psychological science The study of the mind brain and behavior Goal of the connection between brain and mind to understand connection btwn actions of neurons and a thought Nature and Nurture debate biological factors affecting the brain mind and behavior Dualism The mind and the brain are separate entities Evolutionary evidence that proves that the mind developed from the brainNot considered one of the 3 developments in biological revolution that helped guide psychological science Current scienti c views human mind is the product of neural activity Freud39s most important contribution to psych Science existence and function of an unconscious Geneenvironment interaction when 2 different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways CHAPTER 2 Scienti c inquiry Typical studies of psych Science Ethical concerns that scientist should contend with when conducting research Indicators of data quality Theory Developed explanation Experiment procedure carried out to verify refute or establish the validity of a hypothesis Hypothesis speci c prediction of behavior tested in experiment Generalization tendency to respond in same way to different but similar stimuli Sample subset of a population that is use to represent the entire group Variable measured or manipulated by experimenter Confound extraneous variable that in uences result Descriptive Statistic numbers that are used to summarize an describe data Psychologists have greater con dence in research results when results are replicated Sigmund Freud s theory of meaning of dreams was not a successful theory bc it did not lead to many testable hypothesis Blind study random assignment of test subjects to the experimental and control groups is a critical part of any doubleblind research design Correlational study determines whether or not two variables are correlated When Experimental study an experiment is a study in which a treatment procedure or program is intentionally introduced and a result or outcome is observed Descriptive study can provide info about the naturally occurring health status behavior attitudes or other characteristics of a particular group Selection bias selection of individuals groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed Experimenter expectancy effect unintended effect of experimenters hypothesis or expectations on result of research Directionality problem 2 variables but no cause and effect Third variable problem Random sampling Convenience sampling subjects selected bc of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher Selection bias Debrie ng Process by which any deception used in study is explained to participant Informed consent Relief of con dentiality Descriptive statistics Variability Median values Standard deviations Con rmation bias Control group effect Sampling frame effect Hawthorne effect CHAPTER 3 Phases of neuron transmission Basic neurons Neurotransmission Agonists antagonist Basic structures of brain and functions Genotype Phenotype Heritability Core implication of epigenetics Order in which signal travels Nerves that provide information about musce movement are called somatosensory nerves Basic building blocks of nervous system Neurons Neurons on sending side of synaptic cleft Presynaptic neurons Somatic NS Parasympathetic S cams body down Sympathetic S prepares for body for quotfight or ightquot Endocrine S Genome provides the options and the environment determines which option is taken Single genotype expression Cell division Polygenic effects Dominant gene effects Heritability an estimate of how much of the variation in a characteristic is due to known genetic variation CHAPTER 11 How do we respond to stress Sapolslql stress response can become longterm chronic problem for human beings Adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies Biopsychosocial model When thoughts and behaviors affect the envi then the envi Affects human biology which affects behavior Stressor threatens an organism and elicits a coping response HPA axis involves initial activation of the Hypothalamus General adaptation syndrome Stress hormones have an optimal level CHAPTER 13 Personality stable over time and circumstances Gordon Allport39s conception of personality stressed that it was a dynamic system arising from biological processes Primary advantage of trait approach to personality comparing individuals in regard to various personality dispositions Bandura39s concept of selfef cacy relates expectancies to behavior Advantage of studying personality across species this evidence provides a biologically based explanation for personality traits Kagan and Snidman when do we see rst evidence of shy temperament in children 6 wks Relation of infant temperament to adult personality infant temperament correlates with both the general structure of adult personality and speci c behavior patterns shown by adults According to biological theory of personality the behavioral approach system BAS is the quotgoquot system whereas the behavioral inhibition system BIS is the quotstopquot system CHAPTER 10 How does motivation activate direct and sustain behavior Factors that motivate sexual behavior Emotions adaptive Basic emotions Motivational states are directive which means they elicit behaviors that satisfy our needs A drive is a physiological state that encourage behaviors that correct a de ciency state which is called a need Maslow39s need hierarchy has been criticized for lacking empirical support Grati cation positive emotional response to ful llment of desire Crossculturally comparisons of sexual motivation in men and women have found that men have a higher level of sexual motivation Twin studies have shown that anger is primarily in uenced by genetics and guilt is primarily in uenced by the social environment
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