Psych 130 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Psych 130 Midterm 1 Study Guide 130
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Yang on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 130 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Elizabeth Darvick in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Psychology 130 in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Psych 130 Midterm 1 Study Guide Course Overview Infant through adulthood development how it takes place how it takes place in different developmental context how research helps us understand development Lecture 1 Thursday Week 0 Overview of course 1 Three basic issues in development a Is development continuous or discontinuous b Is there one course of development or many courses c Is development based on nature genetics or nurture environment 2 Developmental theories that differ in these three basics issues a Psychoanalytic BehaviorismSocial learning Piaget s cognitive developmental Information processing EthologyEvolutionary developmental Vygotsky s sociocultural Ecological system Dynamic systems perspective Perotmch Lecture 2 Tuesday Week 1 Methods Part 1 1 Three Systematic Observation a Naturalistic observation i simply observing behavior as it naturally occurs b Structured observation i a situation is set up to elicit the desired behavior to observe c Case Study i in depth observation of a single object 2 Observation Precautions a Observer in uence i Presence of observer in uencing behavior of those being observed 1 Solutions a Adaptation period allow participants to get used to the observer b Use observers Who are natural to child s environment c Hidden video 1 Hidden observer b Observer bias i when the observer only sees and record what heshe expects to see 1 Solution a Create a good operational definition for behavior heshe is searching for Train in identifying the target behavior c Behavior checklists d Interobserver reliability i make sure every observer identifies the same behavior in the same way 3 Types of sampling for behavior a Time sampling i recording of whether or not a behavior happens in a short time interval ii the frequency of the behavior does not matter whether or not it happens matters b Event sampling i how many time an eventbehavior occurs in a specified time period 4 Selfreport a Clinical Interviews i Conversational style probing for participants point of view ii Limitations 1 Accuracy of participants expressions 2 Limited recalljudgements of the participants 3 Flexibility of the conversation may make responses too varied b Structured Interviews Tests and Questionnaires i Pros 1 Each participants is asked the same question in the same way a Eliminates most interview bias b Efficient answers from entire group at the same time ii Limitations 1 Can still be affected by inaccurate reporting due to participants memory 2 Not as indepth 5 Neurobiological Methods a Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI i makes images of the brainstructure of the brain ii images are possible by the signals produced by brain tissue iii signals are created after magnets align the spin of atoms b Functional MRI fMRI i reveals brain activity and function e Electroencephalogram EEG i a recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain s surface 1 Event Related Potential ERP i using EEG the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to a stimuli ex picture music are recorded in multiple areas of the cerebral cortex allows us to identify regions that are active due to stimulusevent 6 Ethnography a Descriptive qualitative technique b Goal to understand a culture or social group i Research lives in community ii Works to capture unique values and social processes 7 Correlational Methodology a Measuring relationship between two variables 8 Considerations of Correlational Designs a measurements must be on a continuous numerical scale b often relies on selfreport c correlation does not equal causation i third variable problem 1 could be a third variable causing the observed event ii directionality problem 1 could be variable A affecting variable B or vice versa 9 Experimental Methodology a examine the effect of one variable on another b uses independent and dependent variables 10 Considerations with Experimental Designs a be careful with operational definitions b avoid confounding variables c use random assignment d avoid experimental bias e be cautious of subject bias 11 Consideration in all research designs 3 Reliability i Consistency or repeatable measures ii Results should be replicated when behaviors are remeasured 1 interrater reliability a three judges will judge the samehave similar scores 2 testretest reliability a the result of one test will a similar result of a test after b Validity i External validity 1 Can the results be applied to the larger population ii Construct validity 1 Does the operation definition match the construct 2 Is the particular instrument a good way to measure it iii Internal validity 1 Does the IV cause the DV 12 Quasi Experimental Design a use if you cannot manipulate independent variable 13 Measuring Developmental Change a Longitudinal Designs i a group of participants is studied repeatedly at different ages b Crosssectional designs i differentaged groups are studied at the same point in time c Sequential Design i allows both longitudinal and crosssectional comparisons Lecture 3 Thursday Week 1 Methods Pa rt 2 1 Children s Research Rights 2 Ethical standards a Benefit gt risk ratio 3 How to study children s development a Good parent reports 4 Infant Methods to Utilize Looking a Preferential Looking Paradigm i between two objects infants will look at the more interesting one b Habituation i used to see if children know the difference between two objects ii example habituate them to birds and then show a bat see if they stare longer at the bat c Violation of Expectancy i Young infants express surprise at events or objects that violate their expectancy 1 Eye tracking i infants are placed in front of a screen video record their eye movements on the screen itself e HighAmplitude Sucking Paradigm i Special pacifier used 1 contains a cord that records how fast the infant is sucking on the pacifier ii Experimenters condition babies to suck on the pacifier to get something they like iii From this we find out they can recognize their mother s voice because they suck on it more and longer when they hear their mother s voice compared to when they are listening to someone else s voice f Infant kicking i Infants are conditioned to learn that if they kick they can move the toy above their head ii With this we can see if babies memorize to kick to get what they want 24 hours later 5 Methods for young children a Word learning methods i Purpose test child s capacity to learn new wordsinformation ii Novel words are needed so you can test if the child truly learned the word and to make sure they didn t just already know the word beforehand iii Need a distractor imagesimilar color so they don t just pick the most recent thing they ve seen b Imitation methods i gives a good idea of what infants understand about their environment Lecture 4 Tuesday Week 2 Prenatal Development amp Birth 1 Gene X Environment Interaction a our genes and environment interact we could have the genes for one disease but only with the push of a bad environment will we express symptoms for the disease b Example Phenylketonuria PKU i those who have inherited PKY cannot metabolize protein called phenylalanine leads to disabilities if consumed ii if you don t consume the phenylalanine protein you won t have any mental disabilities 2 Patterns of Gene Inheritance a Alleles are types of the same gene of chromosomes i they appear at the same place on each chromosome pair b Xlinked inheritance i X chromosome has the abnormal recessive allele 3 Fertilization early cell duplication and implantation a zygote comes from the ovary once matured and duplicates as it moves down the fallopian tube b by the 4th day it forms a uid filled ball called a blastocyst the inner cells called the embryonic disk will become the new organism and the outer cells called trophoblast will provide the protective covering 4 Periods of prenatal development a zygote 2 weeks i key events fertilization implantation and start of the placenta b embryo 6 weeks i arms legs face organs muscles all develop ii heart begins beating c fetus 30 weeks i growth and finishing U Teratogens a any environmental agent causing damage during prenatal period i Heredity for example drugs tobacco pollution etc 6 Sensitive periods in prenatal development a the effect on the exposure that babies encounter depends on the time that the fetus is exposed b Zygotic period i not too sensitive c Embryonic period i blue area of figure 38 is When you re highly sensitive 7 Maternal Factors in Healthy Prenatal Development a Exercise b Nutrition c Emotional stress d Age e Previous births 8 The Three Stages of Labor a Stage 1 i Dilation and effacement of the cervix ii Delivery of the baby iii Birth of the placenta 9 APGAR scale i Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration 10 Labor and Delivery Medications a complications may result so use is limited if possible 11 Birth complications a anoxia oxygen deprivation all of these lead to anoxia i failure to begin breathing ii breech birth infants delivered feet or buttocks first squeezing of umbilical cord iii placenta abruptio premature separation of the placenta iv Rh factor incompatibility When the mom and baby have different blood types and the mom s body forms antibodies to kill the baby s red blood cells reducing oxygen supply 12 Premature infants a If the pregnancy is longer then there is less of a chance for disabilities as well as a higher rate of infant survival b preterm infants are irritable and poor and unresponsive feeders c Solutions i isoletter ii special infant stimulation 1 kangaroo care iii parent training 1 3 Heritability a the amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors b ex if 5 unrelated people were brought up in the same way but differed in terms of whether or not they are shy then that means that the heritability of the trait is close to 100 c nurture in uenced them all in the same way for their shyness so the differences among them are due to genes 14 Epigenesis a geneenvironment interaction development is best understand as a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture Lecture 5 Thursday Week 2 Infancy 1 Variations in infant sleeping arrangement a cosleeping is a norm others parents sleep in separate rooms than child b either way shows no difference in dependency 2 Classical conditioning a Infants can learn via classical conditioning b If we stroke a baby s forehead as he sucks on the mom s nipple he will eventually start sucking simply from us stroking even without the nipple 3 Operant conditioning a uses reinforcers and punishments b ex music being played will make infants eat more music reinforces eating behavior 4 Perceptual development Babies 5 senses a Touch i infants have re ex responses ii they are sensitive to pain since birth b Taste i prefer sweet tastes and foods their mother ate during pregnancy ii quickly learn to like new tastes c Smell i prefer odors from birth ii can locate odors and identify mother by smell from birth d Hearing i babies can hear in the womb and remember what they hear ii infants hear and turn to noise within a few minutes old iii they prefer motherese familiar voices own language and stories read to while in the womb e Sight i infants can t see well until 34 years old ii they prefer human faces 5 Intermodal perception a combining twomore senses Motor development a grossmotor development i crawling standing walking rolling ii know the months they develop each skill and the steps to them b finemotor development i reaching grasping ii know the months they develop each skill and the steps to them Dynamic motor systems in action a motor skills develop in the order of anatomy environment and baby s efforts Early deprivation and enrichment a below average in physical and psychological development b emotional and behavioral problems Is infancy a sensitive period a we cannot tell because we can only ethically use natural observations b based on observations deprivation during this period appears to lead to lasting cognitive deficits 10 Motor skills as dynamic systems a four factors in each new skills i CNS development ii body s movement capacity iii child s goals iv environmental supports Lecture 6 Thursday Week 3 Physical Development 1 2 Cephalocaudal trend a head to tail development Proximodistal trend a from the center of the body outward development b because CNSorgans are more important than the rest of the body for survival during puberty growth proceeds in reverse direction a that s why teenagers have big hands and feet relative to the rest of their body Skeletal maturity in toddler and teenager a toddler doesn t have as many bones they have more cartilage b babies are malleable softer tissues and bones c skeletal development shows age Gross motor skills a jumping running more active movements compared to gross motor skills like crawling and walking b boysgtgirls in grossmotor skills once they are teens c benefits of physical activity from team sports during school lasts up to 55 years Brain development a synaptogenesis development of synapses occurs as you age b pruning cell death if you don t use a skill often so we can strengthen synapses we do use c pruning starts at 12 years old and most pruning done during puberty d brain starts in the back when developing i limbic system for basical survival skills I occipital lobe for vision I temporalparietal for feeling I frontal lobe for decision making 7 Sensitive periods in brain development a experienceexpectant growth i experiences expected by brain to grow normally ii example attaching to someone is expected once done those synapses die b experiencedependent growth i addition growth as a result of specific learning experiences ii example learning to play the piano creates new synapses 8 Factors that affect physical growth a heredity b nutrition i breast feeding gt bottle feeding c infectious disease d emotional wellbeing 9 Puberty a primary sexual characteristics i maturation of reproductive organs ii girls menarche iii boys spermarche b secondary sexual characteristics i other visible parts of the body like boobs and facial hair 10 Puberty timing a those who aren t obese genes and severe stress lead to late maturation b girls who have early maturing are socially awkward and less confident c boys who mature early are more popular and confident 11 Eating disorders a Anorexia nervosa i starve because you think you re fat you think you don t have a problem b Bulimia nervosa i strict diet and exercise which leads to binging on fatty foods and vomiting ii depressed and wants help easier to treat Lecture 7 Tuesday Week 4 Cognitive Development Part 1 1 cognition the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understand through though experience and senses 2 schema a mental container we build to hold our experiences 3 How does cognition change happen a Adaptation i assimilation at equilibrium ii accommodation at disequilibrium b Organization 4 Sensorimotor stage a understands world thru senses and actions b 6 substages that require a new acquired skill to reach the next substage 5 Preoperational stage a via language and mental images 6 Concrete operational stage a via logical thinking and categories 7 Formal operational stage a via hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning 8 Core knowledge a babies are smarter than we thought b they re able to recognize faces c domain specificity knowledge is specific to certain domains and does not transfer to other domains i domains don t talk to each other 9 Newborn thinking developed into graduate student thinking a all infants are born with the same knowledge but then this changes with experience b innate domains exist Lecture 8 Tuesday Week 4 Cognitive Development Part 1 1 Vygotsky a children learn through social interaction and no other way b children are teachers and learners i they re especially good at one topic example a preschooler knowing everything about dinosaurs 2 Sociocultural principles of cognitive development a children are products of their culture b value culture and people affect learning i ex people who sell veggies can answer math problems easily about their veggies but cannot do so as easily if the problems did not involve their veggies c cultural artifacts affect our learning i ex we spell worse because we are accustomed to our smart phones doing the corrections to our spelling 3 Cognitive changes occur via a intersubjectivity b joint attention c guided participation d social referencing e social scaffolding 4 Zone of proximal development a range of what children and do unsupported and with optimal social support 5 Information Processing Theories a theory says that the processes attention memory etc talk to each other develop together and affect each other b the brain is the hardware c the thinkingcognition is the software d theory assumes children are active problem solvers they see a problem determine the goal determine a strategy to reach the goal and overcome obstacles 6 Books and literacy a the more books you have at home corresponds to the better reading skills you have 7 Teaching children to read a bottom up process reading before understanding sounding out words memorizing small frequent words b top down process teaches people to memorize words using knowledge and wider understanding to learn to read 8 Number a number equality sets of a certain number 13 have something in common most basic numeral understanding b infants of 5 months know number equality c 34 year olds can understand sets of 4 objects 9 Five containing principles learned before counting for preschoolers a onetoone correspondence one object can only have one number b stable order the numbers should always be repeated in the same order ex 2 follows 1 c cardinality the number of jects in the set corresponds to the last number stated d order irrelevance objects can be counted left to right or any other order e abstraction any set of discrete obectsevents can be counted 10 Children s math learning a early math skills b regardless of culture and gender children come to school with a great variation in math ability c causes of early differences i innate ability ii differences in number experience 1 board games like candy land iii children with parents with higher education have more numerical experiences and numerical language input
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