Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide HESC 400
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Program Design in KNES & HESC
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
Yeraldin S. Barrera
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yeraldin S. Barrera on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HESC 400 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Sanam Kazemi in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Program Design in KNES & HESC in Nursing and Health Sciences at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
HESC 400 Program Design in Health Promotion Fall 2015 Semester Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 1 Know the de nitions of health education health promotion and health education specialist Health Education is quotusing evidencebased practices andor sound theories that provide the opportunity to acquire knowledge attitudes and skills needed to adopt and maintain healthy behaviorsquotJoint Committee 2012 Health promotion is quotAny planned combination of educational politicalenvironmental regulatory or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals groups and communitiesquot Joint Committee 2012 Health Education Specialist is quotAny planned combination of educational political environmental regulatory or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals groups and communitiesquot Joint Committee 2012 2 Know and understand Figure 11 p 5 LOOK IN BOOK FOR THIS ANSWER TO STUDY GUIDE 3 Modi able health damaging behaviors poor nutrition physical inactivity tobacco consumption alcohol consumption thI i 5 Objectives of Healthy People 2020 Healthy People 2020 objectives Eliminate preventable disease disability injury and premature death Achieve health equity eliminate disparities and improve the health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life 6 Being able to de ne health equity and health literacy Health equity means that everyone has a fair opportunity to live a long healthy life It implies that health should not be compromised or disadvantaged because of an individual or population group39s race ethnicity gender income sexual orientation neighborhood or other social condition Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain process and understand basic health information needed to make appropriate health decisions and services needed to prevent or treat iHness 7 Determinants of health A range of personal social economic and environmental factors that influence health status Healthy People 2020 Determinants of health fall under several broad categories Policymaking Social factors Health services lndividual behavior Biology and genetics 8 Know the three levels of prevention and be able to provide an example for each level Heeitlii Stein 395 Levels at 1P reventien Healthy without signs and svn ipiems ei disease illness Di ii39ljjuiry39 Primary preventilsn Preventive meesu res that lerestaill the sunset bf illness er intiuirir during the prepatihegenesis period Disease illness or injuryr Eeeen ary prevention Preventive measures that lead to eerlv diagnosis and prompt treetrnent ei s disease illness or irijtirzir to limit disability impairment or dependency and prevent more severe pathogenesis Disability impairment or dependenev Tertisrtir preventiicnnPreventive measures aimed at rehabilitation l39elllewing signi cant pathogenesis Death Primary Aim to prevent disease or injury before it happens Presenting exposure to hazards Secondary aim to reduce impact of a disease that is already occurred Ex Screening test Tertiary soften the impact of an ongoing illness EX rehabilitation programcardiac ime the Generalized Model Figure 13 p 12 Don t worry about a comparison of areas of responsibilities Table 13 and b pages 710 Represents the foundation of health education and promotion practice Helps lead planning task and educate about basic sequence of planning process Assessing Setting Developing implementing Evaluating needs goals and an ne the objectives intervention intervention results Chapter 2 1 Know in detail the four steps in creating a program rationale dentifying appropriate information Gaining better understanding of what the problem is concerns amp approaches to reduceeliminate the health problems title of the rationale writing the content of the rationale dentify the problem in globalmacro level terms to present problem at a higher level ncluding the problem statement Explanation of what is the issue Why it is a problem why it should be dealt with isting the references used to create the rationale 2 Understand Figure 21 p 22 Creating a Rationale TliiE the werh tetinele fr the deuelepment e t and indieete whe ie Submitting the writ L Identity the heelh rehlerrt in glehel terme beetting it up with eepr eeriete tinternetienell netizenel er etete date It eeeeihle elee ineluee the eenemie eeete et the emblem lNEIFFtZIW the helth prelem by ehewing ite reletienehip tn the L erepeed prierittr peutletienl State why it ie a prehllerln and why it ehuld he eelt Iltli39itih Again heelt up the statement With epprepriete elet State a prpeed Sillii t t t he prhlem li i l39t39tl end entree f ii39tE pureed health eremetin pregnant Pretritje a general eeeWiew ef thx rerm State whit een be gained trern eueh e prgrerh ill39t terme et tl n veluee and herte tite te the tleeieien metzre State why the pr gt m Wm H he eueeeeeful Freeie the reterertee ueeetm WEEKWe it the retienele Chapter 3 1 Know the Generalized Model similar to that in Ch 1 1Assessing the needs data are collected to determine priority population and barriers that cause the health problem we would look at the direction of the program and the area of focus 2Goals 30bjectives What the program is going to target and how we will go about changing the health issue 4lntervention research into marketing resources budgeting activities 5Evaluations Results of the program to see its effectiveness 2 Know PRECEDEPROCEED and the prioritization matrix Be sure to know the phases of the model ie differences between predisposing enabling and reinforcing factors It was developed for use in Public Health lts basic principles transfer to other community issues as well Precede stands for Predisposing reinforcing and enabling constructs in educationenvironmental diagnosis and evaluation As the name implies it leads to intervention Proceed stands for Policy regulatory organizational construct in educationenvironmental development It is to proceed with intervention THERE ARE 8 PHASES 1De ne ultimate outcome what is the community needswants amp what ourcome is important for the community to reduce a particular problem 2Epidemiological Assessment determine the health problems or other issues that affect the community s quality of life 3Educational and Organizational what to do in order to change the level of behavior and environmental factors 4Administration policy assessment administration resources that facilitate the development of health promotion program 5Conducting the intervention 6Process Evaluation did u do what you planned to do 7lmpact Evaluation desired impact on target pop 80utcome Evaluation how effective the program was 3 Know SWOT Originally was developed in business industry dentifies the strength and weakness in the organization strength and weakness refers to internal factors amp opportunity and treats refers to external factors It is used 1when we want to minimize the planning time 2possibilities to explore problems 3if we want to get to actions quicker Opportunities funding resources future trends policy changes Treats barriers obstacles 4 Know Healthy PlanIT Deveoped by sustainable management program at CDC for developing countries It is based off healthy analysis for planning prevention services 6 Steps 1Priority setting seriousness of problem 2Estabishing goals generalized statements 30bjectives related to goals measurable long term 4Strategy affect determinants or factors 5Evauation how we deliver the programchanges in behavior and problems 6Budget personnel resourcesphysical equipment lead to health problems Don t worry about a evolution of models and b other models besides PRECEDEPROCEED Generalized model SWOT and HealthyPlan lt Chapter 4 1 Advantagesdisadvantages of types of primary and secondary data PRIMARY DATA Advantage directly answers questions planners want answered Disadvantage expensive and can take a great deal of time SECONDARY DATA Advantage already exists and fairly inexpensive Disadvantage might not identify the true needs of the priority population 2 Difference between needs and needs assessment Needs the difference between the present situation and a more desirable one Needs Assessment a process of identifying analyzing amp prioritizing needs of a priorityaso called community analysis community diagnosis community assessment 3 Why do we conduct needs assessment 1Helps to insure appropriate planning resources 2Crucial because it provides objective data to identify the health issue set priorities for implementation and establish baseline for evaluating the impact of the problem 3Develops focus for an intervention 4 What are some of the questions that could be answered using needs assessment 1who is our priority population 2what are their needs 3which subgroup within the population have greatest needs 4locationgeographically 5what s currently being done to resolve the issue 6How well the needs have been addressed in the past 5 Typessources of primary and secondary data Primary a Directly answers the questions planners want answered b Very expensive Secondary c Already exists d May not identify the needs of the population 6 Know the six steps for conducting a needs assessment Figure 45 p 95 1determining the purpose and score 2gathering data 3analyzing data 4identifying risk factors linked to health problem 5identifying the problem focus 6validating the needs 7 Differences between direct and indirect observation Direct observation also known as observational study is where the researcher is the osbserver recording what he or she is watching lndirect observation the researcher must rely on the reported observations including selfobservations of others 8 Obtrusive vs unobtrusive observation Unobtrusive measures are measures that don39t require the researcher to intrude in the research context Obtrusive measures are measure that require the researcher to intrude in the research context 9 What is health risk assessment A health risk assessment HRA is a health questionnaire used to provide individuals with an evaluation of their health risks and quality of life 10 Photovoice mapping 11 Photovoice an example of a participatory data collection involving those in priority population they convey community problems and strengths Mapping We can use needs assessment through the use of technology Visual representation of data by geography location Don t worry about a BPR and b HIA Chapter 5 1 Know the four levels of measurement and examples for each level Nominal data into categories mutually exclusive categories are exhaustive Ordinal data into categories mutually exclusive 8 exhaustive but also rank ordered can39t measure distance between categories Interval numerical data data into categories mutually exclusive 8 exhaustive rank orders can measure distance between categories no absolute zero Ratio numerical data data into categories mutually exclusive 8 exhaustive rank orders can measure distance between categories there is an absolute zero 2 De ne measurement Measurement the process of applying numerical or narrative data from an instrument eg a questionnaire or other datayielding tools to objects events or people 3 Two types of measurement Quantitative numerical data collected Qualitative data collected with the use of narrative and observational approaches 4 Importance of measurement in program planning Health education specialists need to be comfortable and competent with measurement 5 Desirable characteristics of the data be able to de ne each character Psychometric Qualities instrument shows reliability validity and fairness Reliability consistency in the measurement process the degree to which a measure is free from errors of measurement obtained score true score error score Validity measures What it is intended to measure correctly measuring concepts under investigation 6 Know the different types of reliability and validity Types of Reliability I Internal consistency checks if items on the instrument are measuring the same research domain I Testretest stability reliability the same instrument is used to measure the same group of people under similar or the same conditions at two different points in time l Rater reliability intrarater 1 person interrater 2 or more focuses on the consistency of observations l Parallel forms reliability focuses on Whether different forms of the same measurement instrument when measuring the same subjects will produce similar results Types of Validity I Content items are a representative sample of the content andor behavior of the domain being addressed typically created by an expert panel or jury I Criterionrelated scores are correlated with some other measure of an individual39s behavior or performance predictive validity future event concurrent validity new and established I Construct degree to which a measure correlates with other measures it is theoretically eXpected to correlate with 7 Know probability and nonprobability sampling procedures Probability Sample l All elements of the survey population have an equal chance or probability of being selected sometimes referred to as a scienti c sample or random sample Nonprobability Sample l All individuals in the survey population do not have an equal chance or probability of being selected to participate in the needs assessment or evaluation Participants can be included on the basis of convenience because they have volunteered are available or can be easily contacted or because they possess a certain characteristic 8 Pilot testing Used to identify problems with measurement instruments data collection procedures data analysis materials strategies amp sometimes to establish validity amp reliability 9 Know about the ethical issues associated with measurement HPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 Vountary participation not coerced or deceived to participate Right to discontinue participation Private amp sensitive data must be protected ega acts during data collection Appropriate data analysis Reporting of results Don t worry about a using an existing and creating a measurement instrument and Chapter 6 1 De ne and understand the relationships between mission statement goals and objectives The mission statement goals and objectives provide 1 a foundation for program planning 2 direction for the program 3 a basis on which to evaluate the program 2 Know the different levels of objectives Table 61 p 146 processadministration objective impact objectives Focus of the impact objectives Resources strategies attendance participation Types of Impact Objectives a learning 1awareness 2 knowledge 3 attain attitudes 4 skill development b behavioral coping compliance c Environmental services physical and social and psychological and economical environment outcome objectives Change in QOL health statusrisk social bene ts Know about SMART objectives Speci c Measurable AchieveableAttainable Realistic Timephased 3 Know and be able to identify an objective when given an example objective Box 66 p 152154
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