Midterm 1 Study Guide
Midterm 1 Study Guide SOC 002
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Demi Chang on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Kiburi, Lalia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Self and Society in Sociology at University of California - Davis.
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SOC 002 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology 0 What is social psychology gt Social Psychology the study of how people s behavior feelings and thoughts are affected by the presence real or imagined of other people It may often relate and be influenced by the ideas of ethnicityrace group process eg family marriage education gender religion an appreciation of diverse cultures and cultural knowledge Everyone around us such as parents friends teachers and strangers can affect our entire behavior The goal of social psychology is to specify attributes of human nature that makes everyone susceptive to social influence 0 Why does it matter how people explain and interpret events and their ownothers behavior gt Fundamental Attribution Error The unfortunate habit to misjudge the extent to which a person s behavior is caused by internal and personality traits and underestimate the influence of situational and social factors gt Example We might quickly judge a cranky and impatient cashier to be a girl with a bad attitude when she may just be an ordinary person who is under a great deal of stress the car failed to work in the morning she did not get enough sleep her child a has a fever her boss just yelled at her for something she did not do and she suddenly has to double shift when a coworker called in an emergency gtOversimplifying and reaching a quick easy explanation for these behaviors creates a false sense of security that increases our vulnerability to such social influences C What happens when people s need to feel good about themselves conflicts with their need to be accurate gt Construal The manner in which people understand perceive and interpret their society gt A society and the individual is a twoway street relationship The social context not only influences a person s behavior but a person s behavior also depends on their construal of society For example if a friend asks you how you are feeling your response would be different to a stranger who asks you how you are feeling Your tone of voice and immediate response might be more friendly and intimate towards the friend and more cautious and wary towards the stranger gt Naive Realism A construal that refers to how people believe that their perception is completely accurate If others have a different point of view then that person must be biased gt Construal is based in an approach known as Gestalt psychologythat heavily emphasizes studying in a subjective manner where the object appears in an a person s mind rather than the physical aspects of the object By studying the objective parts people are unable to completely perceive the object as a whole Instead people are supposed to focus on how the object appears as its entirety In regards to social perception the emphasis should be placed on how people understand and interpret their society rather than understanding just its physical properties gt People construe based on two motives feeling good about ourselves selfesteem motive and desiring to be accurate social cognition motive One often ghts with the other creating an accurate world perception may often involve admitting that we are wrong or at fault For example when a country is currently in a long costly war that has claimed thousands of of innocent lives a president has the choice to send more troops and increase bombing or try for peace Most presidents will choose to continue the war because a successful win would justify the lives and money lost while retreating from a war will be marked as the president s failure in history However the president s need to feel good about their decision often leads to a prolonged war an outcome that is counterintuitive of the original goal gt SelfEsteem The overall evaluation whether positive or negative that people have of themselves While selfesteem is typically a good thing maintaining a high level of selfesteem can cause people to justify their wrongdoings gt For example if a man s distrust and paranoia drives his girlfriend away he may blame it on his girlfriend s lack of honesty While his worldview is inaccurate he would rather twist the truth in order to feel better about himself 1 Benefits of High SelfEsteem Terror Management Theory says that selfesteem is a buffer that protects people from terrifying thoughts of death and their own mortality People protect themselves from anxious thoughts by embracing cultural worldviews of living in a meaningful and purposeful world High SelfEsteem also serves as motivation through rough times in life 2 Drawbacks of High SelfEsteem Narcissism is a combination of excessive selflove and a lack of empathy towards other people gt Social Cognition how people think of themselves and the social world and the study of how people choose remember and comprehend information to make decisions gt Often people will make decisions based on the need to be accurate Yet with the countless decisions that people have to make each day decisions are often made without knowing all the facts From picking the healthier snack to choosing a car people will depend on their own assumptions shortcuts and expectations to make that decision Chapter 3 Social Cognition How We Think About the Social World 0 Social Cognition often involves automatic thinking which is involuntary unintentional and effortless Where does automatic thinking come from gt Schemas Mental structures people to use to organize knowledge about the social world Schemas influence the information we think about notice and remember It is a general term that encompasses our knowledge of people social roles ourselves and speci c events For example if a man was on a bus muttering to himself and suddenly starts singing an old tune you could use several different schemas such as the mentally ill person or alcoholic schema Q How do we make our schemas come true gt Selffulfilling prophecy is the case where a person has an expectation of another person and this influences how they act towards that person and consequently causes the person to behave similarly to the people s expectations making the expectation come true For example one time researchers gave a class of students a test and told the teachers which students were bloomers or students that tested extremely well and held great academic potential However these bloomers were in reality chosen randomly all the kids tested approximately at the same level The only thing that differentiated these students from the others was in the minds of the teachers However at the end of the year the socalled bloomers did better than the others because the teachers gave them more personal attention encouragement and difficult material and therefore leading to a selffulfilling prophecy Q How does culture influence our social thinking gt Holistic versus Analytic Thinking While Western culture tends to focus on an analytic thinking style a type ofindividualistic thinking that focuses on the properties of objects and not its context East Asian cultures focuses more on holistic thinking style a type of collectivistic thinking where people emphasize the overall context and how the objects relate to one another While Western culture tends to focus on an analytic thinking style a type of thinking that focuses on the properties of objects and not its context EastAsian cultures focuses more on holistic thinking style where people emphasize the overall context and how the objects relate to one another Chapter 4 Social Perception How We Come to Understand Other People gt Social Perception The study of how we form impressions of and make inference of others Sources of information include nonverbal communication which can include facial expressions and body language 0 How do people use nonverbal cues to understand others gtNonverbal Communication The way people unintentionally or intentionally communicate without words It can encompass gestures body language and the six universal facial emotions happiness anger surprise fear disgust and sadness gt Encode To express a nonverbal behavior smiling or patting someone on the back gt Decode To interpret that nonverbal communication that other people express the pat on the back could be interpreted as empathetic or possibly condescending Q How do people determine why others do what they do gt Fundamental Attribution Error The unfortunate habit to misjudge the extent to which a person s behavior is caused by internal and personality traits and underestimate the influence of situational and social external factors gt Example We might quickly judge a cranky and impatient cashier to be a girl with a bad attitude when she may just be an ordinary person who is under a great deal of stress the car failed to work in the morning she did not get enough sleep her child a has a fever her boss just yelled at her for something she did not do and she suddenly has to double shift when a coworker called in an emergency gtOversimplifying and reaching a quick easy explanation for these behaviors creates a false sense of security that increases our vulnerability to such social influences Chapter 5 The Self Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context 0 What are the different ways in which selfconcept develops gt Independent View of Self versus lnterdependent View of Self 1 Independent View of Self is when one de nes themselves based on who they are as an individual their own actions and feelings without considering the influences from other people This view is considered a more Western approach to thinking which can be reflected by the American proverb the squeaky wheel gets the grease and how Western value individualism and selfattention 2 lnterdependent View of Self is when someone de nes themselves through their relationships to other people and how other people s thoughtsfeelingsactions affect their behavior This is considered a more Asian approach to thinking through a collective perspective which can be reflected by a Japanese proverb The nail that stands out gets pounded down and how standing out as an individual is considered a fault C In what ways do people come to know themselves by observing their behavior gt SelfPerception Theory When our attitudes feelings are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states through observing our behavior and the situations in which it occurs When we39re not sure of how we feel we use our behavior as a guide to determine how we feel For example if someone asks you ifyou like classical music you might be unsure However you refer to your behavior you may often listen to the classical music radio station so you conclude that you do like classical music gt Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation is when one is motivated by interest and enjoyment while extrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by external reasons For example if someone is intrinsically motivated by reading then they actually enjoy reading and its process However if someone is extrinsically motivated to read then they might only read to get rewards and prizes given in reading programs gt Schachter s Theory TwoFactor Theory of Emotion is a twostep selfperception process in which we experiences emotions 1 We experience physiological arousal 2 Then we seek an appropriate explanation for the physiological arousal For example in certain scenarios physiological arousal may include sweating increased heart rate shaky hands or feeling warm Then we look for cues in our environment to explain this arousal ifit s an attractive person it s probably lust fit s your scantron and test booklet it s probably anxiety 0 How do people portray themselves so that others will see them as they want to be seen gt Impression Management How we present ourselves in a way we want to be seen Refer to Goffman and his dramaturgy theory of how people are actors presenting themselves on the stage called life A For example when David Duke a former KKK leader decides to run for Louisiana governor he changes his clothing and hair style to make himself politically presentable B In Asian cultures saving face to avoid public embarrassment is very important in comparison to Western cultures So while managing a selfimage is culturally universal the kind ofimage is different in each culture Chapter 6 The Need to Justify Our Actions The Cost and Benefits of Dissonance Reduction 0 What is cognitive dissonance and how do people avoid dissonance to maintain a positive image gt Cognitive Dissonance the discomfort of deciding between two or more contradicting cognitions gt Cognitive Dissonance in a Case Study 1 To Be Hopi or American by Polingaysi Qoyawayma who changed her name to Elizabeth Q White an example of Anglo conformity and labeling theory She renamed herself with a Christian name because she converted from her original Native American Hopi religious beliefs to Christianity a This conversion caused cognitive dissonance between her Native American roots and her new Christian beliefs interacting with her traditional family and their religious rituals Hopi beliefs was painful for both parties b In Christianity there is this concept of lfyou don39t join this faith there will be severe consequencesquot This plays into the social construction of the generation gap where White s righteous beliefin Christianity over traditional Hopi culture creates a barrier between her and her parentsolder family gtSelfAffirmation A cognition where a person focuses on one or more of their good qualities to lessen the dissonance of doing something foolish For example a person who is a smoker may say Yeah it is stupid to smoke but hey I am really good at soccer Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change Influencing Thoughts Er Feelings C What are the different kinds of attitudes and what are they based on gtCognitively Based Attitude An attitude based mainly on people s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object This includes objective merits and relevant facts of an object For example if I was looking for a new car I would consider its miles per gallon the safety features and the pros and cons of getting this car gt Affectiver Based Attitude An attitude that is more rooted in emotional feelings values and sensory reactions than on a person s beliefs about the nature of an attitude object gt Attitudes rooted in feelings For example f was looking at a new car to buy I might consider how sexy it makes me feel or how attractive it is regardless ofits miles per gallons and practical safety features Also when people vote for certain politicians they often have a strong feeling about who they want to vote for despite not knowing anything about their beliefs on certain policies gt Attitudes rooted in values For example people s attitudes towards issues like the death penalty premarital sex and abortion are rooted in people s values religious and moral beliefs not by examining the cold hard facts Here the attitude is less about painting an accurate picture of the world as it is about validating and expressing one s value system gt Attitudes rooted in sensory reactions For example the delicious taste of chocolate might make a person like chocolate even ifit has a lot of calories high amounts of sugar and unhealthy or artificial ingredients A person may like a cup because ofits shape and color without considering its functionality as a drinking tool Other affectivelybased attitudes can be the result of conditioning such as classical conditioning gt Classical ConditioningA phenomenon where a stimulus that triggers an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a nonemotional neutral stimulus that does not until the neutral stimulus eventually triggers the emotional response by itself For example when you were young you may have had warm and loving experiences at your grandmother s house Perhaps her house has always had a faint smell of mothballs Eventually that smell of mothballs alone can trigger the emotions you felt during those visits to your grandmother s gt Operant Conditioning The phenomenon where our behavior we choose to perform becomes more or less frequent based on whether or not they are followed by reward or punishment For example when a child s father tells her not to play with an AfricanAmerican girl by expressing strong disapproval the child eventually associates interacting with African Americans with disapproval and consequently adopting her father s racist attitudes gt Explicit Attitudes Explicit attitudes are attitudes that we consciously endorse and can report easily they re what we think of as our attitude when someone asks a question like What is your opinion on abortion gt Implicit Attitudes Implicit Attitudes are attitudes beyond our conscious awareness they are often uncontrollable and involuntary For example a white person who has an explicit attitude of supporting racial equality may have a negative implicit attitude toward African Americans which can play out in his own behavior that he is unaware of like making eye contact and appearing nervous 0 How do attitudes change gt Central Route to Persuasion The case in which people have both the abilitymotivation to elaborate on persuasive communication and listen carefully and think about the argument presented If someone is attentively listening to a speaker giving a speech they will be persuaded if the arguments are compelling resulting in longlasting attitude change gt Fear Arousing Communication Persuasive message that tries to change people s attitudes by arousing their fears Often public service ads will scare people into wearing seat belts and staying away from drugs by showing the grisly car crashes or grotesque body conditions from drug use 0 What are some strategies for resisting efforts at persuasion and when does it back re gt Reactance Theory The idea that when people feel that their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened it triggers an unpleasant state of reactance that people reduce by performing the threatened behavior For example if a restaurant server tells you that your plate is hot and not to touch it you may decide to touch it anyway Or when your parents and teachers tell you not to do something and you purposely decide to do it anyways Chapter 8 Conformity Influencing Behavior 0 What is conformity When and why does it occur gt Conformity Changing one s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of others Often people conform because a situation is unusual and confusing and other people s behavior serves as a cue as how to respond Most often it s because they don t want to be embarrassed rejected or punished for being different from everyone else 0 How does informational social influence motivate people to conform gt Informational Social Influence Relying on others as a source of information as a cue for our own behavior we conform because we believe that other people s interpretation of an ambiguous situation is correct and can help us make the right choice 0 People s knowledge of social influence can be used to influence others What is the basis of the knowledge of social influence gt Norms are the rules that specifies appropriate behavior in social situations rules can either prescribe or forbid an action All humans follow a definite norm which are backed by sanctions which can range from casual disapproval to physical punishment gt Values are a groupindividual s ideas about what is proper good and bad and desirable These values are often influenced by the culture in which they live by Lecture Terms Introduction gt Microsociology studies facetoface interaction such as Symbolic Interactionism gt Symbolic Interaction Theory Developed by the historical theorists George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley 1 The theory focuses on the microsocial world of personal interaction patterns that occur in everyday life This includes focusing on oneonone interactions two people can be considered a group 2 There are shared symbolsdefinitions that provide explanations and provide the basis ofinterpreting life experiences 3 There is a social construction of reality that is internalized part of one s life and natural behavior making it appear as an objective fact For example we see a US flag as a symbol for patriotism Because this perception is shared among all of us in society it automatically seems like a fact However this shared symbol is a construction of our culture 4 The shared or absence of expectations and understandings explain intergroup relations Shared symbols are unique to each individual culture For example while we perceive the US flag as a symbol of patriotism people in other cultures may perceive the US flag as a symbol of oppression 5 There is better communication and awareness between different cultures that improves the interaction between majorities and minorities gt Sociological Imagination In lecture this was de ned as the life span of a person However it is also the awareness of the relationship between one s personal experience and society To have this awareness a person must pull themselves out of the situation and think of a new point of view gtFor example when one drinks a cup of coffee it s not just a drink it has symbolic value that goes beyond just the act of drinking the coffee itself When two people meet to have coffee it s more about the chatting and getting to know each other than the actual coffee that they re drinking You can also consider why coffee is not considered a drug in Western cultures but it is in other cultures gt Dramaturgy Theorized by contemporary theorist Erving Goffman dramaturgy is the idea that life is a stage in which people are the actors that enact a presentation of themselves in front of others also coined The Presentation ofSelf lnferioritySuperiority Er Strati cation of Races gt Discredited Stigma Physically visible disabilities or deformities that would have to be dealt with in any social interactions eg a birthmark or scar on one s face club foot etc gt Discreditable Stigm Conditions that can be physically concealable or invisible such as epilepsy sexual orientation and criminal behavior Dealing with Discreditable Stigma is a lot more complex a person may choose to stay quiet reveal it to a few individuals or make it openly known to the public gt Three Tier American Hierarchy gt Top Tier EuropeanAmerican Protestants Ethnicity is not of a particular significance in the top tier which is an aspect that distinguishes them from the bottom two tiers gt Intermediate Tier EuropeanAmerican Catholics Jews of various nationsorigin many Asians ChineseJapanese Ethnicity plays a relative role in determining society s social life and its rewards JFK a selfproclaimed Catholic was assassinated and his Catholicism may have played a partial role in his death as opposed to being a top tiered EuropeanAmerican Protestant The Chinese and Japanese and in this intermediate tier because they are economically advantaged in comparison to other Asian groups gt Bottom Tier African Americans Latinos Native Americans and Asians Vietnamese Hmong and Mien referring back to Death of a Shaman These groups are strongly defined in racial terms and ethnicity has the greatest consequences and continues to influence varying aspects of their social lives Important Aspects between the Three Tiers 1 Economic Hierarchy The economic gap between the top and bottom tiers is much greater than the gap between the top and intermediate tier 2 Political Structure The gap in regards to power prestige and socioeconomic status between the top and intermediate tier is fading 3 Extent of PrejudiceDiscrimination The gap in prestige wealth and power is greater between the top and bottom tier than it is between the top and intermediate tier 4 Extent of Social Participation The most important issue of American ethnic relations remain focused on the social economical and political disparities between different ethnic groups Social participation may refer to a group s presence in the educational system or the professional world gt Stereotype Threat The apprehension felt by group members when their behavior might con rm a cultural stereotype For example African Americans are known to have a negative stereotype of intellectual inferiority So when they are placed in an evaluative educational scenario they feel pressured because if they perform poorly than they will be reaffirming the cultural stereotype gt Refugee status when a person is forced to escape their country due to war natural disaster or persecution racial or religious In Death of a Shaman The Mien were forced to flee to the United States from Thailand because of the Vietnam War gt Thesis for Medicalization Of Racial Features AsianAmerican Women and Cosmetic Surgery According to Eugenia Kaw s study Asian women are getting rid of their slanted eyes and flat nose to fit into Western culture a theory of AngloConformity and Normative Gaze gt gloConformity Where ethnic individuals comply to norms and values defined by AngloSaxon Protestant culture gt Normative Gaze Developed by Dr Cornel West this is the belief that European Americans in regards to norms values and cultural beliefs are the mostly socially civilized and physically beautiful group over all gt Sapir Whorf Hypothesis a sociological explanation of language and socialization The linguistic theory that a language s semantic structure limits or shapes the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world Because language shapes people s worldview the worldview manifests differently with each culture The more languages a person speaks the greater appreciation they have of multicultural ideology O The US worldview focuses on the dominance of the English language and banning other culture39s language in some states However it is important to know that that two most widely spoken languages is Spanish and Mandarin not English gt Ethnophaulisms are negative labels that are the complete opposite of selfempowerment they include racial slurs and offensive racial stereotypes gt M h of the Tragic Mulatto Where people of mixed descent are desperate to be purely white in a society that is antiblack they believe that they are born quota problemquot because they are unable to rid themselves of a subordinate part of themselves This perception devalues multiracial or multiethnic populations gt Othering A process where an individual or a group is classi ed as not one of us Rather than considering everyone is their own individual complex bundle of feelings ideas motives and subtleties it is easier to dismiss someone as inferior and less dignified as we are Miscellaneous Terms and Theories gt Contagion How an emotion and behavior can rapidly spread through a crowd In ambiguous situations people have the tendency to rely on the interpretation of others and conform to other people s behaviors gt Norm of Reciprocity The expectation that helping others will increase the chance that they will help us in the future gt The Big Lie Theory If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it to others then people will eventually believe it gt Social Exchange Theory This theory argues that much of what we do stems from the desire to maximize our rewards and minimize our costs gt SelfDiscrepancy Theory The theory where people compare themselves to internalized standards of themselves or selfguides These two different representations of the self can be contradict each other and can be emotionally discomforting The actual selfdiscrepancy is the gap between the two selfrepresentations gt Thomas Theorem When people believe something the consequences are real because people think their beliefs are reality gt Thesis Being Different Together in the University Classroom Only through classroom experiences can both students and professors interrogate interactively and integratively put their own conceptual and theoretical understanding of the world around them grapple with perplexing and painful contradictions connecting them to their everyday lives and engaging in the transformative power of transgressive education Hooks 1994 gt Theory Application not only identifies and describes the variables it also examines the relationship between variablesThis can be done through Deductive andor Inductive reasoning gt Deductive reasoning uses previously proposed theories to answer or suggest a hypothesis Often researchers are unsatisfied with existing theories and will formulate a new methodology to create a better explanation gt Inductive reasoning asks questions collects data pertaining to that question and uses data to develop a hypothesis to answer that question Researchers may often do this when they observe something in people s lives that is fascinating or curious stimulating them to create a theory to explain the phenomenon The main difference between deductive and inductive reasoning is that collected data is used to testa hypothesis in deductive reasoning while it is used to create a hypothesis in inductive reasoning
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