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RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II

by: Julia Lensch

RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Russ 280

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Russian > Russ 280 > RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II
Julia Lensch

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This study guide covers what is on the second exam.
Intro to Russian Civilization
Prof. Kalb
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch1 Class 11 => Pushkin's "Queen of Spades" and Lermontov's "Taman"  Born in 1799  Started school at age 12 at the academy created by Tsar Alexander I (Tsarskoe Tselo Lyceum)  Became friends with liberal aristocrats who want changes in the way Russia's tsars rule  Exiled to southern reaches of empire  Misses Decembrist Rebellion of 1825 – many friends exiled or killed  1826 petitions czar to be let back in to the capital  Nicholas agrees but has to be Pushkin's personal censor  Eugene Onegin (1825-1832) by Pushkin o Rhyme scheme o Eugene Onegin becomes model of Russian Romantic hero; "superfluous man" o Kills Tatyana's sister's fiancé, Lensky, in duel, then falls in love unsuccessfully with Tatyana  Queen of Spades (written 1833, published 1834) by Pushkin o Stereotype is that Herman the German does not gamble o Hears of Tomsky's grandmother's history with winning cards o Woos her ward Liza, frightens Countess to death o Countess gets revenge by ruining Herman o Lucky three cards, according to Pushkin, were three, seven, ace  Mikhail Lermontov, 1814-1841 o Recited Pushkin's poetry as teenager o Wrote a poem after Pushkin's death led to his own exile o In several duels and was killed at age 27 in a duel  A Hero of Our Time (written 1837-1840) by Lermontov o Made up of 5 stories o Main character: Pechorin o Stories include travel accounts, romantic adventures, society tales o Pechorin -> self-portrait of Lermontov himself o Pechorin often seen as heir to Pushkin's Evgenii Onegin, the superfluous man  Romanticism in Russia o Reaches its height in 1820s with appearance of Byron and Byronism o Bryon -> British writer associated with swashbuckling brigands performing heroic feats o Byronic Hero: defiant, melancholy young man, brooding on sin in his past; against society o Seen as quintessential Romantic RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch2 o Romanticism focuses on: escapism and rebellion, social protest and individual isolation, exotic milieus and noble savages, death, madness, and murder o Adapted to Russian milieu o Pechorin and Onegin experienced Russian sort of boredom, that of the superfluous man Class 12 => Russian Nationalism in Music (1830-1900)  Before 1830s, mostly oral traditions including folk music and church music  No composed art or court music before 1830s o Courts heard imported music – Italian and French opera  Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) o Nobleman o Trained in Italy and Germany o Russian language opera o Life for the Tsar 1836 – folk song; folk instruments o Ruslan und Ludmilla 1843 – fairy tale; unusual harmonies, rhythms, meter  The Mighty Five (Moguchaya Kuchka) 1850s-70s o Balakirev o Cui o Mussorgsky o Borodin o Rimsky-Korsakov  On Stage: Russian History: o Mussorgsky, Boris Godunov (1874) o Borodin, Prince Igor (1869-1887)  On Stage: Russian Fairy Tales o Rimsky-Korsakov, Snow Maiden (1880) o Rimsky-Korsakov, The Golden Cockerol (1907) o Rimsky-Korsakov, Sadko (1896)  Instrumental Music: start a uniquely Russian style of music o Balakirev: Overture on 3 Russian Themes (1859) (Russian Folk Songs); Rus (1860); Tamar (1876) (representing The Russian Orient) o Mussorgsky: Night on Bald Mountain (1867); Pictures at an Exhibition (1874 pno; 1922 orch. Ravel) o Rimsky-Korsakov: Russian Easter Overture (1887); Caprice Espanole (1887); Scheherezade (1888) (representing The Russian Orient) RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch3  Mighty Five: o No formal training  All had jobs; wrote music in their spare time  All gathered at Balakirev's apartments  Studied Western music (beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Wagner) o Russian Musical Society  To perform and play their music o 1970s – Balakirev has a breakdown; Mussorgsky, too (1874) and the Circle dissolves  Anton Rubenstein (1829-1894) o Russian Pianist – German descent o Resists the Mighty Five o 1862 establishes St. Petersburg Conservatory  Train Russian composers (Western compositional forms, styles)  Among first graduates was Tchaikovsky o 1866 establishes Moscow Conservatory  Tchaikovsky teaches  Peter I. Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) o Studies law – starts career in civil service o Stops to pursue music o Studies at new St. Petersburg Conservatory (established by Rubinstein) o 1866 – teaches at new Moscow Conservatory; close with Balakirev – friendly with all the Mighty Five o Compositions – both Western and Russian  Some symphonies and operas based on Russian literature; some use of folk song o Nationalism – Opera:  1878 – Eugene Onegin  1890 – Queen of Spades o Nationalism – Ballet:  1876 – Swan Lake  1888 – Sleeping Beauty  1897 – The Nutcracker o Tchaikovksy's very own patron -> Natalia (Nadezhda) von Meck Class 13 => Gogol: A Bridge from Romanticism to Realism RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch4  Russian Realism: o Known as Realist o Focus on Russian reality, particularly people, social institutions, social needs o Novels in particular as vehicles of social action, social change  Nikolai Gogol, 1809-1852 o From Ukraine to St. Petersburg o Urkrainian folktales win praise of Pushkin o Writes epic novel, Dead Souls o Religious fervor -> burns second volume of Dead Souls o Fasts -> death  The Overcoat (1842) o Akaky Akakievich Bashmachkin o Famous "little man" in literature o Change throughout story, from acceptance to desire for coat, brief triumph  Petrovich the Tailor o Diabolical figure luring Akaky to temptation o Called "one-eyed devil" o Words for "devil" surround mentions of him in the text  The "Person of Consequence" o Represents all that is wrong with heartless bureaucracy o Represents some people's cruelty to others o Represents hypocrisy o Teasing and bullying vs. "I am your brother" o Narrator – sometimes mocking, sometimes sympathetic  St. Petersburg: City and Myth o Pushkin's Evgeny in the "Bronze Horseman" comparable to Akaky Akakievich o Misty, untrustworthy city that can deceive and even kill, a place of mystery and magic  Legacy of Gogol's "Overcoat" o Dostoevsky: "We all emerged out of Gog's Overcoat" o Scholar David Magashack: "underdog and social misfit is treated not as a nuisance, but as a human being who has as much right to happiness as anyone else o Gogol as a bridge from Romanticism to Realism Class 14 => Turgenev RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch5  Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev, 1818-1883 o Westernizer, friend of Flaubert, nicknamed "the American" in school o A Hunter's Notes, novels (Fathers & Children), plays (A Month in the Country) o "Bezhin Meadow" o View of peasantry  The European Russian o Lived most of his life abroad in France and Germany o Seen as an outsider: believed in Western ideals, liberal humanism o Read in English, French, German, and Spanish literature o Translated Shakespeare  Upbringing o Grew up on brutal, cruel, wealthy mother's estate o Father was a penniless officer o University education, then to Europe o Russia must learn from West  Novels: Notes of a Hunter, and "Bezhin Meadow" o When Turgenev began writing novels, there was no tradition of Russian novel writing o Was the first Russian writer famous in West o First literary sensation (1852): Notes of a Hunter o Seen as a Russian Uncle Tom's Cabin for its expose of the evils and injustices of serfdom o "Bezhin Meadow" is one of the stories from that collection  Serfdom in Russia o Serfdom and the landowning gentry: millions of native Russians enslaved to landowners – or to state o "Freeze" under Nicholas I (rules 1825-1855) following Decembrist rebellion: police-bureaucratic dictatorship o Reforms of Alexander II (rules 1855-1881) (tutored by Zhukovsky) o Emancipation of the serfs, 1861 o Turgenev's book appears 1847-1851 th  Intellectual Trends in 19 Century Russia: Slavophiles vs. Westernizers o 1840s: Slavophiles vs. Westernizers – important trend in Russian culture that is ongoing in Russia today o Those who wanted Russia to emulate the West (Turgenev is one of these), vs. those who found pride in Russia's native tradition th  Intellectual Trends in 19 Century Russia: 1860s Radicals (Utilitarian, Positivist) o Turgenev's best novel (1862), Fathers and Children,develops this theme RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch6 o Radical 1860s Bazarov clashes with gentle liberals of 1840s o Artistic feeling, romantic love, healing beauty of nature, and sanctity of individual personality o Bazarov rejects all aesthetic, moral, and religious convictions – Nihilism o Recognizes his isolation and emptiness  Sketches from a Hunter's Album, 1847-1851, 1852 o Narrative voice: intelligent, interested but uncommitted observer o He is a member of the nobility, of the landowning class, and thus both a stranger in the world of the peasants and a frankly curious observer anxious to describe this world to his readers Class 15 => Dostoevsky, "The Meek Woman," Tolstoy, "Holstomer"  Fyodor Dostoevsky, 1821-1881 o One of most important novelists who ever lived o Novelist and teacher of politics, religion, psychology, ethics o Freud said Dostoevsky anticipated all his major insights; Nietzsche said no one had influenced him more than Dostoevsky o His religious beliegs influenced Russian philosophers o Existentialists saw him as forerunner of new Christianity: Camus and Sartre influenced by him  Dostoevsky's Life o Difficult childhood with abusive father and loving, religious mother o Attended school in Petersburg, then entered military o Read widely: loved Western literature, highly influenced by it o Developed epilepsy o Started gambling, money troubles  Dostoevsky's Arrest and Imprisonment o 1846 – joins Petrashevsky Circle, accused of revolutionary activity o Czar feared repeat of 1825 Decembrist Rebellion o Arrested 1849, mock execution o Siberian exile with hard labor for 4 years  After Siberian Labor Camp o 1859 back to Petersburg o Notes from the House of the Dead 1860-1862 o Travels through Europe RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch7 o Conservative Slavophile: Peter the Great's reforms enriched Russia but must now turn back to its past o Godless West vs. Holy Russia o Prejudices  The Novels o Dostoevsky known for his great novels o Crime and Punishment 1866 o The Idiot 1868 o The Devils/The Possessed 1872 o The Brothers Karamazov 1880  "The Legend of the Grand Inquisitor"  The Meek Woman, 1876 o Part of Diary of a Writer o Major themes:  Corrupting nature of power and money  Spiritual debasement vs. Purity  Need for spiritual sustenance  Leo Tolstoy, 1828-1910 o Important and famous writer o Seen not only as a writer, but also a prophet, religious sage o Inspired Tolstoyan communities still in existence o Influenced Ganhi o "Two czars in Russia: one in Petersburg, other at Yasnaya Polyana" (a saying)  Tolstoy's Background and Early Life o From aristocratic, rich family: he was a count, his mother a princess o Owned estate, Yasnaya Polyana o Attended university, but did not graduate; joined army o Began literary career in army  Later in life... o Wrote two of the most famous novels ever written, War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1878) o Depression o Led to spiritual conversion o Rest of life wrote about religious and social matters o Issues in marriage  Most famous Russian of his day o Wrote for peasants and founded non-profit publishing house o Decided literature not for entertainment: rejected his earlier novels RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch8 o Literature solely used to improve the reader and the world o Rejected earlier lifestyle and aspects of Russian Orthodox Church and government o Excommunicated 1901 o "Conscience of humanity" o Influenced Gandhi and many others  "Holstomer," 1863, revised, published 1886 o Why is it "thrice unfortunate'? o What are differences between people and horses o How does Tolstoy juxtapose the descriptions of Holstomer and his former owner, Serpukhovskoy  Tolstoy and "Making Strange" (Defamiliarization: o Habitualization devours works, clothes, furniture, one's wife, and the fear of war. Art exists that one may recover the sensation of life; it exists to make one feel things, to make the stone stony. The technique of art is to make objects "unfamiliar" Class 16 => Russian Realist Art: The Itinerants/Wanderers/Peredvixhniki; Anton Chekhov, The Cherry Orchard  Realist Art: Responding to the Mighty Five o Art follows same path, away from academies in 1860s, focusing on Russian history and reality, liberal ideas o 1870s: traveling expeditions to show art to "the people"  Populism o These painters fit into an important trend called Russian Populism, seen in 1860s and 1870s o Students went to countryside to teach peasants: thousands of idealists in 1874 set out from cities to preach a doctrine of social progress and the common good in the countryside o People and government baffled, students arrested  Ivan Kramskoy: Christ in the Wilderness, 1872 o Leader of the Peredvizhniki o Decided his mission was to create a Russian rendering of Christ  Ilya Repin: Volga Barge-Haulers, 1870-1873 o Most famous member of this group of artists RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch9 o Known for his portrayals of what was going on in Russian society – with a political twist o Became famous with his painting of the Volga Barge-Haulers, full of human misery. One bit of hope though – the young man who looks up  Ilya Repin: They Did Not Expect Him, 1884-1888 o Family at home o Surprised by return of political exile o Political content of work combined with artistic expertise  Ilya Repin, Leo tolstoy (as a Peasant), 1901 o Repin paints Tolstoy in his peasant garb o Shocking for a count to be barefoot, wearing peasant clothing o Painting after Tolstoy's conversion  Isaac Levitan, nature paintings  Vasily Surikov, Boyarina Morozova, 1887 o Another theme of the Peredvizhniki was old Russia, mystical approach ot the motherland o Prime example is the work of painter Vasily Surikov o Major work is the "Boyarian Morozova" (1887), which protrays an Old Believer (remember Avvakum!) being taken off to prison  Valentin Serov, Girl with Peaches, 1887 o Famous portraitist o Joined with Peredvizhniki when already famous o Russian Impressionist  Changing sensibilities: Borisov-Musatov's Art o As the turn of the 20 century drew near, artistic sensibilities changed, becoming less Realist, less definitive, and instead dreamy, contemplative, revealing a lifestyle soon to disappear o Paintings of Victor Borisov-Musatov point the way to Symbolism in Russian art o They also reveal some of the sensibilities of Chekhov's texts  Anton Chekhov, 1860-1901 o Prolific short story writer, playwright, doctor o Known for his four great plays (Seagull, Three Sisters, Uncle Vanya, and Cherry Orchard) o Compassionate, clear-eyed, unsentimental o One of the most popular writers in Russia to this day  Background for Chekov o Serfdom ends in 1861 o Rise of middle and working classes RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch10 o Unskilled, exploited labor force o Revolutionary unrest o Will culminate in Russian Revolution of 1905 o Chekov portrays a dying, changing world  Chekov's Upbringing o Grandfather was a serf who had bought his own freedom o Father was very religious, beat him o Lived in a small town o Rose above petty life around him through kindness and education o Supported family through journalism, then medicine  Later Life o Very unsuccessful in his literary career o Went on trip to SIberia in 1890, researched the island of Sakhalin, researched social, economic, and medical conditions of Russian settlers and native populations o Went to Hong Kong, Singapore o Once back in Russia, became involved again in medicine – works to helpe people in famine of 1891 and cholera epidemic o Adored by his readers  The Plays o Plays are product of 1890s o Chekhov becomes Russia's leading dramatist o Plays very popular, he was adored o Married Olga Knipper - leading actress who played Mme Ranevskaya in first Cherry Orchard production in 1904 o Lived apart and he encouraged her to pursue her career o Chekhov died of tuberculosis in 1904 o Plays focused on human relations, instead of big actions o Major action happens off stage o Many main characters, no one most important o Portrait of his changing world  Cherry Orchard 1903-1904 o His last play o Remember changing social circumstances: gentry selling off land after emancipation of serfs o How does Chekhov characterize past and future in this play? o Who is the main character of the play? RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch11 Class 17 => Gorky and the Revolution of 1905 th  Transitions in Literature at Turn of 20 Century o From Realism (Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy) o To twilight realism (Chekhov) o To then grittier, new realism (Gorky) o Meanwhile Symbolism comes along, will be replaced eventually by Futurism  Transitions in Music at Turn of 20 Century o From Tchaikovsky (The Nutcracker, 1892) to Scriabin (Symbolist) (The Divine Poem, 1902) to Stravinsky (Futurist) (The Rite of Spring, 1913)  Transitions in Art at Turn of 20 Century o Art:  From Realism of Itinerants (Realism)  To twilight realism (Borisov-Musatov)  To Symbolism (Vrubel) => Swan Princess, 1900, Demon, 1890  To be replaced by Futurism (Kandinsky - 1911, Larionov, Goncharova - 1913)  Meanwhile, on the historical-political front... o 1861 end of serfdom o Fall of gentry class, rise of new middle class and working class o 18902 Russian industry takes off, growing about 8% per year o RRs grow 40% between 1881-1894 o BUT unskilled and exploited labor force o Peasants also suffering: freedom gained at huge and impossible financial price o Two very unhappy groups --> beginnings of revolutionary unrest in Russia  Russo-Japanese War o 1904-1905 o Between Russian Empire and Empire of Japan o Russia assumed would win o But defeated, and Russian fleet destroyed o Shocking for Russian people o Anger at tsarist government  Steps to 1905 Revolution o Remember the social transformation of the time: new working class, huge industrialization, unhappy peasants and worker o Opposition organizing: liberals and radicals RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch12 o Liberals – 1903 from Union of Liberation, 1905 form Constitutional Democrats, or Cadets: composed of both constitutional monarchists and republicans o Radicals form two important parties around turn of century: Social Democrats (SDs) and Social Revolutionaries (SRs)  Bolsheviks, SRs, and Terror o SDs are Marxists o In 1903 the SDs split into the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the Mensheviks o SRs are "Social Revolutionaries" o The SR Combat Organization (terrorist branch of SRs) starts targeted political assassinations (Minister von Plehve killed 1904)  January 22, 1905: Bloody Sunday  Strikes, Uprisings, and the October Manifesto o Summer of 1905: new strikes, huge peasants uprisings o HUGE general strike from October 20-30 o During this time workers in Petersburg organize a soviet, or council o October 30, 1905: government issues October Manifesto o Civil liberties and legislative assembly, censorship dropped, constituional monarchy o This split the opposition – some satisfied and some not o In the end Nicholas rescinds previous promises --> huge discontent, feeling of atrophy  WWI o 1914 WWI begins o Army mobilized 15.5 million men o Greater casualties than any other country involved in the war o Nicholas II reacts to displacement, famine, lack of fuel by going to the front o Gives all power to the Empress and Rasputin the mad monk  Maksim Gorky (Aleksei Peshkov), 1868-1936 o A new voice, a new kind of writer (though a realist)who heralds the new Soviet order o Lower middle-class family, lost parents, started life on his own at 11 o Dishwasher, baker, all sorts of different professions described in his three- volume autobiography o Read voraciously and started writing himself o Very popular by 1898 o Stories known for their sympathy with the urban underclasses RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch13 o Eventually becomes known as a radical, revolutionary member of the leftist intelligentsia o Supported 1905 revolution, joined Bolshevik Party  The Lower Depths o His play depicts life in a flophouse (indictment of society that lets people live like this) was performed in 1902 and considered quite powerful  Mother o Novel Mother 1906 most famous work o Middle-class woman, humble ignorant victim of society's injustices o Becomes a brave and eloquent revolutionary o "Comrades" in the novel are good, and "enemies: are cowardly and sickly o Image of the revolutionary in her son Pavel o Became prototype of socialist realist novel, model for officially sanctioned myth of revolutionary  Later Life o After 1917 Gorkii recognized that many writers were starving o Set up publishing venture translating great works ofliterature into Russian o Used his credit with the new regime to save lives and culture o Left Soviet Union in 1921, lived in various places, ending in Italy, until 1931 o Lured back by Stalin, who gave him a mansion and then killed him  "26 Men and a Girl" 1899 o Not overtly revolutionary but note roots of Gorky's later political involvement o How are the working men described? o Why do they love Tanya? o Does she betray them? o Describe the narrator Class 18 => The Silver Age  New reading class developing at beginning of 20 century  Tiny group of people who can read/write and its now broadening out o Gorky appeals to these people  Elite group of writers o Decadents then later called Symbolists  First Generation of Russian Symbolists, 1890s: Briusov, Balmont, Merezhovsky o Led by Valerii Briusov o Want to create new writing style RUSS 280 Study Guide Exam II Lensch14 o Can't write in language of Pushkin's anymore  Most shocking poem: "O, cover thy pale legs!" o More people join in  Second Generation Russian Symbolists: Bely, Blok, Sergei Solovyov (1900-1910) o Literature is religion/teaching/philosophy o Writer seen as a priest o Taken to higher realm o Bely, Blok, Sergei Solovyov o Influenced by Vladimir Solovyov (Russian philosopher) o Solovyov believed men should look for a woman that resembled the divine Sophia and worship her  Acmeists (1910s) o Tired of symbolists/mystical staff o Want to focus on Earth and what's around us o Anna Akhmatova and Osip Mandelstam  Futurists: Literary Revolutionaries o Mayakovsky --> radical departure from any literature of past o Causing riots o Revolutionary with Bolshevik Party th  Transitions in Art at Turn of 20 Century o From itinerants (Realism) to Borisov-Musatov (twilight realism) to Vrubel (symbolism) to Kandinsky, Larionov, Goncharova (futurism) Questions on Exam:  Second generation Russian symbolists influenced by Vladimir Solovyov  Emancipation of the serfs in year 1861  Turgenev --> portrays peasants  First modern composer --> Glinka  Tchaikovsky ballet --> The Nutcracker  Gogul --> loses hope  Why do you torment me are we not?  Why does horse think he's guilty? (3 reasons)  Tolstoy --> Holstomer


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