BIO 151 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
BIO 151 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE BIO151
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Brennan on Friday January 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO151 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Rounds in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 647 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/16/15
BIO 151 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE DECEMBER 2014 EXAM 1 to Macromolecules Carbohydrates gt Function store energy and are converted into sugars when the energy is needed to be released into the biological species Composition include a carbonyl group several hydroxyl Simplest type monosaccharide 4 Glucose is the basic energy source for all cells C6H12Qf8 3 Many monosaccharides monomer bonded together form a OH polysaccharide polymer 0 Common polysaccharides starch glycogen cellulose chitin peptidoglycan Lipids Function contain energy for life processes Composition long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid functional group on the end held together by nonpolar covalent bonds Hydrophobic repels water Hydrophilic attracted to water Amphipathic when one end of a molecule is hydrophobic and the other end is hydrophilic mm Phospholipids 0 Contains a hydrophobic quottailquot formed by fatty Way acids and a hydrophilic head formed by a phosphate group Marathow Forms a bilayer or micelle when placed in water m TR 9 Hydrophobic tails fold inward away from the water and the hydrophilic heads face outwards 9 Due to the size of the hydrophobic tails phospholipids usually form bilayers o Bilayers are the basis for the formation of membranes Fatty acids Amphipathic Form micelles when placed in water 0 Saturated the carbons are all bonded by single covalent bonds which make them saturated with hydrogen bonds Steroids Consists of a carbon skeleton composed of four fused rings 0 Example cholesterol Proteins Functions metabolism signaling transportation structure movement defense Composition made up of polypeptides fl H polymer chains of amino acids monomer quotH2cHC MEREfi39xCCHIOOH Can be either hydrophobic hydrophilic or L amphipathic depending on the properties of the amino acids Composition of amino acids a central carbon atom with an amino group a side chain Rgroup and hydrogen H R In 0 Amino acids with nonpoar Rgroups are H39N393 hydrophobic IL gt Nucleic Acids f m mfmquot Function encodes all genetic information Femmi Strumre olimamimcidi needed for life Composition a phosphate functional group a ve carbon sugar pentose and nitrogenous bases Has polarity hydrophilic Monomer nucleotides Polymer Nucleic O acids 0 O O NH Nucleotides guanine thymine adenine HOHOIFOIFIO NKO cytosine 393 393 393 o o For RNA replace thymine for uracil Phosphodiester bonds link 2 nucleotides OHOH together DNA vs RNA 0 DNA sugar deoxyribose RNA sugar ribose Nucleotides differ DNA directs the synthesis of proteins RNA delivers information from DNA to site of protein synthesis 0 DNA is a double helix RNA is a single strand gt Be able to apply the properties of each macromolecule to real life situations What would form a membrane What are amphipathic Where would they be found if submerged with water to Cell signaling gt Signal transduction Produces cellular responses to extracellular signals chemicals 3 phases 0 Reception ligand binds to a receptor Transduction the receptor activates a signal transduction pathway 0 Response the pathway initiates a cascade that lead to cellular response Ligands molecules that bind directly to a receptor Signaling ligands must be speci c to their receptors Receptorligand binding is reversible As the ligand concentration decrease the likelihood of it binding to a receptor also declines Downstream activation a sequence in which an initial signal triggers further events that transmits the signal to other proteins Transmembrane receptors bind large hydrophilic molecules that can t enter the cell by crossing the lipid bilayer The binding sites are oriented toward the exterior of the cell Intracellular receptors cytoplasmic receptors directly bind smaller hydrophobic molecules that readily diffuse through the cell membrane 0 Examples steroid hormones Chimeric receptors created when the intracellular part of one receptor is fused to the extracellular part of another Solubility determines where a signaling molecule will bind Signal transduction pathway kinase cascade A sequence of biochemical reactionsevents that begins with an extracellular signal that ultimately leads to a response Main components involved kinases phosphatases target proteins extracellular signal Often involve enzyme regulated changes in protein function Phosphorylation the process of transferring a phosphate group from ATP to a protein to change its quot if functionality lquot Dephosphorylation removes the phosphate group l t and the protein returns back to its normal 1 JQVIQQR functionality activated by phosphatases H Kinases a class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins Negative feedback occurs when the products of a signaling pathway inhibit upstream signaling Positive feedback when the products of a signaling pathway lead to more upstream signaling Ampli cation occurs when a kinase targets and phosphorylates more than one protein SR Pathway activated by signal binding receptor my ll v I Stem Cell SelfRenewal Pathway Morula totipotent Blastocyst rings of cells lnner cell mass pluripotent Differentiated stem cells multipotent Stem cells undifferentiated cells either go on to differentiate into skin or neuro cells or go through the selfrenewal pathway GenesInhibitors involved in the differentiating stem cells SR genes for detecting selfrenewal I 1 i pathway 39 DET genes for detecting determination signal 1 0 ID inhibit differentiation genes DIV genes required for cell division DIFFskin genes leading to the differentiation into skin cells DIFFneuron genes leading to the differentiation into neurons Know how to use the Sox2Oct4 Nanong STAT3 diagram gt Ways to turn off a pathways Phosphatases Receptor inhibition Receptor endocytosis receptor is brought into the cell to be degraded Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis protein is degraded into its amino acids A phosphorylated proteins eventually will get dephosphorylated gt Be able to determine outcomes if pathway gets mutated to Gene Expression Central dogma of biology DNA D RNA D protein Upstream sequences on the 5 end of DNA Downstream sequences on the 3 end of DNA Transcription The process of creating an RNA molecule that is complementary to a template sequence of DNA Template strand the strand of DNA that is being transcribed The sequence on the noncoding strand will match the new RNA molecule Process 0 3 phases 9 Initiation RNA polymerase binds to DNA and unwinds it gt Requires a promoter DNA sequence that signals where the transcription of a gene should begin gt Positioned upstream of the transcription start site 9 Elongation RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template and creates an RNA transcript 9 Termination RNA polymerase reaches the termination site and the RNA transcript is released 0 The DNA is read in the 3 l 5 direction mRNA is synthesized in the 5 l 3 direction Transcription factors proteins regulates the transcription of genes Eukaryotes Occurs in nucleus 0 Use 3 types of RNA polymerase The promoter region includes 9 TFIIB recognition element located about 35 nucleotides upstream from start site 9 a DNA sequence known as the TATA Box located about 25 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site 9 use enhancer sequences to increase ef ciency gt enhancers are brought to the promoter through DNA looping gt facilitated by activators inhibited by repressors transcription ends when the polyadenylation sequence is transcribed VVVV mRNA goes through processing in nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation to begin Pro ka ryotes Occurs in cytoplasm Promoters contain a 10 box and a 35 box both located upstream of the start site and bind sigma and RNA polymerase to the template strand Sigma a protein binds to RNA polymerase and then binds to the promoter The binding of sigma and RNA polymerase creates a haloenzyme complex No mRNA processing is necessary Transcription and translation can occur simultaneously RNA processing Primary RNA transcript premRNA Ends are modi ed 9 5 cap is added guanine is added to 5 end 9 PoyA tail is added to the 3 end RNA splicing o Exons segments of premRNA that are in the mature mRNA exonsexpressed o lntrons segments of premRNA that are cut out of the mature mRNA introninterrupted gt Translation The mRNA produced during transcription is used to synthesize proteins Occurs in the cytoplasm for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes Process Occurs in 3 phases mediated by enzymes initiation elongation termination Begins when the start codon AUG is rst translated tRNA bring speci c amino acids to the ribosome 9 contain an anticodon which are complementary to the codons of the mRNA strand tRNA enters the A site of the ribosome and attaches the anticodon to the mRNA the growing peptide is shifted to the P site as more anticodons are added the peptide then exits the ribosome at the E site when the peptide synthesis is done ends when a stop codon is translated UAA UAG UGA peptides are synthesized from the Nterminus to the Cterminus 5 l 3 mRNA sequence must be translated into an amino acid sequence Ribosome protein RNA complex that facilitates protein synthesis Made up of a small and large subunit Small subunit initially binds to the newly transcribed mRNA gt AminoacyltRNA synthases family of enzymes that help match tRNA with the appropriate amino acid Posttranslational modi cations Peptides might be cleaved or brought together Glycosylation phosphorylation Be able to readwrite DNA sequences know what would occur if there was a mutation in the DNA sequence know which way mRNA polymerization occurs on a diagram oz Clicker Questions gt Embryonic stem cells put into mice don t develop properly and become teratomas why The adult tissues didn t send the appropriate signals and the stem cells couldn t sense the signals gt Which chemical group is at the 5 end of a single poynuceotide strand Phosphate group gt Which would quickly stop signal transduction A phosphatase speci c for TFa gt 17 betaestradiol binds to an intracellular receptor and insulin binds to an extracellular receptor why 17 betaestradiol is lipid soluble and can easily diffuse through the membrane gt What signal is needed to cause the expression of the skin or neuron differentiation pathway SR signal gt DET pathway is expressed in a cell in response to an SR signal because To let the daughter cells sense differentiation signals EXAM 2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation gt Bacterial genes are organized into operons Operon set of genes that are transcribed together as a unit and under a single set of regulators Promoter speci c DNA sequence that RNA polymerase binds to to begin transcription Operator speci c DNA sequence that binds transcription factors to turn onoff transcription of that particular operon Repressor transcription factor the binds to the operator inhibiting transcription 0 Turns off in the presence of a ligand gt Transcriptional regulation Repressible usually on turns off when ligand binds to the repressor Inducible usually off because a repressor is bound to the DNA turns on when a ligand is present Positive involves a transcription factor usually off until a signal turns it on Constitutive always on O 90 gt Be able to know how the Lac operon functions possible outcomes if it is mutated Eukaryotic Gene Regulation gt Stages 1 Nucleus a Chromatin remodeling regulates the availability of a gene for transcription b RNA processing 2 Exported to cytoplasm a Translated into polypeptides b Posttranscriptional modi cations Euchromatin lightly packed DNA that is actively undergoing transcription Heterochromatin DNA that isn t going through transcription Histone acetylation the addition of an acetyl group loosens DNA and increases the probability of transcription gt Histone methylation the addition of a methyl group compacts DNA and decreases the probability of transcription gt Alternative RNA splicing different mRNA is produced from the same primary RNA transcript gt mRNA degradation the destruction of mRNA gt Know how to do problems involving nd an alternative exon that ts a speci c reading frame Protein Structure gt Primary structure 1St level of protein structure Consists of the sequence of amino acids Fold as soon as it leaves the ribosome assisted by proteins called chaperones gt Secondary structure 2nOI level of protein structure Consist of alpha helices and betasheets Alpha helices Rgroups point off to the side 0 common in transmembrane proteins hydrophobic residues on the outside or along one side determine how the helix will orient itself in the membrane Betasheets form the core of many proteins 0 the side chains R groups point either up or down gt Tertiary Structure Gives the 3D shape of the protein Primary structure l tertiary structure when folded gt Quaternary Structure The 3D structure of 2 or more polypeptides that interact to make a protein function Types of Mutations gt Temperature Sensitive VVV Occurs when a proteins denatures at higher temperatures restrictive temperature A protein is folded and functions properly at room temperature permissive temperature Silent Doesn t have an effect on the DNA sequence or amino acid Missense Change in the nucleotide sequence that changes the amino acid speci ed codon Consequence change in primary structure of proteins Nonsense Change in the nucleotide sequence that results in an early stop codon Consequence leads to mRNA breakdown or a shortened polypeptide Frameshift The addition or deletion of a nucleotide Consequence reading frame is shifted altering the meaning of all subsequentcodons oz Miscellaneous gt VVV gt gt gt gt Replica plating mutagenesis Same colonies on different plates will always be genetically identical lnduces random DNA changes in bacteria Bacteria will either have a mutated pathway or be ne Gel electrophoresis can be used for proteins Used to estimate the concentration of DNA Larger DNA samples move slower through the gel than smaller samples Substitution of a single amino acid should not affect the mobility of the protein on the SDS gel Conservation of resources saves the most energy D uses the most energy Transcriptional control translational control post translational control Post translational is the fastest way to respond to an outside stimulus Advantage to transcriptional control only transcribe proteins when needed Protein traf cking ElevesiclesDGolgiDPlasma membrane Reverse transcriptase when DNA is transcribed from mRNA Barr bodies Only occurs in female eukaryotes Example of heterochromatin More sensitive to DNAse compared to other chromosomes Primary structures of proteins are compared on SDS gels Polycistronic mRNA codes for more than one protein Pulse chase proteins are mixed with radioactive amino acids for a period of time and then is chased with none radioactive version of the amino acid Extracellular signal positive regulation oz Clicker questions gt How would you isolate allonly mRNA in a cell using base pairing Agarose beads with thymine polymers A protein is soluble in the ER lt enters the exocytosis pathway where does it end Extracellular Where would the translation termination sequence for a protein be found on mRNA At the 3 end Where would the signal sequences be on a protein destined for the ER Nterminus Alpha helices in a cytosolic protein would be Amphipathic What would be most sensitive to DNAse The part of the chromosome where rRNA is being transcribed EXAM 3 3 Metabolism gt gt gt The sum of all chemical reactions that transform energy and matter within a living organism Catabolic reactions break down large molecules into smaller ones exergonic Anabolic reactions builds complex molecules from smaller simpler ones endergonic Laws of thermodynamics 1 Energy is neither created or destroyed its transduced 2 Not all energy can be transformed into work but is lost as heat 0 The entropy disorder of the universe increases with every energy transformation 0 Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow which decreases the entropy of an organism How does this relate to the 2quot I law of thermodynamics 0 As a consequence of growing organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment then the decrease in entropy in associated with their growth Gibbs Free Energy AG The energy that can be used by a system to preform work when temperature and pressure are constant I Afinal initial Spontaneous reactions occur without adding energy from the environment into the system AG Nonspontaneous reactions Won t occur without the addition of energy from the environment A G Exergonic reactions release energy as heat AG AGreactants gt AGproducts Endergonic reactions require the addition of energy AG gt gt AGreactants lt AGproducts Activation energy required to initiate any chemical reaction Can be lowered by a catalyst Coupled reactions when the energy released in an exergonic reaction is used to start an endergonic reaction Be able to read graphs of Gibbs free energy 0 ATPCellular Work gt gt ATP composed of a nitrogenous base the sugar ribose and 3 phosphate groups Energy is stored in the phosphoanhydride bonds between the phosphate groups 0 The three negatively charged phosphate groups repel each other making ATP unstable and energy rich ATP Hydrolysis releases the energy stored in the bonds between the phosphate groups ampPi ATPH20yieldsH0P0 1 mol of ATP hydrolyzed 73 kcals of energy released The energy released from this process is usually coupled with other endergonic reactions occurring within the cell 0 Enzymes gt gt Biological catalysts proteins Substrates a reactant in a biochemical process that are usually acted upon by enzymes Substrate D enzyme D product Higher concentration of substrates makes the reaction perform faster Active site where the substrate binds to the enzyme forming an enzyme substrate complex Reactions reach saturation when all of the active sites are bound with substrates Maximum rate of reaction Vmax is reached Km measures how well an enzyme binds to a substrate 12Vmax High Km low af nity for enzymesubstrate interactions Enzymes with low Km work best when very little substrate is around Induced t occurs when a substrate changes the shape of the active site of an enzyme which increases enzymesubstrate interactions lock and key Activation energy the difference between the energy level of the substrate and the energy level of the transition state Need to overcome the energy barrier of breakingforming bonds in order for a reaction to proceed Increase in temperature and kinetic energy of molecules allow substrates to overcome the activation energy 0 Higher temperatures cause proteins to denature and processes to stop Barrier is lowered by enzymes Does not change the value of A G gt Can t make an endergonic reaction exergonic gt Optimum temperature the temperature at which an enzyme functions at its maximum ef ciency Lower temperatures lower kinetic energy which lowers reaction rates gt Enzymatic inhibition Feedback inhibition occurs when excess products work to inhibit the pathway by binding toinhibiting the enzymes early on in the pathway Competitive inhibition occurs when something other than a substrate binds to the active site Increases Km constant Vmax Can overcome the inhibitor with a high substrate Allosteric inhibition occurs when something binds to an allosteric site which then changes the shape of the active site inhibiting the binding of substrates noncompetitive inhibition Decreases Vmax constant Km 0 Works best to inhibit the enzyme at higher substrate If you don t want the enzyme to function properly through the use of an inhibitor choose the one that has the lowest rate gt Know how to read graphs of product vs time amp rate of reaction vs substrate Substrate 68mM 60mM 50mM w F Iiui I I i m III imi o n Product 301nM I zill 1 PIT nl391 3 J T pi 1 Product vs Time Vo slope Can t determine Vmax or Km 0 Enzyme is saturated if 2 Vo s overlap Rate vs substrate Km substrate at half of Vmax Vo not enough information rt Cellular respiration gt Energy is released and captured from the breakdown of organic molecules gt ATP is generated in 2 major mechanisms Substratelevel phosphorylation requires kinases Oxidative phosphorylation gt Cellular respiration occurs in 4 phases Glycolysis The process in which glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules 9 Glucose is oxidized Phases energy investment splitting energy harvest 9 Initially requires the input of ATP because some glycolysis reactions if uncoupled are endergonic Occurs in the cytosol Phosphofructokinase PFK is the regulatory enzyme for glycolysis o Stops glycolysis when ATP is abundant INPUTS glucose 2 ATP OUTPUTS 2 pyruvates 4 ATP 2 NADH Pyruvate Decarboxylation The process in which the pyruvate molecules are transformed into AcetylCoA o Pyruvate is oxidized Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix INPUTS 2 pyruvates CoA OUTPUTS C02 2NADH Citric Acid Cycle Harvests chemical energy from acetylCoA and transfers it to different molecules to be transported to the next phase Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix The cycle occurs twice per molecule of acetylCoA o Carbons are released during the 2nOI cycle for each acetylCoA in the form of C02 INPUTS acetylCoA 2FADH2 OUTPUTS 4C02 2 ATP 6NADH Electron Transport ChainChemiosmosis Electron transport chain a series of protein complexes and molecules that acceptdonate electrons ultimately donating them to 02 o The 02 comes from the air we breathe in Chemiosmosis the process of harnessing the proton gradient established by the ETC to phosphorylate ADP D ATP o Protons move from HighLow Electrochemical proton gradient is formed across the inner mitochondrial membrane each time an electron is donated Proton motive force potential energy of the protons accumulated in the intermembrane space that is used to generate ATP during chemiosmosis 9 Results in a lower pH in the intermembrane space ATP synthase uses the kinetic energy of the protons owing down the concentration gradient to phosphorylate ADP D ATP INPUTS 02 6NADH 2FADH2 OUTPUTS 28 ATP H20 NAD Increasing ADP increases the rate of the ETC Increased permeability of the inner membrane results in no ATP production Electrons travel in the sequence foodNADHETCoxygen If there is not mitochondria present the cell uses more glucose to generate ATP 2 Clicker Questions gt VVVVVVV V What happens when you eat fructose E ATP would be used to add a phosphate then it would enter glycolysis Where does the NADH come from in the ETC The oxidation of pyruvate How many carbons are released during the rst turn of the citric acid cycle a Zero How many carbons form glucose make it into the citric acid cycle Four What does potassium cyanide KCN do to the ETC Blocks oxygen binding to complex IV resulting in the buildup of NADH The pumping of protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria is i Endergonic In the absence of oxygen in the ETC what might happen NADH build up Complex l in the ETC does Oxidizes NADH by excepting an electron MISCELLANEOUS 0 Photosynthesis gt gt The process by which light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into complex organic molecules Plant Structures Chlorophyll the pigment in leaves that re ects green light binds to thylakoids Stroma area in the chloroplast outside of the thylakoids site of carbon reactions Thylakoid continuous internal membrane system in the chloroplast where light dependent reactions take place Grana stacks of thylakoids Light harvesting complex protein complex that collects light for a photosystem Reaction center complex site of energy converting reactions ATP synthase complexes are located in the thylakoid membrane AND the mitochondrial membrane 1St phase of photosynthesis light harvesting INPUTS sunlight C02 H20 Occurs in the thylakoid membrane Photosystem a collection of pigmentprotein complexes organized to harvest light energy Photosystem l occurs after photosystem II in the photosynthetic ETC OUTPUTS 02 AT NADPH o Directly associated with receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane ETC 9 Reduces NAP D NADPH Photosystem ll rst photosystem in the ETC 9 Has a primary electron acceptor that begins a cascade of reactions known as the ETC 9 Uses light to split water into 02 protons and electrons Protons that accumulate in the thylakoid lumen come from The splitting of a water molecule A pump that draws ions into the thylakoid lumen as electrons pass between photosystems Electrons move from the stoma l the thylakoid lumen Provides the ATP and NADPH needed for the dark reactions gt 2nOI phase of photosynthesis dark reactions Calvin Cycle INPUTS C02 Occurs in the stroma 3 phases 9 carbon xation C02 is added to organic molecules 9 reduction NADPH is used 9 regeneration ribulose 15 biphosphate is regenerated Catalyzed by Rubisco 3 molecules of C02 xed generates a net yield of 1 molecule of GA3P at a net cost of 9 molecules of ATP and 6 molecules of NADPH 3CCB9ATP6AMIHU ywkhlG 3I OUTPUTS GA3P o The cycle must happen twice in order to produce 1 molecule of glucose Needs 6C02 18ATP 12NADPH to produce one glucose molecule from this process gt Electrons ow in the direction H20PSIPSINADP CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS ARE REVERSE PROCESSES gt Photosynthesis stores energy in complex molecule respiration releases energy from complex molecules Mitochondria vs Chloroplasts gt SIMILARITIES Aqueous compartments Endosymbiotic origin have their own DNA gt DIFFERENCES Mitochondria 2 membranescompartments Found in both plants and animals Produce energy from the breakdown of glucose Citric acid cycle ETC O 90 Chloroplast 3membranescompartments Found only in plants Produces glucose from C02 and sunlight Cell division gt Occurs when a cell divides in 2 identical daughter cells Enables growth repair and reproduction gt Mitosis type of cell division that results into 2 genetically identical cells Occurs during the M phase of the cell cycle alternates with interphase Has 5 stages Prophase DNA condenses and chromosomes become visible Prometaphase chromosomes condense further and attach to the spindle via the kinetochore Metaphase chromosome aign along the center of the cell Anaphase the sister chromatids separates Telophase nucei reform and chromosome uncoi Cytokinesis division and separation of the cell outside the nucleus gt Meiosis type of cell division that produces gametes that have 12 the genetic material of the parent cell Homologous chromosomes 2 copies of each chromosome containing the same genes but aees might differ in diploid cells Diploid cells 2n Haploid cells n Meiosis homologous chromosomes separate and are reduced in half Meiosis ll separates sister chromatids into separate gametes Crossing over exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes A tetrad includes two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsed crossed over Does the cell go through S phase twice NO gt Parent ce somatic cell diploid gt Proteins ca cohesions hold the sister chromatids in the center of the cell during prophase gt Cell cycle life cycle of a cell Stages interphase mitosis cytokinesis gt Interphase has 3 subphases 61 phase 1St gap phase when cell growth occurs S phase synthesis phase when DNA is replicated 62 phase ce continues to grow and prepares for division Cells that divide infrequently either stay in the G1 phase or go into a nondividing G0 phase Cell Cycle Control gt Checkpoints times at which the cycle can be stoppedpushed forward Gl checkpoint cell enter the cycle E 62 checkpoint has the DNA been replicated properly M checkpoint have the spindles assembled properly gt CDK exists in many subforms each with a different function Kinases whose activities are controlled by forming complexes with cyclins Always at a constant concentration in the cell gt Cyclins proteins whose concentrations vary cyclically Are destroyed through proteolysis in a proteasome at the end of each phase of the cell cycle E Speci c to the different phases of the cell cycle gt MPF maturationpromoting factor First cycinCDK complex discovered a The cycin part of MPF is synthesized during the S and 62 phases Triggers mitosis by phosphorylating proteins Promotes the nuclear envelopes break down during prophase The cycin component is degraded during anaphase 239 Mendel s Principles gt Inheritance of genestraits involve 2 principles i Principle of segregation states that 2 alleles for each gene separates from each other when gametes form so that each gamete contains one allele of each gene 0 Describes 2 or more genes relative to one another Principle of dominance states that some traits are dominant and masks recessive traits gt Principle of independent assortment different genes are passed on independently of one another gt Heterozygous have 2 different alleles for a given gene gt Homozygous have the same alleles for a given gene gt Punnett square is used to assess probability in genetics gt Pedigree charts are used to trace trait inheritance oz Redox reactions The molecule that reduces another molecule in a redox reaction loses electrons and loses potential energy Loss of electrons exergonic VERB TO BE NOUN AGENTS Oxidizes gain Oxidized less Oxidation lose Oxidizing electrons electrons electrons agent reduces species Reduces lose Reduced more Reduction gain Reducing electrons electrons electrons agent oxidizes species NADH gets oxidized into NAD during cellular respiration NADH NAD A B What is this Reduced state Oxidized state Oxidized state Reduced state What Oxidized to Reduced form Reduced to Oxidized to happens to form NAD of NADH form B form A it What does it NADH reduces A oxidized d A reducing NADH agent oxidizing agenU ELECTRO NAD 2 Clicker questions gt If the protein complex involved in stopping cells at the GZM is mutated so that it doesn t stop the cell which of these are possible consequences Entry into M phase before DNA is properly replicated amp DNA damage is passed on to the daughter cells How would a ubiquitin inhibitor affect a cell in 61 phase Cells wouldn t enter S phase At which stage would cells have the most DNA 62 phase What would be the consequences of premature Mcyclin expression Spindle formation condensation of DNA breakdown of nuclear envelope premature entry into M phase What causes the transition into anaphase The APCC protein ubiquitination of securin Crossing over of homologous chromosomes ensure That homologous chromosomes line up amp increases genetic variability in gametes
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