Exam 2 Study Guide Hist1020
1914-1918: World War I
1939-1945: World War II
January 30, 1933: Hitler became chancellor of the Weimar Republic 1922: Ernst Junger wrote Fire.
1919: German Working Party was created.
1920: German Working Party renamed to National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI Party).
1889-1945: Adolf Hitler’s birth and death.
1923: Beer Hall Putsch
1923: hyperinflation of 1923 in Germany. Started the economic decline in 1919 due to reparations from the war.
October 1929: Great Depression of 1929
January 30, 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of the Weimar Republic!!!!! Promise Question.
February 27, 1933: Reichstag fire that Hitler used to declare National emergency via Article 48.
February 28, 1933: Hindenburg declared the Reichstag Fire Decree (emergency) which Hitler called the Decree of the President for the Protection of the People and the State.
March 23, 1933: the Enabling Act passed by Hitler.
July 15, 1933: law against other political party formation led to single party rule in Germany.
August 2, 1934: President Hindenburg passed away.
August 1, 1934: Hitler decreed that the President and chancellor positions would merge calling this position the Fuhrer.
September 1, 1939: Nazi and Soviets decided to invade Poland August 23, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotoc-Rippentrop Pact) created. September 3, 1939: Start of WWII.
We also discuss several other topics like Why bird flu achieve human to human transmission?
1855: Arthur de Gobineau wrote the book Inequality of the Human Races. Promise question.
March 1933: Hitler announced the creation of the Reich Ministry of Propaganda (using enabling act).
May 1933: Massive book burnings started. First one was in Berlin, organized by Josef Goebbels.
July 1938: Exhibition of Degenerative Art
Summer 1939: Euthanasia Program (deadly injection and starvation) Fall 1939: started to gas people for the Euthanasia Program.
1941: end of Euthanasia Program
1933-1934: First period of Nazi persecution of the Jews. This was characterized by putting pressure on Jewish businesses as well as banning Jews from professional occupations using the enabling act.
April 1933: Nazi followers boycott Jewish businesses.
1935-1938: second wave of Nazi persecution of the Jews. This was characterized by the Nuremburg laws.
1938-1941: Third wave of Nazi persecution of the Jews. This was characterized by the Kristallnacht, laws for Jewish identification (cards and Star of David), concentration camps (not death camps), Nazi-Soviet pact, ghettos, Madagascar Plan, Operation Barbarossa, and mass shootings of Jews.
November 9, 1938: evening of the Kristallnacht (night of broken glass) Don't forget about the age old question of What is a bond yield?
1938: law was passed where Jews had to carry special identification cards that had J marked on them. They had to show these cards everywhere they went and were prohibited from places and events; highly segregated society.
1939: Jews were now required to wear a yellow Star of David on their outer clothing so they could be easily identified.
September 21, 1939: Reinhard Heydrich send the Special Task Forces in Poland to start putting Jews into ghettos.
1940: Madagascar Plan
June 22, 1941: Operation Barbarossa.
September 29-30, 1941: largest mass shooting of Jews in Babi Yar. About 34,000 were killed in those two days. This wasn’t fast enough.
January 20, 1942: Wannsee Conference was held in Berlin.
1942-1945: Auschwitz was in operation.
April 30, 1945: Hitler committed suicide to avoid being captured so this signaled a closing to WWII in Europe.
May 8, 1945: V.E. Day or Victory in Europe Day.
December 7, 1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
September 2, 1945: Asia involvement in WWII ended (we bombed them). *corrected from notes
September 3, 1945: V.J. Day or Victory in Japan Day. *corrected from notes 1945: United States has atomic bombs We also discuss several other topics like What are the main motor structures and pathways?
1949: Soviet Union gets atomic bombs If you want to learn more check out What are the francophone africa countries?
1946: Sir Winston Churchill travels to Fulton, Missouri to give a speech about the Iron Curtain.
August 1941: Meeting #1 in Newfoundland, Canada
December 1943: Meeting #2 was held in Tehran. Atlantic Charter was created. October 1944: Meeting #3 in Moscow. Percentages Agreement was drawn up.
February 1945: Meeting #4 in Yalta. Discussed zones of occupation and Yalta Agreement.
April 1945: Franklin D. Roosevelt died in Georgia.
July 1945: Meeting #5 was held in Potsdam.
1949: Germany was split into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
1961: Berlin wall was built
November 9, 1989: Last day of the Cold War when the Berlin Wall was torn down. 1946: The Long Telegram.
1947: Truman Doctrine.
April 1950: NSC 68
1950-1953: Korean War
1910: Japan took over Korea
1875-1965: Syngman Rhee birth and death. If you want to learn more check out What is eichenbaum?
1912-1994: Kim Il Sung birth and death.
1988: South Korea became democratic.
1802: Nguyen Dynast controls Vietnamese government.
1887: France controls Vietnam.
1946-1954: first Indochina war
March to May 1954: battle of Dien Bien Phu.
April-July 1954: Geneva Conference, 17th parallel. We also discuss several other topics like What is mutual marriage?
1957- April 1975: Vietnam War or second Indochina war.
1965: US sent troops to Vietnam.
January 1973: US withdrew troops from Vietnam.
Quizlet for dates: https://quizlet.com/129273079/hist1020-exam-2-dates-flash cards/
Ernst Junger: veteran who loved and missed the war (WWI). Became a leading novelist and wrote Fire, 1922.
Adolf Hitler: (1889-1945) was also a veteran of WWI who loved Junger’s book Fire, hated the Weimar republic, and missed fighting on the front of the war. He was injured and continued to fight then was injured again by gas and then again, went back to fight.
Doctor Sigmund Freud: Father of Psychoanalysis. Hitler learned psychology from him in Vienna. Learned that humans are guided by emotions/irrationalism, becoming very aware of the power of human emotion (used this to gain power later).
Karl Lueger: The mayor of Vienna when Hitler lived there. Hitler learned how to use anti-Semitism to win votes in democratic elections from him.
Arthur de Gobineau: wrote the book Inequality of the Human Races in 1855. He was a French diplomat stationed all around the world. He argued there were 3 races of the world: black, white, and yellow. The white was the superior Aryan race. He also talked of racial mixing which he was highly opposed to and argued that mixing was bringing down and polluting the Aryan race. Jews were part of this Aryan race!
Josef Goebbels: put in charge of the Reich Ministry of Propaganda by Hitler. He was a fierce anti-Semitist. He was in charge of making and designing Nazi social policy and to ensure there was no discrepancy in expression. Art, books, and publications, etc. all had to be within Nazi cultural policy. In his role, he was trying to bring out Gleichschaltung. He was very dedicated. Coordinated massive book burnings.
Baldur von Schirach: leader of the Hitler youth. Made membership mandatory because most didn’t want to be involved. Rebellious groups were hung and arrested.
Robert Ley: leader of the Strength through Joy program.
Bishop Clemens von Galen: most vocal critic of the euthanasia program. Used Sunday sermons to criticize Nazis. Three important sermons: 1) attacked Nazi violence 2) Nazis were the enemy 3) let people know what was happening to the disabled. He was arrested but no killed due to public popularity.
Reinhard Heydrich: in charge of the Nazi government in Poland. Came up with the idea of Jewish ghettos. He was the highest ranking under Hitler and Hitler called him “the man with the iron heart” because he was so ruthless and Hitler admired him for that. He was in control of the Nazi Special Task Force. Came up with the idea of Jewish mass shootings after Operation Barbarossa. Main architect of extermination camps.
Sir Winston Churchill: the prime minister of Great Britain during WWII. Travelled to Fulton, Missouri in 1946 to give an important speech. He called the dividing line in Europe during the Cold War the Iron Curtain.
Franklin Roosevelt: represented the US and was president of the US for most of WWII.
George F. Kennan: began the idea of the policy of containment. He was a US diplomat who worked in Moscow (SU) for many years and was able to observe Stalin more closely.
Harry S. Truman: President after Roosevelt. Wrote the Truman Doctrine.
Syngman Rhee: 1875-1965. Korean nationalist who supported US. Spent most of his life in the US and was very pro US. He killed people who were in the south and supported the SU in the north.
Kim Il Sung: 1912-1994. Supported SU and longtime admirer of Lenin and revolutionary vanguard. Hated the US his whole life and wanted total control over Korea. 1950, asked Stalin for permission to invade and take over the south. Stalin gave the green light thinking the US wouldn’t be interested in stopping the invasion (he guessed wrong).
Kim Jong-un: grandson of Kim Il Sung and leader of northern Korea since 2011.
Interwar period: period between wars. The Germans were upset and resentful during this time.
Beer Hall Putsch: 1923, the attempt by the Nazi party to overthrow the Weimar government. Putsch= coup d’état = intentional overthrow of government/state. Took place in a beer hall in Munich. They were arrested, including Hitler, whose trial only lasted 5 weeks and even though treason was punishable by death, Hitler’s popularity during this trial kept him alive; he was sent to jail for less than his five year sentence (9 months) and his cell was furnished with a maid and secretary. This opened up the public eye to Hitler and his cause.
Hyperinflation of 1923: Germany suffered enormous inflation to the point where burning money was cheaper than buying wood or coal.
Great Depression of 1929: October 1929 the stock market crashed and the Weimar economy further plummeted. Severe unemployment across the world. This immensely helped to grow the Nazi party making it the number one party in Weimar Republic.
Massive book burnings: Coordinated by Josef Goebbels to keep everything within Nazi cultural policy. The first was in May, 1933, in Berlin which was the capitol again. Libraries were ransacked and any book by non-German authors and that didn’t appeal to Nazi policy were burned.
Operation Barbarossa: June 22, 1941, Nazis broke the Nazi-Soviet Act by invading the Soviet Union. This was the largest invasion in the history of war. 4 million German troops over an 18,000 mile battle front. Gained the Soviet territory in Poland. This was a difficult fight and used up a ton of resources.
Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor so the United States declared war on Japan so ally Nazi Germany declared war on the US. This is the day that WWII truly became a world war.
Cold War: this was the non-physical war to become the global super-power between the US and Soviet Union. This divided Europe into two hostile hemispheres (did extend beyond Europe).
Hot Wars: During the cold war there was physical fighting. The hot wars include the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Soviet-Afghan War.
Berlin Wall: built in 1961. Split Berlin into East (SU) and west (US, GB, Fr). This was actually two walls with a death strip in the middle with mines and booby traps so nobody can cross. Only 5,000 crossed while it was up (very small amount compared to the 2.5 mill who crossed prior).
Korean War: 1950-1953. This started as a local conflict but turned into a global conflict. Have to look back into Korea’s history to learn why. Long story short, Japan took over Korea in 1910 and they led miserable lives. They tried revolting but failed and found hope in nationalist movement and by 1919 it was strong enough to send leaders to Paris to seek help from Woodrow Wilson which failed. They found new hope in Leninism and the revolutionary vanguard so when Korea was liberated at the end of WWII (because Japan lost), the Soviets invaded the north and US in the south creating the 38th parallel. North invaded the south so SU and US sent troops to their respective sides making this a global conflict. China even stepped in and stopped the US from approaching northern territory. 1953, truce was declared and the truce line remained at the 38th parallel.
Republic of Korea: South Korea official name. 1988 became democratic due to pressure of mainly students and had enormous economic success until that point.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: North Korea official name. Authoritarian and led by Kim Jong-un who refers to himself as “Supreme Leader”. The Korean Workers Party is in charge.
Vietnam War: 1802, government was taken over by native Nguyen Dynasty. Again, you have to blast to the past to understand how this turned from local to global. 1887, France took over Vietnam and they led miserable lives. Some tried to overthrow France but failed. Ho Chi Minh was the most successful. He turned nationalist to Leninist (became very pro SU) once Woodrow Wilson wouldn’t meet with him in Paris, 1919. He started Viet Minh which was the independence
movement. Viet Minh defeated France during this war using guerilla tactics that Ho Chi Minh learned in the SU. This is known as the first Indochina war 1946-1954. Ended in the battle of Dien Bien Phu (March to May 1954) where guerilla warfare and traditional warfare met. US didn’t want Ho in charge so the Geneva Conference was held. They established the 17th parallel between the SU influenced North (leader: Ho Chi Minh) and US influenced South (leader: Ngo Dinh Diem). Instead of peace through democratic election, war broke out in 1957: the second Indochina war or the Vietnam War. US sent troops in 1965 but announced their withdrawal in January 1973. April 1975, war ended with north conquering south creating a unified Vietnam called the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (communist).
First Indochina war: 1946-1954, ended in the battle of Dien Bien Phu, leading to the Geneva Conference.
Dien Bien Phu: March to May, 1954. Ended the first Indochina war. Socialist Republic of Vietnam: unified communist Vietnam.
Article 48: the president’s emergency powers. Said the president could decide when there was a national emergency without approval and could dissolve all powers and make any laws he wants. Also said the president could suspend civil rights in time of emergency. This also gave the president power to arrest anyone who was an enemy of the state without rights to due process in emergency. The only limit: could only be declared for up to one month’s time.
Reichstag Fire Decree or as Hitler called it, the Decree of the President for the Protection of the People and the State: What Hitler used to rise to power. Hindenburg declared this as a national emergency which called for Article 48.
Enabling Act: March 23, 1933. Passed by parliament giving Hitler power to issue laws without consent of parliament (parliament was now very pro-Nazi). Hitler called this act the Law for termination of the Suffering of the People.
Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotoc-Rippentrop Pact): August 23, 1939. Invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Nazis and Soviets split Poland in half between them. Britain and France declared war on Germany and the Soviet Union in Response. Started WWII.
Nuremburg Laws: didn’t call for genocide of the Jews. These were to persecute Jews to persuade them to leave Germany.
Reich Citizenship Law: Part of the Nuremburg Laws. This distinguished between subjects and citizens of Germany and established what they could and couldn’t do (described below in “other”). ***To be a citizen, one had to prove they had no Jewish parents and grandparents. This defined who was Jewish.
Madagascar Plan: 1940. Because ghettos put a large strain on Nazi resources, they came up with the idea to ship all the Jews to Madagascar; they even did research to make sure it was livable and enough food could be grown. This fell
through because Suez Canal was controlled by Great Britain who didn’t like Germany.
Atomic weapons: United States started the atomic age in world history by dropping atomic bombs on Japan in 1945.
Atlantic Charter: created in Newfoundland during the first meeting. This was a vision for what the world would look like after WWII. Guarantees free enterprise within and between countries and believed that all countries had the right to choose their own governments and borders (rights to self-determination). Stalin didn’t like this.
Demilitarization of Germany: discussed during the second meeting. The Big Three wanted to take out Germany’s military force and fill it with victor military.
Percentages Agreement: Churchill called this the “naughty document”. Discussed between Stalin, Churchill and Averell during the third meeting. This was an agreement to divide central Europe up between the spheres of influence (SU and US): Romania (90% to SU), Greece (10% to SU), Yugoslavia and Hungary (50% to SU), and Bulgaria (75% to SU). US and GB knew that Stalin could get these countries if he wanted them so they gave these portions to him in this agreement.
Yalta Agreement: during the fourth meeting, the big three discussed rebuilding the German economy and de-Nazifying the country but they needed to work together and cooperate during it (Stalin apparently ignored that part).
Policy of containment: Argued Soviet Union is expansionists’ power seeking to expand its reach to take over the entire world. Also said US had to work to contain the spread of the SU.
The domino theory: part of the policy of containment. Argued if one country in region fell inside SU influence, all of neighboring countries would fall into the soviet influence.
Truman Doctrine: 1947 by Harry Truman. This was a public announcement that the US had officially adopted the policy of containment as US foreign policy aimed at stopping the spread of SU power. Also added to the policy of containment that the US was prepared to offer military aid to any country threatened by possibility of soviet expansion into their territory.
NSC 68: aka National Security Council 68. April, 1950. Stated SU was a fiercely aggressive country aiming to take over the world. Added that US would work to stop soviet domination (red spread).
38th parallel: The agreed split between North and South Vietnam. It is literally a line on the map.
17th parallel: divide line of North and South Vietnam.
Geneva Conference: April-July, 1954. Discussed the 17th parallel and who was to be in control of the North and South. There was supposed to be a multi-party election just like in Korea and just like in Korea, it failed to happen so the halves
weren’t brought to a whole. Instead of peace like discussed, war broke out in 1957: the second Indochina war or the Vietnam War.
German Workers Party: (1919) created in Munich by Hitler and others. Renamed in 1920 to NAZI party.
National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI Party): 1920, What the German Working Party was re-named once it expanded and reorganized.
Chancellor: January 30, 1933, Hitler became chancellor of Germany. This was the position that was head of parliament and had the power to appoint members of the cabinet. Advisor to the president. The first thing he did was appoint Nazis to cabinet and as minister of interior. He used Article 48 to build authoritarianism.
Minister of Interior: like the minister of homeland security in charge of police and other internal security.
President: Basically a symbolic figurehead. General Paul von Hindenburg was President until he died in 1934.
Fuhrer: new position made by Hitler decreeing the merging of President and Chancellor Powers.
Volksgemeinschaft: ideal community of the people (by Hitler). Two characteristics: loyal and obedience to one’s party and wanted only people of the Aryan race.
Aryan race: This mythic notion had certain physical qualities like tall stature, blonde hair, and blue eyes. This idea was invented by Arthur de Gobineau and the Nazis became obsessed and morphed his idea.
Nazi Racial Science: based off of Arthur de Gobineau’s ideals. The Nazis took this a step forward and made their own even more radical ideals. They argued Jews were their own race and were inferior to the Aryans and argued this on scientific grounds.
They argued Jews were the largest polluters of the races. They wanted purification of the Aryan race and wanted reproduction to be engineered to be purified. Conducted brutal experiments and even taught this racial science in schools.
Reich Ministry of Propaganda: announced by Hitler at the end of March 1933 using the Enabling Act. This was supposed to use cultural policy to instill Nazi policy and values into the non-Jewish German population. Hitler put friend and fellow Nazi, Josef Goebbels, in charge.
Gleichschaltung: which is the act of coordination of bringing into line making all cultural expression in line with the Nazi party values. Brought about by Josef Goebbels.
“Bribery through the stomach”: Nazi cultural policy for the ideal community of people. This was a “non-physically violent” way of gaining control. This was bribing
the population by controlling consumer goods like food, refrigerators, cars, etc. that were made available to those who were obedient. Buying loyalty, essentially.
Strength through Joy Program: this is what made consumer goods available and was led by Nazi Robert Ley. He was in charge of making the Volkswagen available which was the Strength through Joy Car. Also made vacations possible. Built a resort called Prora with 20,000 rooms.
The Euthanasia Program: deliberately killed someone to put them out of their misery. These people weren’t dying or in pain, they had autism, down syndrome, schizophrenia, etc. This was a eugenics program. Nazis forcibly sterilized people to purify and strengthen the Aryan race. Started systematically killing people to avoid breeding. Minority were Jews, majority were German Christians. Began summer, 1939 just before WWII. Began with children up to three years old then moved to children up to 16. They were killed by deadly injections and starvation. Doctors were in on this. Nazis decided this wasn’t efficient enough. Started using gas chambers in the fall.
Action T4 Program: The part of the Euthanasia Program where gas chambers started being used. First gas chambers were used for mentally and physically disabled Christians for the most part. Used carbon monoxide from gas engine but that wasn’t good enough so they moved to Zyklon B. Ended in 1941 due to public protest fueled by the church.
Warsaw Ghetto: largest of the Ghettos, located in Poland. Construction started in April 1940. Borders never grew but population did causing death, disease, lack of food, and overcrowding.
The Big Three: victor powers of WWII: The Soviet Union (SU), The United States (US), and Great Britain (GB).
The Five Meetings: The discussions of peace terms between the Big Three before WWII even ended. These are promise questions so know about them all.
Meeting #1: August 1941 in Newfoundland, Canada. This was shortly after Operation Barbarossa. Only US and GB showed up. Stalin didn’t agree with the peace topics so he didn’t go. Franklin Roosevelt represented the US and Churchill represented GB. The Atlantic Charter was created.
Meeting #2: Tehran, December 1943, modern Iran. All of the big three were present (Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt). Here, they discussed the demilitarization of Germany (not splitting it into zones) and the fate of Poland.
Meeting #3: Moscow, October 1944. Stalin and Churchill were present but because of Roosevelt being sick, Averell Harriman took his place. Percentages Agreement was drawn up, which Churchill called the “naughty document”. Moscow was the capitol of the Soviet Union.
Meeting #4: Yalta, February 1945. This was an area in Ukraine dominated by SU at the time. They confirmed decisions made in prior meetings. All of the big three were there (Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt who died 2 months later). They
decided they would divide Germany into four separate zones of occupation: democratic- United States, Great Britain, and France, and authoritarian- Soviet Union. Great Britain added France for being a loyal ally and it also created a buffer zone. According to Yalta Agreement, They were all supposed to work together and cooperate after dividing Germany and there goals were to rebuild the economy in Germany and de-Nazify Germany.
Meeting #5: Potsdam, July 1945. This was a suburb in Berlin, Germany. This was held between V.E. Day and V.J. Day. Because Roosevelt had died a few months prior, new President Harry S Truman took his place. They confirmed earlier decisions but cooperation was quickly falling apart (thanks, Stalin). The Soviets were given an eastern section of Germany and Stalin had industrial equipment and whole factories taken from Germany and sent to the SU to help his own economy when they were supposed to be helping the German economy (this made the other 3 powers angry). The SU did prove to be better at de-Nazifying Germany than the others. There was a huge conflict between the SU and others which grew so great that in 1949, Germany was carved into two separate states (the Yalta Agreement contributed) opening up the Cold War. The capitol at Germany, Berlin, was also split in half (even though Berlin was in East Germany) and in 1961, the berlin wall was built.
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany): 1949, Fell in US sphere of influence, democratic multiparty rule and free enterprise.
German Democratic Republic (East Germany): 1949, fell in the SU sphere of influence with single party rule and command economy.
Client states: had financial and/or military backing from one of the big super powers. Expected to share the same political and economic systems as the super power.
Non-aligned states: didn’t become client states during the Cold War (EX: Egypt, Yugoslavia, and India).
Korea v. Vietnam: this is a note to help identify them. Similarities: both were divided during the cold war era into North (client state of SU) and South (client state of US) halves. Differences: Vietnam is no longer divided but Korea still is.
Nguyen Dynasty: native dynasty who ruled Vietnamese government and wanted to rule over Vietnam. Worked closely with France when they took over.
Fire: by Ernst Junger, 1922. This was about his longing and missing of the fighting and war (war turned boys into men). These were very popular in the Weimar Republic in the interwar period.
Mein Kampf: (my struggle) Only book written by Adolf Hitler. Very long and sprawling. This contained expressions of anti-Semitism (anti-Jew), showed his awareness of the power of human emotion, and he wrote “The leader must be primarily a psychologist.” Originally titled Four and One-Half Years of Struggle Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. His secretary wrote it as he talked in jail.
Inequality of the Human Races: by Arthur de Gobineau in 1855.
Wannsee Conference: When the plan of the Nazi holocaust happened. This was held in Berlin on January 20, 1942. They came up with the plan to start using gas chambers to kill Jews in large numbers. This was known as the “final solution”. Nazi leaders first proposed the ideas of extermination camps here.
Munich: where Hitler moved (city). This is where he helped to organize a new political party that was initially called the German Workers Party (1919).
Linz: in Austro-Hungary where Hitler was born, 1889.
Vienna: capitol of Austro-Hungary, where Hitler moved to go to art school. He ended up working on the sewer system here. Learned two huge life lessons here that influenced the rest of his life via Sigmund Freud and Karl Lueger.
Academy of Fine Arts: The art school in Vienna that Hitler was rejected from for not being talented enough.
Reichstag: the building where parliament met.
Berlin: became the capitol of Germany again under Hitler.
Warsaw: Poland; site of the largest ghetto
Babi Yar: by Kiev, Ukraine. Site of the largest mass shooting of Jews. Between September 29 and 30, 1941, 34,000 Jews were shot at the edge of trenches and buried in large masses.
Indochina: area between India and china
“Degenerative art”: Art that was attacked under Goebbels for not being within Nazi cultural policy. This was deformed, sick, and Jewish art. Much of this was modern art like that of Pablo Picasso, etc. Nazi ideal art was extremely natural and realistic, much like photographs.
German artists: Adolf Ziegler, Adolf Wissel and Arno Breker
Exhibition of Degenerative Art: July 1938. After opening in Munich, it travelled to 11 other cities. There were about 650 different works on display that were known as bad and degenerative. This was to teach the German people not to like this work and some were hung crooked with sloppy labels. People lined up and waited for hours to see this. These people went because they liked these paintings and knew they may never see them again.
Degenerative music: jazz and swing was the music of inferior races. This was banned but young groups like the Edelweiss Pirates and Swing Youth refused to be coordinated and wanted freedom of music. They were highly executed for listening to this music.
Volkswagen: part of the “bribery through the stomach” policy. They made cars such as the beetle bug available to obedient Germans. The factories were soon made into tank factories for WWII.
Prora: the resort made for the strength through joy program. This had 20,000 rooms but wasn’t completed until WWII which by then it had to be used as a school to train the military.
Eugenics: the study and manipulation of genetics in the name of improving human qualities. This was happening all over the world prior to Hitler. Included forced sterilization for those with mental and physical ailments.
Paraldehyde: a drug to paralyze people so they would lay in bed and die of starvation.
Zyklon B: an insecticide used by farmers to kill mice and insects. This was used in gas chambers for the Action T4 Program.
Holocaust: Greek for “burnt whole or offering”. This is a genocide and the Jewish holocaust is one of the worst in history. 6 million Jews were killed.
Genocide: deliberate and intentional effort to wipe out a group of people based on racial, ethnic or religious being. Almost all Jews in some countries were exterminated because of their religion. Genocides are still happening such as the Rwanda Genocide (1990’s), Cambodia Genocide (1990’s), and the Darfur genocide happening now.
The Shoah: Hebrew for catastrophe and destruction. This is what Jewish survivors have named the holocaust.
Boycott: stop buying from a business. This was part of the first period of Nazi persecution of the Jews. Nazi followers boycotted Jewish businesses in April 1933 but it wasn’t successful because people wanted the goods and Hitler didn’t have enough anti-Jew support.
Citizens: could vote and be government officials and had civic rights and protected by law
Subjects: had no political rights and no protection under the laws of the land.
Kristallnacht: “The night of broken glass”, evening of November 9, 1938. Throughout Germany, Nazis attacked Jewish places of worship and destroyed Jewish businesses. About 100 Jews were killed defending their synagogues and businesses. About 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps.
Concentration camps: these were purely holding camps, not death camps.
Pogrom: an organized attack on an ethnic or religious group. This is what the Kristallnacht was. This was not invented by the Nazis, it has been around for centuries.
Ghetto: designated areas where Nazis forced Jews to live. These have been around since the middle ages. Nazis took their land and belongings. Having Jews in ghettos put a lot of strain on military resources.
Extermination camps: idea proposed January 20, 1942 during the Wannsee Conference. These were death camps. Reinhard Heydrich was the main architect. Drew gas chamber ideas from the Euthanasia Program. They were built on train lines to bring large amounts of people in. These targeted communists, socialists, “work-shy” people, Jehovah witnesses, homosexuals, Roma/gypsies, and Slavs who couldn’t be converted. Groups, based on color, were treated differently.
Auschwitz: largest camp with the most kills using Zyclon B. Operated from wannsee and killed over 1 million Jews; 12,000 Jews were killed a day.
Roma: These were gypsies who were targeted and Nazis were trying to wipe them out. Roma children, especially boys, were used in Nazi medical experiments.
V.E. Day / Victory in Europe Day: May 8, 1945. This was the end of WWII in Europe but not in Asia.
V.J. Day / Victory in Japan Day: May 3, 1945 marking the end of WWII.
Hegemony: domination. Europe had global hegemony until after WWII when there was competition for global hegemony between the United States and the Soviet Union. This was the mark of the Cold War.
United States vs. Soviet Union: Cold War. They had radically opposing political and economic views. US wanted multi-party rule and free enterprise while SU wanted single-party rule and command economy. They also had the mutual threat of being able to completely destroy each other with bombs (US had bombs since 1945 and SU since 1949) leading to increased tension.
Command economy: government controls all aspect of the economy.
Iron Curtain: the dividing line between US influence and SU influence in Europe during the Cold war. This was named by Winston Churchill. Churchill blames the SU and Stalin for causing the iron curtain but this isn’t fair because he and the US contributed as well.
Fate of Poland: This was discussed during the second meeting. They decided that after WWII, they would move Poland’s borders westward, giving a chunk to the Soviets and taking from Germany to give to Poland without asking Poland about any of this. They were going to give Stalin a piece to keep him happy and they knew he would take it anyway.
The Long Telegram: by George F. Kennan 1946. This was the first writing of the Policy of containment.
Red spread: spread of Soviet influence and domination.