Population, Cultural, and Political Geography
Population, Cultural, and Political Geography GEO 2000
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Mendez on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 2000 at Florida International University taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Geography 2000 Review Population Geography I Population GeOgraphv vs DemOgraphV a Population geography Focuses on the number composition and distribution of humans in relation to variations in the conditions of earth space i Spatial analysis ie Economic development quality of life b Demography The statistical study of human population without necessarily containing any spatial analysis II Population Growth a World population is about 7 billion i Annual increase of 75 million people ii Annual increases have been declining more rapidly than many projected III Do we have enough food for the world s population a Growing food demand i Due to the growing population ii Due to economic development and changing dietary patterns IV Technological change in agriculture a Green Revolution i 1st phase Changes include the following 1 High yielding varieties 2 Intensive application of water fertilizer pesticides 3 Single crop monoculture ii 2nd phase of the Green Revolution Biotechnology amp genetically modified organisms b Problems associated with Green Revolution i Environmental change may be irreversible and damaging 1 Increases in pest population 2 Chemical pollution from pesticides and fertilizers 3 Biological pollution uncertain impacts of GMOs on ecosystems 4 Irrigation and water diversion change natural habitat ii Social costs to farmers 1 Increased dependence on capital 2 Polarization within farming communities 3 Loss of employments among the disadvantaged 4 Increased vulnerability to external changes such as market uctuations V Is there enough food a Growth in food production is slowing down due to environmental and land use change Globalization is causing a worldwide change in food preferences c Africa and South Asia are most threatened by food shortages VI Food bv the numbers a Global grain production in 2030 22 billion tons b World population in 2030 89 billion people VII Population Definitions a Rates Frequency of occurrence during a specified time period b Cohort Population group unified by a common characteristic such as age VIII Birth Rates a Subject to change over time i Urbanization is a big factor reducing rates but so can government policy both to reduce growth and sometimes as in the case of some low birth rate countries increase it b Annual number of live births per 1000 population aka Crude Birth Rate i In uenced by age and seX structure customs religion and family size eXpectations population policies c High birth rates i 2 301000 ii Characteristic of agricultural rural countries in which a high proportion of the female population is young d Low birth rates i lt 181000 ii Characteristic of industrialized urbanized countries e Transitional birth rates i 18 301000 ii Some developing and newly industrializing countries IX Total Fertilitv Rates TFR a Average number of children born to each woman i It is a more refined measure because Crude Birth Rate includes men and children in the measure b Replacement Level In order to have a stable population without immigration the fertility rate currently must be between 21 23 c In places with higher mortality a higher rate would be needed d Major fertility declines worldwide i Dramatic declines in many less developed countries ii China led the way after ignoring population growth with their one child policy 1 Combined free contraception delayed marriage taX penalties and incentives abortions and sterilization 2 It has worked so well that China s population will start shrinking around 2050 3 Bringing a whole other set of challenges especially involving caring for an older population 4 Populations may stabilize or grow due to migration X Death Rates a The biggest declines in modern times have been in the infant mortality rate b Modern medicine and sanitation have increased life expectancy above 70 in a large portion of the world s countries though this varies by region i In less developed countries communicable diseases like malaria intestinal infections typhoid and cholera as well as social diseases like malnutrition in the young c Another major drag on life eXpectancy is HIVAIDS because it strikes the population in the segment that should be healthiest between 16 and 40 i Sub Saharan Africa has been hit hardest ii In some countries more than 25 of the population has it d Food insecurity i 60 of cases are women which do most of the agricultural labor in Sub Saharan Africa ii Average life eXpectancy has been cut from 66 to 47 in South Africa in Botswana from 70 to 34 XI AIDS in Africa a Botswana i The world hardest hit country ii 33 of the reproductive age population is infected iii Life eXpectancy eXpected to decline from 61 years in 1990 to 29 years in 2010 b Zimbabwe i Second highest infection rate for HIV ii 25 of people between 25 and 45 are HIV positive iii 220 deaths a day were attributed to AIDS 1998 iv Government spent 70 million a month for the war with the Democratic Republic of Congo v 1 million a month for the prevention of AIDS XII Population Pvramids a They are graphic depiction of the age and seX composition of a population b These clearly show large generations and also make apparent phenomenon c Types of population profiles i Rapid growth ii Slow growth iii Decline iv Disrupted growth usually caused by war which thins a generation d Population profile in uences demands on a country s social and economic systems e Young populations need schools and jobs old need health services f Dependency ratio Number of economic dependents old or young that each 100 persons in the productive years must support 2 Rate of natural increase Rapid Growth Slow Growth Decline Disrupted Growth Years oi age 75 Trio W 65 69 BU64 Old Dependents 55 59 5U 54 4549 4U 44 3539 3U 34 25 29 2 24 15 1Q Labor Force 1U 1 4 Young 5E9 Dependents 12 10 8 E 47 D 2 4 6 8 lb 1 f 7 S I 4 VS Percent oi population Percent of population Percent oi population Percent oi population Uganda 20041 Sweden 2004 Austria 2004 Russia l9 92 i Birth rate minus death rate expressed as a percentage ii Excludes migration h J curve i A curve that shows the exponential geometric growth in the earth s population in recent centuries i Demographic Transition Model i Model of the effect of economic development on population growth based on Northwestern Europe s experience 1 Stage 1 High birth and death rates 2 Stage 2 High birth rates and declining death rates this is where most growth occurs 3 Stage 3 Declining birth rates and low death rates 4 Stage 4 Low birth and death rates 5 Stage 5 Death rates exceed birth rates XIII Divided World Converging a Introduction of Western technologies of medicine and public health to developing countries quickly lowered the death rates but sometimes birth rates stayed high i For example an 8 year long program of spraying DDT in Sri Lanka to combat malaria resulted in 16 year rise in life expectancy by the program s end ii It is now accepted that birth rates are largely dependent on social acceptance of fewer children more than technology XIV DemOgraphic Equation a However natural increase is just part of the story regional population change and thus the demographic equation is a function of natural change and net migration b Population relocation Can relieve pressures of rapid growth i Emigration groups are skewed in favor of young singles and now fairly balanced between males and females XV World Population Distribution Almost 90 live north of the equator 23 of total between 200 and 600 N A large majority occupies a small part of the land 50 on 5 of the land Mostly people live in lowland areas e Continental margins have the densest settlement XVI World Population Distribution a Ecumene i Permanently inhabited areas of the earth ii Has been extended by technologies such as irrigation and air conditioning b Nonecumene i Uninhabited or very sparsely occupied zone ii Makes up some 35 to 40 of the land surface XVII Population DensitV a Population density is the relationship between number of inhabitants and the area they occupy b Crude arithmetic density i Number of people per unit area of land e g people per square mile in a country 1 It is misleading figure because it includes lots of land people do 9997 not live on which in places like Egypt and Russia are huge c Physiological density i The number of people per unit of arable land 1 This roughly gives you an idea of how dense things are where people actually live d Agricultural density i The number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land XVIII Overpopulation a The world overpopulation is not an absolute measure but a value judgment that the resources of an area are insufficient to sustain its present population b The way most specialists eXpress this is through a concept called carrying capacity which is the number of people an area can support given prevailing technology and level of economic development c Countries that can afford to import food or agricultural ones that use lots of mechanization for grains plus fertilizers and insecticides have higher carrying capacities that their natural environment suggest XIX Urbanization a Transformation from rural to urban status b Rapid growth of cities in developing countries as people leave rural areas massively c This creates many problems most especially lack of housing jobs education health and social services d One problem little talked about is how much valuable farmland is lost to these megacity s growth XX Population Controls a b The problem with increasing population is not space The trouble is dwindling resources most especially water but also fuel food and minerals If people do not control their numbers it becomes increasingly likely war or famine will as competition for resources becomes much more serious The first person to theorize this was Thomas Malthus who argued that unchecked population increases geometrically while food production increases arithmetically leading to a big gap i NeoMalthusianism emerged after 1950s as growth rates sky rocket They advocate population control programs to improve prosperity and well being since it takes insanely high economic growth rates to provide schooling and jobs for very young populations 0 Many countries have adopted family planning programs with contraceptives and abortions at their centerpiece China 0 However many states in AfricaMiddle East resisted these programs as going against cultural and religious tradition plus having children in poorer societies could guarantee you would be taken care of in old age 0 Iran is a counter example because it is both a strongly religious state that also has a very strong and successful family planning program I Cornucopians 8 b Believe that population growth is a stimulus to development by creating a larger market and something that spurs innovation They pointed to the fact that Earth went from less than 1 billion people to nearly 7 billion in a short period without global famine II Third Wav theorists sav that while innovations such as the Green Revolution kept starvation at bay that is no guarantee they will in the future 8 In other words be optimistic and search for ways to deal with a larger population but also encourage population control to be safe III Aging is the big next issue on the horizon 8 b Much of this growth will occur in developing countries currently without much social service or health infrastructure Everywhere there will be increasing burdens on working age populations to support the old with the potential support ratio is falling from the current 9 workers for each old person to 4 workers for each old person Cultural Geography I Culture a Refers to the arts and popular culture b To a social scientist culture is the specialized behavioral patterns understanding and adaptations that summarize the life of a group of people II Components of Culture a Firstly culture is learned and not in any way biological b Through imitation instruction c Thus culture is not homogenous it is eXperienced very differently by different people within the same society based on location age gender race etc d In fact there is no single perfect viewpoint from which to view a culture in its entirety it will always be bigger than our attempts to describe it III Cultural Change a Cultures are always in a state of uX b Three types of change i Innovation ii Spatial diffusion iii Acculturation IV Innovation a Comes from within the social group b Premodern societies typically are not innovative or receptive to change c Agricultural Revolution i Occurred independently in several areas ii Affected every aspect of society d Culture hearth i Area of innovation from which key culture elements diffused e Innovation is common in modern societies V Spatial Diffusion a No good or idea in automatically accepted i Usually the more familiar the goodidea or the culture that offers it the more likely it is to be accepted ii Proximity does not always mean trust and familiarity b Little is accepted as is most ideas are modified to make them more usefulunderstandable Syncretism i Voodoo miXing West African religious elements and Catholicism ii Taco Hell miXing Mexican food with American processed fast food VI Acculturation a When a culture group or individual undergoes major modification by adopting many characteristics of another usually dominant culture group b Frequently it is a two way process i Such as the JapaneseAmerican relationship after WW II where Japan started picking up baseball and aspects of the American political system and the US got sushi architecturedesign and manga VII Cultural Diversitv a Some of the most prominent differentiating culture traits of societies and regions i Language ii Religion iii Ethnicity iv Gender VIII Language i An organized system of speech by which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension ii Most important medium by which culture is transmitted through which shared understandings and values are transmitted iii 6000 7000 languages spoken in the world iv A major tool for understanding the migrations of past peoples Malayo Polynesian who we know settled Madagascar because they left their language b Language Spread and Change i There are two ways language can spread ii Dispersion of speakers English settlers in North America iii Acquisition of speakers where people gradually convert to language because of its wide utility Latin under the Romans c Language and Culture i Languages are closely tied to culture since they may eXpress local priorities 1 Arabic has 80 words related to camels Japanese has 20 words relating to rice ii The way language is spoken also re ect gender differences in that men and women speak in different IX Religion i Value system that involves formal or informal worship and faith in the sacred and divine which joins adherents into a moral community ii Religions impact varies greatly b Classi cation of Religions i Though polytheistic belief in many gods and monotheistic belief in one God is one way to classify religion that hardly captures everything ii Three types of religions 1 Universalizing religions are religions that claim applicability to all and seek conversion a Christianity Islam Buddhism 2 Ethnic religions are those identified with a particular ethnic group a Judaism Hinduism Shinto 3 Tribal traditional religions are ethnic religions specific to small preindustrial cultures having close ties to nature c Secularism i Non practice of religion is an increasing part of many modern societies especially in Europe but also Latin America where most people remain Catholic but fewer and fewer attend Sunday services d Principal Religions Hinduism 1 ii iii iv Hinduism is a polytheistic ethnic religion and the world s oldest religion 3000 4000 BC Originated in the Indus valley diffused south and east down the Ganges Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs Cast system re ecting one s position in the ladder Polytheistic with more than 333000 gods All part of Brahman the one ultimate reality Four major facts 1 Karma Your deeds good or bad will return to you 2 Reincarnation You are the sum of numerous past eXistences 3 Dharma Laws and duties of being restrains and observances 4 Worship Your communion with gods e Principal Religions Buddhism 1 ii iii iv Buddhism is a universalizing faith that began as a reform movement within Hinduism that is about the causes of evil and human suffering and how to overcome those more so than a worship of deity Founded in 6th century BC in northern India by Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha It saw enlightenment and salvation in four noble truths applicable to all regardless of caste Suffering is universal and inevitable The immediate cause of suffering is desire and ignorance X Gender and Culture i ii Gender refers to the socially created as opposed to biological distinctions between femininity and masculinity Gender relationships and role assignments differ among societies thus making spatial variable b In uenced by economic development religion customs 1 ii iii General egalitarianism in hunting and gathering cultures Early agriculture altered the structure of gender roles but still had a strong position for women within the household Today in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa women do vastly more agricultural labor and marketing than men while also doing domestic duties c It was with mechanized agriculture and the coming of urbanization in the 19th Century Queen Victoria s era which held that women s role was in private and not in public i This idea spread along with colonialism to many parts of the world although in some places the idea was already there Political Geography 1 Political Geographv i The study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena in their areal expression 1 In other words how states NGO s Citizens groups etc use space politically b Nationalitv i Basic element in cultural variation among people and political geography has had interest in country units or states government control boundary delimitation and effect 11 National Political Systems a State Independent political unit holding fullsovereignty over a territory and its international affairs i Not all defined territories are full states such as colonies and protectorates like Guam Gibraltar or Antarctica b Nation Community of people with a common culture and territory i Language and religion are common unifiers but the only requirement is a strong sense of unity and of uniqueness from other groups C Nationstate State whose territory coincides with that occupied by a particular nation i This is really rare almost every state contains more than one nation within it d Binational or multinational state Contains more than one nation i The Soviet Union Nigeria has dozens of nations within it e Partnation state Single nation dispersed across and predominant in two or more states i The people living in Arab states like Syria and Jordan have a shared history and share with many common traditions but were divided into two states after WW I f Stateless nation People without a state i Kurds Basque Palestinians III Evolution of the Modern State i What we think of as a modern state was developed by the 18th century European political philosophers 1 The central idea is that people owe allegiance to the state and the people it represents not the state s current leader 2 The new concept coincided in France with the French Revolution 1789 and spread over Western Europe ii Most of the states that eXist today were created during the age of European colonialism America Africa and Asia 1 The boundaries simply represented the limits of the colonizing empire s power 10 2 Problem with nation building after independence no relation IV Rwanda Genocide Hutus amp Tutsis i Between April and July 1994 100 days ii 800000 Tutsi were slaughtered 50 of the Tutsi population iii Genocidal campaign organized by Hutu hardliners 1 Hutus comprised about 85 of the population 2 Genocide organizers wanted to eliminate the minority Tutsi 3 Labeled as quotInyenziquot word for quotcockroachquot iv Nearly succeeded On average as many as 10000 persons a day were murdered Tutsis were taking refuge in churches schools and stadiums at government suggestion Primarily at close range with machetes spears and clubs b Challenges to the State i There are significant challenges to the authority of the states which have emerged in recent decades ii Globalization of economies and the emergence of transnational corporations 1 Some of which have more resources than most of the world s states and most of which have little long term commitment to where they locate iii Proliferation of international and supranational institutions like NAFTA WTO EU 1 Which require the surrender of some autonomy iv Emergence and multiplication of NGOs 1 Which have tremendous power to set agendas and bring people together across borders V Massive international migration ows 1 Combined with multiple ineXpensive ways to stay in contact with home makes for a more diverse population vi Increase in nationalist and separatist movements 1 Which could cause some areas to secede V GeOgraphic Characteristics of States a The size shape and location of any one state combine to distinguish it from all others i Also affect the power and stability of states for this reason alone borders and geography matter b Size 1 The world s largest country is Russia 11 followed by Canada ii Advantages and disadvantages of large states vs small states 1 Large states tend to have large resource reserves but populations which are spread out some are isolated Such states are also likely to be diverse 11 2 Small states can be targeted by larger neighbors often import almost everything and if they are low lying islands might disappear due to sea level rise c Shape i Being of a state by fostering of hindering effective organization It also impacts how easy travel is within the country 1 Compact When a country s shape is like that of a square or circle no part Barrier Mountains or deserts is that remote and it is easier bring government services and conduct trade 2 Prorupt Mostly compact but with one or two narrow extension of territory a Often times these extensions face higher transport costs and receive less services so they are not as integrated 3 Elongated The whole country is very narrow Norway and Chile so even though it has a small land area some parts are extremely remote from the center a This also tends to let a country access different climates and ecological geological niches potentially increasing the resource base 4 Fragmented Parts of the territory are not contiguous like island chain nations a This makes it harder for the state to impose centralized control over its territory b Special case are exclaves where a portion of a state is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country 5 Perforated When a state s territory is broken up by the presence of an enclave which is when a territory is surrounded by but is not part of a state a South Africa is the most prominent example of this 6 Landlocked States a Landlocked states area at a commercial and strategic disadvantage compared to countries that have ocean access VI Geographic Characteristics of States Cores and Capitals a Core area nucleus and main center of industry commerce population political and intellectual life i The capital is usually in the core and frequently the primate city both government capital and business center London Paris ii Many states have grown out from core areas which were the first area in the country to be densely settled 12 VII Types of States a Unitary states i Highly centralized capital is in the core probably a primate London Paris b Federal states i When two or more provinces are roughly equal in in uence put the capital between them Washington DC Ottawa and Canberra capital may have been newly created c Regional governmentasymmetric federalism i Where besides the federal capital a few sub regions in the country have been granted autonomy and have their own capitals regional capitals Spain has capitals for Basque and Catalan regions d Forwardthrust capitals i Capitals deliberately sited in frontier zone to keep the primate city from getting too large andor encourage development on the frontier Brasilia Brazil and Abuja Nigeria VIII Boundaries a Boundary types i Natural physical boundaries include mountains rivers lakes etc ii Mountains seem a good choice but choosing where on the mountain the crest or the watershed is tricky whereas rivers and lakes foster interaction and use iii Arti cial geometric boundaries are sections of parallels and meridians this tended to be used in colonies such as the USCanadian border iv Antecedent boundaries which can be natural or artificial were established before the area is well populated like USCanada border V Subsequent boundaries which can be natural or artificial were established after the area has been settled Most boundaries are of this type 1 Types of subsequent boundaries a Consequent ethnographic boundaries were drawn to accommodate existing cultural differences i Even these IrelandMorthern Ireland and IndiaPakistan trap large numbers of people on one side or another and lead to messiness b Superimposed boundaries ignore existing cultural patterns Sub Saharan Africa c Relic boundary marks a former boundary line The Berlin Wall 13 b Boundaries as Sources of Con ict i Landlocked states desperately need ports to conduct trade Get it 1 A treaty which allows use of facilities at a foreign port without extra taxes fees or tolls 2 Access through a corridor to the sea or navigable c Waterbodies as boundaries are also a source of con ict i Mostly over where the boundary line should lie which is a problem because all these things shift overtime d The presence of minority groups can also lead to con ict i Irredentism which is the desire of a state to gain or regain territory inhabited by people who have historic or cultural links to the country Jammu and Kashmir between India and Pakistan ii Location of ethnic homeland spans iii Internal separatist movement e Resource disputes everything from human to physical resources can lead to con ict i Movement of peoples across borders in terms of undocumented migration can be a major source of tension ii Internationally significant resource in border region many borders were drawn before full understandings of the locations of subsurface resources so things like a large oil filed can cause con ict as when Iraq invaded Kuwait iii Crucial physical or cultural resource on adjacent land in neighboring state Jerusalem holy to Jews Christians and Muslims IX Centripetal Forces Promoting State Cohesion a Centripetal forces are those that promote national cohesion centrifugal forces destabilize and weaken a state i Centripetal Forces 1 Nationalism which is identification with the state and acceptance of national goals is what all states hope to instill in their citizens 2 Strengthens the political system 3 Helps integrate different groups into a unified population b Devolution decentralization of political control i Central governments in Europe have granted a degree of political autonomy to recognize political subunits given them a measure of self rule short of complete independence ii If tensions and the level of violence get high enough ethnic Cleansing which is the killing or forcible relocation of less powerful minorities iii This happened extensively in the Americas during and following the colonial era more recently in Bosnia Rwanda and Darfur Sudan c Irredentism 14 i A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country d Ethnic Cleansing i Refers to the forcible ouster of entire populations from their homelands by stronger powers bent on taking their territories X Cooperation Among States i Given all the internal threats to states and many more problems which are global in scope b Supranationalism which is the associations of states created for mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives is on the rise XI United Nations a United Nations UN is the only supranational body which tries to be universal 192 members in 2010 i Provides a forum where countries can discuss international problems and regional concerns and a mechanism for forestalling disputes or ending wars XII UNCLOS a UN Convention on the Law of the Sea i Territorial sea of up to 12 nm which states have sovereignty over including full fishing rights ii Contiguous zone of up to 24 nm not complete sovereignty but can enforce customs immigration and sanitation laws iii Exclusive economic zone EEZ where states can use resources iv This made even small islands control very big resource areas v High seas beyond the EEZ which has freedom of the high seas to sail fish y over lay submarine cables and do research XIII Cooperation Among States i There are other supranational organizations besides the b UN af liates i Specialized international agencies autonomous and with their own membership ii Food and Agriculture Organization FAO World Bank International Labor Organization ILO United Nations Children s Fund UNICEF World Health Organization WHO World Trade Organization WTO c Regional alliances in the world i European Union EU most extensive in terms of size and role played not only a free trade area but also has a parliament and soon as president with the ability to set policies within member states d There are also military and political treaties i Includes defense pacts like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO But also political forums like the Commonwealth of Nations ie the former British Empire the Organization of American States OAS and the Arab League also offer economic benefits 15 XIV Local and Regional Political Organization i ii iii iv A country as big as the US has 85 000 local governmental units including school boards town and county commissions How power gets divided among those units is the focus of the geography of representation In the US every 10 years the census results determine the redistrictingreapportionment of congressional and state legislative districts this is done to re ect population changes Each legislator represents roughly the same number of people b Electoral geography i ii iii The study of the delineation of voting districts and the spatial patterns of election results and their relationship to socioeconomic characteristics of voters Problems arise when the boundary lines are drawn in a way that it can maximize minimize or effectively nullify the power of a group of people Instead of drawing districts that present a full picture of the electorate while remaining compact gerrymandering is often done for undemocratic purposes c Gerrymandering Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts to unfairly favor one political party over another fragment voting blocs or achieve other non democratic objectives 16
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