Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC-3390-01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 5 Gender 1 Adolescents and gender in traditional cultures 11 Adolescents and gender in American history 111 Socialization and gender in the West IV Gender and globalization Traditional Cultures Adolescent boys and girls in traditional cultures often have very different lives and spend little time in each other s presence From Girl to Woman Girls typically work alongside their mothers from an early age During adolescence socialization narrows for girls while it becomes broader for boys Girls budding sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted Often closely monitored by older female family members closeknit groups intimate groups close relationships From Boy to Man Manhood is something that has to be achieved no biological marker A de nite possibility of failure How Demonstrate 3 capacities provide protect and procreate 0 Provide the requirement of being able to provide economically for one s self as well as a wide and children 0 Protect the requirement of being able to assist in protecting one s family and community from human and animal attackers o Procreate the requirement of being able to function sexually well enough to produce children These capacities also involve developing character qualities e g diligence courage confidence etc Spend most of their time with other males Not an intimate relationship just hanging out in larger groups a lot of peers and some older males not an intimate fatherson relationship or mentorship Gender in American History Women were discouraged from pursuing a profession because it was considered unhealthy for them 0 Connected to beliefs about menstruation specifically that intellectual work would draw a woman s energy toward her brain and away from her ovariesthus disrupting her menstrual cycle and endangering her health Sharp disparities in the socialization of males and females From Girl to Woman 4 areas where the lives of adolescent girls were narrowly constricted 0 Occupational roles 0 Cultural perceptions of females fragile innocent o Sexuality have to be a virgin until marriage 0 Physical appearance Advantages o A wide range of voluntary organizations run by adult women 9 service projects building relationships between adolescent girls and female mentors developing character qualities From Boy to Man 3 Manhood Transformations expectations for adolescent boys 0 Communal manhood 17th and 18th centuries colonial America I Prepare for adult responsibilities in work and marriage I Small tightly knit communities interdependent o Selfmade manhood 19th century more urbanized America I Expected to become independent from their families I lndividualistic character qualities selfcontrol independent decisionmaker o Passionate manhood 20th century I Passionate emotions anger sexual desire regarded more favorably as part of manhood I Selfexpression selfenjoyment Socialization amp Gender in the West Why are males and females MORE different from each other as adolescence progresses Changes in puberty Changes in socialization Gender intensification hypothesis psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensi ed socialization pressures to conform to the culture s gender roles 0 We start out different biologically by nature We become more different due to nurture Girls looking physically attractive forming intimate friendships Boys being tough aggressive Changes in Gender Attitudes in the US 19772006 0 More egalitarian gender attitudes today but many still have beliefs like those in traditional cultures Gender Socialization Differential gender socialization socializing males and females according to different expectations about what is appropriate for each gender Parents 0 Clothes toys bedrooms encouragediscourage behaviors monitor girls closely Peers 0 Punish with ridicule and unpopularity those who deviate from gender role expectations School 0 Teachers often assume boys and girls are inherently different in interestsabilities Media amp Gender TV movies music Internet social media sites books magazines Magazines very obviously focus on gender socialization especially those read by adolescent girls 0 Heavy focus on appearance 0 Hair makeup fashion etc Promote the traditional female gender role e g beauty how to be attractive to boys Advertisements are mainly for clothes cosmetics weightloss programs For girls magazine exposure related to dissatisfaction with own appearance Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems Girls at risk for negative body image eating disorders Overweight girls may be bullied Boys expected to be verbally aggressive toward peers defend manhood Lowstatus boys suffer insults and humiliations Adolescent boys who value aggressiveness as part of being a man at greater risk for school difficulties alcohol and drug use risky sexual behaviors Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender Kohlberg 1966 Gender is a fundamental way of organizing information obtained from the world Age 3 Age 4 or 5 Age 6 to 10 Age 12 to 16 Understand themselves as being Perceptions of gender become Perceptions of gender become less Identify things as appropriate for either male or either males or rigid more rigid gender female females intensification gender identity As adolescents become more selfre ective they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others Gender Schema Theory Martin amp Ruble 2004 Gender is one of our most important schemas from early childhood onward By adolescence we have learned to categorize an enormous range of activities objects occupations and personality characteristics as female or male Individuals monitor own behaviorsattitudes to t cultural de nitions Masculinity Femininity amp Androgyny The Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI Bem 1974 Categorization of personality traits Masculine independent competitive feminine tender compassionate Describes traits regarded by most members of the American majority culture as being masculine or feminine A crossnational study of young people in 30 countries found similar gender role perceptions Adolescents also value qualities that are not gender speci c e g kind honest Do people have to be either masculine OR feminine Androgyny a combination of masculine and feminine traits An androgynous person has a great repertoire of traits to draw on in their daily lives Adolescents 0 GIRLS androgyny related to positive selfimage 0 BOYS highly masculine boys have more favorable selfimages than androgynous or feminine boys 0 Peer acceptance highest among androgynous girls and masculine boys 0 More of a push for girls to be more masculine than for boys to be more feminine or androgynous A re ection of the culture Gender Roles in American Minority Groups African American Females Female role characteristics re ect difficulties Black women have faced historically 9 selfreliance assertiveness perseverance Black adolescent girls tend to have higher selfesteem and are less concerned with physical appearance than White girls African American Males Historically and currently many have been subjected to insults to their manhood Many adopt extreme characteristics of the male role Toughness detachment pride confidence risktaking aggressiveness These characteristics can be damaging to their relationships Latino Women Highly traditional until recently Take care of children the home be submissive to husband Today Latina women are employed at rates similar to Whites Latino Men Highly traditional Machismo males dominance over females Undisputed head of household Beliefs about Gender Differences Gender stereotypes attribute certain characteristic to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female College students often evaluate women s work performance less favorably than men s Even when a statistically significant difference exists between males and females for most characteristics there is more similarity than difference Math performance the portion of the bell curve that overlaps is much greater than the portion that is distinct to either gender Why do so many gender stereotypes persist Why do people think of the genders as radically different as opposite sexes 1 Gender schemas shape the way we notice interpret and remember information according to our expectations about the genders a Gender schemas draw our attention to examples that con rm our expectations b We don t look for information that proves us wrong 2 The Social Roles of men and women seem to con rm our beliefs a Social roles theory b Differential gender socialization males amp females develop different skillsattitudes leading to different behaViors c We see different behaViors of males and females and conclude it must be because they are inherently different Chapter 6 The Self Overview I Culture and the Self II Selfconceptions III Selfesteem IV The Emotional Self V Identity VI Identity VII The Self Alone Adolescents enhanced cognitive capacity means that adolescents change their self conceptions their selfesteem their emotional understanding and their identities 9 What kind of person am I What am I good at How do other people see me What kind of life will I have in 20 years Culture and the Self Broad Socialization Narrow Socialization Independent individualistic self Interdependent self Encourage selfre ection Needs and interests of the group Selfesteem is valued take precedence over the individual An individual with high selfesteem might pursue own interests and threaten group harmony The self de ned by relationships SelfConceptions Childhood vs Adulthood I have a dog named Rex and a brother I m complication I m sensitive outgoing named John I m good at sports but not so popular and tolerant I can be shy in some good at school circumstances I can also be selfconscious even obnoxious when I m upset Concrete terms related to traits More traitfocused and traits more Childhood abstract personality characteristics Adolescence More Abstract The capacity for ABSTRACT thought means an adolescent can distinguish between 0 Actual self who am I 0 Possible selves who I might become I Ideal self who you want to be I Feared self who you don t want to be The size of discrepancy between actual amp ideal self is related to depressed mood However awareness of actual amp possible selves can motivate adolescents to strive for ideal self and avoid becoming feared self More Complex Adolescents can perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea 0 I recognize my contradictions in my personalitywhich is the REAL me I m shy around my relatives but outgoing with my friends 0 I m aware that I sometimes show a FALSE self to others that isn t really me or the way I think or feel SelfEsteem Selfesteem overall sense of worth and wellbeing Selfconcept my concrete characteristics roles relationships and personality characteristics Selfimage evaluation of my qualities and relations with others The increased concern about selfesteem over the past 50 years is a distinctly American phenomenon Selfesteem declines in early adolescence then rises through late adolescence and emerging adulthood Imaginary audience afraid that others are judging me harshly Adolescence in Western cultures are STRONGLY peeroriented and value the opinion of their peers highly Different Aspects of SelfEsteem Baseline selfesteem stable enduring sense of worth and wellbeing Barometric selfesteem uctuating sense of worth and wellbeing as one responds to different thoughts experiences etc The Experience Sampling Method I Keep a beeper on them I Throughout the day random times the person gets beeped I At that moment the person has to respond with whatever the experimenter asks what are you doing What are you feeling Who are you with 0 Has revealed the I Rapid uctuations of moods among adolescents in a typical day I The more enjoyable and secure their social relationships the more stable their selfesteem The SelfPerception Profile for Adolescents Susan Harter 8 domains of adolescent selfimage Scholastic competence Social acceptance Athletic competence Physical appearance Job competence Romantic appeal Behavioral conduct Close friendship OOOOOOOO Each domain in uences global selfesteem only to the extent that the adolescent views that domain as important 0 If Romantic Appeal is very important to you and you have it you will feel good about it o If it s very important to be Athletically Competent and you re not you might be really upset Physical Appearance most strongly related to global selfesteem followed by Social Acceptance Girls are more critical of their physical appearance and their selfesteem tends to be lower than boys during adolescence White adolescence Causes and Effects of SelfEsteem 9 Do kids today get too much empty praise 9 Does high selfesteem help adolescents to do well in school Adolescents selfesteem most in uential factors feeling accepted and approved especially by parents and peers 0 Parental affection concern setting clear and fair rules harmony in the home School success and selfesteem are mutually reinforcing o BUT raising selfesteem does NOT increase school success other way around 0 If you want somebody to do better in school have to give them the actual skills to do better in school tutoring different study methods Teach knowledge and skills that can lead to real achievements In ated selfesteem may lead to conduct problems in classroom SelfEsteem in Emerging Adulthood Improvements in selfesteem during emerging adulthood More comfortable with physical appearance Relationships with parents generally improve Left the social pressure cooker of high school More control over social contexts 0 High school limits how many friends you have 0 The world opens up after high school The Emotional Self Experience Sampling Method assesses emotions at numerous speci c moments o Decline in positive emotional states from 5th through 9th10th grades then leveled out o Emotional highs and lows occur more frequently during adolescence more extremes 0 An overall de ation of childhood happiness Biological o The amygdala is active in the processing of strong emotions while not much activity in frontal lobes the brakes on emotions are the frontal lobes which are not as developed as the amygdala Cognitive amp Environmental factors likely more in uential o Stressors life changes personal transitions romantic experiences social pressures lack of sleep 0 How stressors are interpreted Identity Erik Erikson s Theory of Human Development Each period of life is characterized by a crisis Potential for a healthy path or an unhealthy path of development at each crisis Developing via the healthy path provides a stable foundation for the next stage Approximate Age Psycho Social Crisis Infant 18 months Trust vs Mistrust 18 months 3 years Autonomy vs Shame amp doubt 3 5 years Initiative vs Guilt 5 13 years Industry vs Inferiority 13 21 years Identity vs Role Confusion 21 39 years Intimacy vs Isolation 40 65 years Generativity vs Stagnation 65 and older Ego Integrity vs Despair Identity Erikson s Theory Adolescence IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION Establish a clear sense of who you are and how you fit into the world What are your traits abilities interests What are the life choices available to you 9 Ultimately have to make commitments Key areas in which identity is formed love work and ideology How to develop a healthy identity 0 Re ect on identi cations reject some embrace others 0 Explore life options 9 psychosocial moratorium actively trying to figure it out possible selves ideologies Identity Research James Marcia Identity Status Interview 4 possible identity statuses Commitment Yes No Exploration Yes Achievement Moratorium No Foreclosure Diffusion Adolescents in achievement and moratorium categories are more likely to be self directed cooperative good at problem solving Moratorium status more likely to be indecisive unsure Diffusion status lower in selfesteem and selfcontrol higher in anxiety and apathy disconnected relationships with parents Foreclosure status higher in conformity conventionality obedience to authority close relationships with parents 9 It takes a long time to reach identity achievement emerging adulthood or beyond 9 Over recent decades the late teens and early 20s have become a period of free role experimentation for an increasing proportion of young people Critiques of Identity Theory Identity Status Model A Postmodern Perspective 0 Identity is not so stable and unitary it does not develop in a set of stages 0 The postmodern identity diverse elements not always unif1ed changes across contexts and throughout the life course Gender 0 Biased toward male development the healthy standard is striving for an independent identity 0 Girls put more emphasis on relationships and sometimes have dif culty integrating their aspirations for love and aspirations for work Culture 0 Erikson s theory assumes an independent self that is allowed to make free choices 0 Psychosocial moratorium period of exploration is considerably more possible in some cultures than others 0 Traditional cultures explorations in love work and ideology are limited or nonexistent Ethnic Identity Adolescents have a sharpened awareness of what it means to be a member of their minority group and what prejudices stereotypes are associated To what extent do they develop an identity that re ects the values of the majority culture and to what extent do they retain the values of their minority groups Identification with Ethnic Culture Identification with High Low Majority Culture High Bicultural Assimilated Low Separated Marginal Which status is most common Among Mexican Americans and Asian Americans and some European minority groups Bicultural Among African American adolescents Separated 0 Pride in ethnic identity possibly beneficial in a society where they are likely to experience discrimination Native American adolescents Marginal Having a strong sense of one s ethnicity related to overall wellbeing academic achievement lower rates of risk behavior Identity and Globalization Globalization Increasing worldwide technological and economic integration which is making different parts of the world increasingly connected and increasingly similar Because of globalization more people around the world develop a bicultural identity Globalization often alters traditional cultural practices and beliefs may lead more to a hybrid identity integrating local culture with elements of the global culture Also leading to an increase in identity confusion a marginalized identity 0 Don t completely fit in the traditional culture but the global culture is too foreign 0 Identity confusion could lead to problems e g depression substance use Chapter 7 Family Relationships The Family System Family Systems Approach Each subsystem in uences every other subsystem in the family A change in any family member or subsystem results in a period of disequilibrium until the family adjusts to the change No such thing as child therapy only family therapy Most issues result from family 3 aspects of the family system Parents development during midlife Sibling relationships Extended family relationships Parents Development during Midlife Developmental changes during midlife For most people in most respects midlife is a satisfying and enjoyable time of life NOT usually a midlife crisis Job satisfaction peaks earning power tends to increase typically more adaptable and better at handling stress In general parents marital satisfaction and overall life satisfaction improve when their children enter emerging adulthood and leave home Exceptions individuals in bluecollar professions more physical work divorce during midlife more dif cult Research Issue Adolescents Family Lives Figure 71 in textbook Shows changes in time spent with others during adolescence Experience Sampling Method Sharp declines in amount of time adolescents spent with families around 5th grade and 9th grade Mothers more deeply involved with their adolescents mostly positive interactions but also more con ict with mothers Mothers mostly performed household tasks adolescents were little help On average fathers spend 12 minutes per day alone with their adolescents Adolescents brought home their emotions from the day responsive caring parents relieved adolescents negative emotions 0 When parents were apathetic or critical the negative emotions didn t go away Sibling Relationships 5 common patterns in adolescents relationships with siblings 1 Caregiving relationship most common with older sister 2 Buddy relationship friends when they interact like friends 3 Critical relationship high con ict teasing 4 Rival relationship high competition comparison 5 Casual relationship don t have anything to do with each other Adolescents report more frequent con icts with siblings than with anyone else With age less con ict and less time spent with siblings In traditional cultures the caregiver relationship is most common form Extended Family Relationships Traditional Cultures Households typically include extended family members Adolescents often close to grandparents Grandparents may focus more on nurturing and supporting adolescents American Minority Cultures Similar to traditional Close relationships with grandparents living in same house or nearby Extended family support especially important in reducing the emotional and economic stresses of single parenthood American Majority Culture Relationships with grandparents important but less frequent contact Parenting Styles 2 Dimensions Demandingness control degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require compliance Responsiveness warmth degree to which parents are sensitive to children s needs and express love warmth concern 4 Categories Demandingness High Low Responsweness High Authoritative Permissive Low Authoritarian Disengaged Parenting Styles as Custom Complexes What beliefs are re ected in the parenting styles Authoritarian parenting discourages independence but the other three re ect parents beliefs that it is good for adolescents to learn autonomy Permissive and disengaged parents promote this outcome in a negative way through the absence of restraint no guidance Adolescents need to be allowed enough autonomy to develop their capacities and at the same time exercise a greater amount of responsibility Adolescents are more receptive to their parents rules and guidance when parents are warm and loving 0 Best way to get a child to be receptive and obedient Adolescent Outcomes Associated With Parenting Styles Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Disengaged Independent Dependent Irresponsible Impulsive Creative Passive Conforming Delinquent Selfassured Conforming Immature Early sex drugs Socially skilled A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects Reciprocal or Bidirectional Effects Evocative genotype 9 environment interactions adolescents may evoke certain behaviors from parents Parents behavior is affected by 1 What they believe is best 2 How resistant or compliant the adolescent is in response to parents rules Differential parenting adolescent siblings within the same family often give very different accounts of what their parents are like toward them Parenting in Other Cultures Most striking difference is how rare authoritative style is in nonWestern cultures Parents do NOT encourage discussion and debate but not the same as authoritarian Traditional parenting style high in responsiveness and high in a kind of demandingness that expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of parental role Parents and children are often very close and spend a lot of time together interdependence mutual obligations Parents in ethnic minority cultures in US may be more like those in traditional cultures Examples Asian American 0 Chao 2001 argues that white researchers misunderstand Asian American parenting and mislabel it as authoritarian o Adolescents show none of the negative effects typically associated with authoritarian parenting 0 They have higher educational achievement lower rates of behavioral and psychological problems Latino American 0 Latino parents in American society have typically been classi ed as authoritarian 0 Cultural belief system emphasizes respecto respect for and obedience to elders and parents especially fathers 0 Cultural beliefs emphasize familismo love closeness and mutual obligation in family life Attachment to Parents Attachments between parents and children have an evolutionary basis in the need for vulnerable young members of the species to stay in close proximity to adults who will care for and protect them 0 Infants need touch more than food 2 types of attachment Mary Ainsworth 1 Secure attachment I Infants use mother as secure base from which to explore I Seek physical comfort from her if frightened or threatened 2 Insecure attachment I Infants are wary of exploring the environment not sure if she is going to come back so the infant clings and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort According to Bowlby interactions with primary caregiver help form an internal working model shapes expectations and interactions in relationships with others throughout life Secure Attachment Secure attachment to parents in adolescence is related to a variety of favorable outcomes Effects on adolescence 0 Higher selfesteem and wellbeing 0 Better psychological health and physical health 0 Closer relationships with friends and romantic partners 0 More autonomous and selfreliant Effects on emerging adulthood 0 Higher educational and occupational attainment 0 Higher quality of romantic relationships 0 Lower psychological problems 0 Lower drug use Autonomy and relatedness feeling close to parents emotionally seem like opposites but they should be complementary Rather than promoting prolonged dependence a secure attachment gives children the confidence to go out into the world ParentAdolescent Con ict Adolescents and their parents agree on many of the most important aspects of their views of life and typically have a great deal of love and respect for one another However con ict increases sharply in early adolescence 0 Observed con ict per minute between mother amp son in 30 minute videotaped interactions 0 Peaks around ages 1516 As con ict rises closeness declines Sources of Con ict with Parents Why is early adolescence a time when con ict with parents is especially high Biological changes adolescents are bigger stronger can t just make them do things by dragging their arms Cognitive changes increased thinkingreasoning abilities make adolescents better arguers 0 Can be logical reason better Regulating the pace of adolescents autonomy is often a source of con ict 0 Eg dress choice of friends state of order in adolescent s bedroom Seemingly minor issues could be substitutes for more serious underlying issues o Eg sexual issues drugs Culture and Con ict with Parents Conflict is not universal or natural even though biological and cognitive changes in the adolescent are Uncommon in traditional cultures why 0 Economic reasons in nonindustrialized traditional cultures families rely on each other economically expected to assist one another routinely 0 Cultural reasons beliefs about parental authority and the appropriate degree of adolescent independence Parents and adolescents in the West agree that independenceselfsufficiency is the ultimate goal for adolescents 0 An increase in autonomy prepares Western adolescents for adult life in an individualistic culture I The question is how much independence and when Leaming to suppress disagreements and submit to parents authority prepares adolescents in traditional cultures for an adult life of interdependence and a designated position in a family hierarchy Emerging Adults Relationships with Parents In US leaving home typically takes place around ages 1819 Emerging adults report greater closeness and fewer negative feelings toward parents after moving out No more daytoday friction and can control frequencytiming of interactions with parents Emerging adults staying at home more common among Latinos Blacks and Asian Americans compared to the majority culture About 40 of American emerging adults return to living at home at least once after they leave 0 Works best if they learn a mutually respectful form of relating on an adult to adult basis Emerging Adults Living at Home In European countries emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the US Cultural values emphasize mutual support within the family while also allowing young people substantial autonomy 94 of Italians ages 1524 live with their parents only 8 of them view their living arrangements as a problem Historical Change amp the Family Patterns over 2 centuries in the US Lower birth rate I In 1800 women gave birth to an average of 8 children today 2 children Longer life expectancy I Many adolescents experienced the death of a parent remarriage Increased urbanization leaving the farms The Changing Functions of the Family The range of family functions the family serves has been greatly reduced The family today has mainly emotional or affective Function Responsibility 1800s Responsibility Modern times Educational Family School Religious Family Church Medical Family Medical professional Economic support Family Employer Recreational Family Entertainment industry Affective Family Family Historical Change amp the Family The past 50 years 1 Rise in divorce rate a Nearly HALF of the current generation of young people are projected to experience their parents divorce by their late teens 2 Rise in rate of singleparent households a Currently about onethird of White children and twothirds of Black children are born to single mothers b Only 20 of Blacks and 4045 of Whites grow up through age 18 living with both of their biological parents 3 Rise in rate of dualeamer families a Employment among women with schoolaged children has increased from about 10 to 70 from 1940 to 2000 Effects of Divorce Adolescents adjustment in divorced families Increased risk of 0 Behavior problems e g drug use initiate sex at earlier age 0 Psychological distress e g depressed withdrawn anxious 0 Lower academic achievement In emerging adulthood Greater problems forming close romantic relationships Higher risk of divorce themselves How does divorce affect family process Quality of family members relationships degree of warmth or hostility etc A Exposure to con ict between parents Exposure to parents hostility beforeduringafter divorce is stressful and damaging as is high con ict in nondivorced households B Divorce affects parenting practices Mothers tend to be less affectionate more permissive and less consistent in their parenting especially in first year Contact with father declines more negative feelings toward him C Increase in economic stress Income in motherheaded households decreases by 4050 on average Effects of Remarriage another disruption of the family system Probably more consistent parenting lessened economic stress Increased risk of a variety of problems anxiety depression lower academic achievement conduct disorders delinquent activities Although following divorce adolescents tend to have fewer problems than younger children following remarriage adolescents have more problems adjusting compared with younger children WHY 0 Have to integrate new person into a family system already strained by divorce 0 Adolescent may regard stepfather as an unwelcome intruder establishing an attachment may be dif cult o Adolescents are less likely than younger children to accept a stepfather s authority Effects of Single Parenthood Adolescents in nevermarried singleparent households 0 Increased risk of low school achievement psychological problems behavioral problems 0 Support of extended family is usually bene cial I Financial support emotional support sharing of parenting responsibilities Effects of DualEarner Families few substantial effects have been found Important variables Gender of the adolescent 0 Girls tend to be more con dent and have higher career aspirations 0 Boys may have more arguments with mothers amp siblings possibly over greater household responsibilities potential school problems Number of hours parents work 0 Higher risk for problems if both parents work full time especially if adolescent is regularly unsupervised after school hours Quality of relationships between parents amp the adolescent 0 Parental monitoring demandingness amp responsiveness Physical Abuse many abused adolescents are resilient amp grow up to be normal adults What leads parents to be physically abusive o Abused themselves 0 Experienced parental con ict harsh discipline or loss of a parent traumatic event 0 Family stresses eg poverty amp parents problems eg depression poor health alcohol abuse 0 Poor parenting skills amp poor coping skills Abused Adolescents o More aggressive with peers amp adults modeling andor genes 0 Antisocial behavior substance use depression anxiety poor school performance difficulty in peer relationships Sexual Abuse While physical abuse is more commonly in icted on boys sexual abuse is usually in icted on girls by their brothers fathers or stepfathers a known adult Abusers usually insecure and socially awkward with adults not usually aggressive usually don t fit in well Abused adolescents 0 Difficulty trusting others amp forming intimate relationships 0 Risk for depression anxiety social withdrawal substance abuse variety of psychological disorders suicidal thoughtsbehaviors 0 Either highly avoidant of sexual contacts or highly promiscuous Best thing to do LISTEN to them believe them direct them to help No such thing as child therapy JUST FAMILY THERAPY need to work with WHOLE family system Chapter 8 Friends amp Peers Clarifying the Difference Peers people who are about the same age Friends people with whom you choose to hang outwith you develop a valued mutual relationship Amount of time spent with family decreases by about half from 5th to 9th grade then declines even more steeply from 9th to 12th 0 More time with peers at school and in leisure time after school weekends summer break etc Family amp Friends Relationships with family and friends also change in quality Adolescents depend more on friends for companionship and intimacy emotional closeness Adolescents who have secure attachment to parents more likely to develop secure attachment to friends 0 People who are close to parents tell you that you like secure attachment you like relationships they re enjoyable it s a good thing to have Survey of over 1000 adolescents percentage preferring to discuss topics with friends or parents 0 Parents education future occupation 0 Friends more personal issues social relationships Emotional States with Friends Adolescents happiest moments are usually with friends amp generally much happier with friends than with family 0 A close friend mirrors their own emotions I Often a difference in moods between parent amp adolescent o F eel ee and open with friends Friends are also the source of adolescents most negative emotions o Worry about being liked being populat But overall positive feelings are more common with friends than with family Mood changes among 9th12th graders moods most positive on weekends when likely spending leisure time with friends Family amp Friends in Traditional Cultures Pattern of increasing time with peers decreasing time with parents More likely to have major gender differences 0 Involvement with peers much greater for boys 0 Girls spend a lot of time with adult females For both males amp females more of their time is spent with their families than in the West Remain close to families while also developing greater closeness to friends 9 Leads into marrying a stranger possibility arranged marriage sounds crazy to us but to them spouses don t look for that emotional intimacy they don t need that don t need a husband or wife to be emotionally close to or soul mate Developmental Changes in Friendship INTIMACY The need for intimacy with friends intensi es in early adolescence Better at perspective taking empathy can truly think about their friends as individuals and their worries cares etc 9 they become BETTER at intimacy What is a friend 9 someone who understands you someone you can share your problems with someone who will listen when you have something important to say 0 Children more likely to emphasize shared activities what they DO together Abstract thinking can thinktalk about qualities such as trust amp loyalty Puberty experiences can promote intimacy Gender in the development of intimacy in adolescents friendships Girls spend more time than boys talking to their friends and they place a higher value on talking together as a component of their friendships Girls friendships are more affectionate nurturing Boys more likely to emphasize shared activities as the basis of friendship Gender di erences in socialization Nature or Nurture 0 Boys may get made fun of 0 Girls may not be included if they don t Choosing Friends why do people become friends SIMILARITY Age gender Similarities especially important in adolescent friendships 0 Educational orientation 0 Media amp leisure preferences 0 Participation in risk behavior 0 Ethnicity I Ethnic similarity between friends is typical at all ages but adolescence is a time when ethnic boundaries become sharper friends become less interethnic Friends In uence and Peer Pressure Friends in uence is a better term than peer pressure friends can have substantial in uence on adolescents but the effects of the entire peer group are week Friends in uence rises in early adolescence peaks in midteens declines in late adolescence Can encourage and discourage risk behavior Can provide emotional support and coping Friends In uence Risk Behavior Correlation between an adolescents rates of risk behaviors and hisher friends rates of risk behaviors Because of friends in uence maybe not 0 Often adolescent only provides the report of self amp friends and they generally perceive their friends as more similar to themselves than they actually are 0 Selective association we choose friends who are similar to ourselves I You CHOSE to be their friend you know what they like and you like the same things Longitudinal studies both selection AND in uence contribute to similarities in risk behavior 0 Similar before becoming friends and tend to become even more similar throughout the friendship Friends can also in uence each other AGAINST risk behavior Friends In uence Support amp Nurturance 4 types of support friends can provide 1 Informational support I Advice 2 Instrumental support I Actual tasks help with tasks 3 Companionship support I Have someone to go places with you 4 Esteem support I Promoting your self esteem Support and nurturance in adolescents friendships o Positively correlated with psychological health 0 Negatively correlated with depression psychological disturbance o It could be that adolescents with more favorable characteristics attract support from friends Longitudinal studies support leads to higher selfesteem lower depressive symptoms improvements in academic performance Friendships in Emerging Adulthood Similar to friendships in adolescence intimacy is a key component friends can provide 4 types of support same as before The importance of intimacy emotional closeness rises from adolescence to emerging adulthood More like to have othersex friendships The importance of friendships tends to decline as romantic relationships develop Cliques amp Crowds Cligues small groups of friends who know each other well do things together and form a regular social group Crowds larger reputationbased groups of adolescents who are not necessarily friends and do not necessarily spend time together 0 Help adolescents de ne own identities and the identities of others I Elites populars preppies I Athletes jocks I Academics brains nerds geeks I Deviants druggies burnouts I Others normals nobodies Sarcasm amp Ridicule in Cliques Critical evaluations of one another are a typical part of the social interactions in adolescent cliques Antagonistic interactions include sarcasm ridicule Directed at individuals within clique 0 Establish dominance hierarchy o Reinforce clique conformity ridiculed if you are doing something that does not t Directed at individuals outside clique o Clarify boundaries between us amp them Relational Aggression Nonphysical aggression that harms others by damaging relationships More common among girls Their gender role prohibits more direct expressions of disagreement and con ict means of being aggressive without physical violence And a way of asserting dominance Developmental Changes in Crowds Spending so much time around peers on a daily basis elevates the importance of peers as social reference groups Kinney s Longitudinal Research 0 From early to midadolescence crowd structure becomes more differentiated and more in uential 0 Middle school grades 68 two groups populars and not populars 0 Early high school grades 910 more differentiated groups 0 From mid to late adolescence less hierarchical more spread out and less in uential By 11th grade signi cance of crowds diminishes less important in de ning social status and social perceptions Parallels in identity development 0 Identity issues prominent early to midadolescence and crowd structures help de ne one s identity 0 Late adolescence no longer need to rely on crowds for selfde nition Crowd membership related to o Deviants highest in risk behaviors lowest in school performance and social acceptance 0 Academics lowest in risk behavior highest in school performance 0 Elites highest in social acceptance in between the other groups on risk behaviors and school performance Crowds in American Minority Cultures In high schools with mostly nonWhite students the same kinds of crowds exist Elites Athletes Academics Deviants Others In schools with multiethnic populations adolescents tend to see fewer crowd distinctions in other ethnic groups than they do in their own 0 9 ex All Asians are alike but WE are diverse Changes in Clique amp Crowd Composition during Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Early Adolescents spend most of their time with samesex friends Gradually these cliques of samesex friends begin to spend time together in larger mixedsex cliques and crowds Still even in 12th grade more time is spent with samesex friends than with other seX friends Popularity amp Unpopularity Sociometry a research method in which students rate the social status of other students May also rate students on attractiveness intelligence friendliness aggressiveness Popular wellliked Popularity related to physical attractiveness amp social skills 0 Have to have good social skills to be popular 0 High intelligence tends to be related to popularity social intelligence amp general intelligence are correlated What typically makes the nerds amp geeks unpopular is the perception that they social skills and put academics above social life The Importance of Social Skills Skills for successfully handling social relations and getting along well with others Sensitive to others needs listen well communicate their own point of view clearly Confident without being arrogant Unpopularity 2 types and implications about social skills 0 Rejected adolescents actively disliked mentioned by students we hate them they suck aggressive quarrelsome I Usually have a problem with social information processing they process social information incorrectly usually intense aggravating in your face I A lot more likely to see other people s intentions as hostile when they re totally not I Much more likely to assume someone tripped them on purpose immediately more likely to look for threathostile intentions from others I Not good at reading people process social cues incorrectly o Neglected adolescents barely noticed withdrawn 0 Controversial kids strongly disliked by some strongly liked by others may use aggression often Stable things in adolescence Throughout adolescent years reputation tends to be stable If you develop a rep for being popularunpopular it s extremely hard to change Traits affect popularity attractiveness and socialness are stable What can we do for neglectedrejected kids Based on social skills so let s target social skills Both categories likely need help with social skills Might not know how to initiate a conversation Might not know how to begin a relationshipto be a friendmaintain a conversationpresent themselves as interesting or fun to be around May be socially phobic Others just take over Rejected kids also need emotionmanagementbehavior regulation 0 Need to control emotions and behaviors Bullying Has to do with aggression repetition and power imbalance Power imbalance someone with higher social status picking on someone with lower social status not a fair ght Boys are more likely to be bullies AND more likely to be victims Victims of bully high risk for 0 Depression 0 Anxiety Cyberbullying 0 Online through social media sitestexting 0 Many avenues to bully other people 0 You can be way more cruel when you don t SEE the other person People bully 0 To deal with own problems 0 To gain status 0 To avoid being a victim themselves Chapter 9 Love amp Sexuality ALL IN BLUE NOT FROM SLIDES PROJECTOR BROKEN Changes in Dating Used to be 0 Guy goes to girl s house meets her parents 0 Formal 0 Under supervision Moved towards 0 Parents have less control 0 Less boy girl formal set up dates more group dating or just hanging out When do adolescents begin dating Is when you date related to your physical maturation Stage of puberty Chronological age AGE has more in uence Older you get the more likely you are to have gone on a date Why does anybody want to form a romantic relationship The ones that do don t all do it for the same reasons Several different reasons 0 Recreation for fun something to try 0 Learning practicing how to be attractive how to be a boyfriend girlfriend 0 Status does it help you and your status in high school to date someone who s really popular 0 Companionship nice to have someone to do things with o Intimacy emotional closeness sometimes it is someone that you connect with o Courtship trying to nd a spouse more common several generations ago When you study young adolescence 1112 the most common reason they mention is recreation When you study 1516 year olds most common reason is recreation 2nd most common intimacy 3rd most common status College years status becomes obsolete 0 Mostly mention intimacy 0 2nd companionship What do you look for in a romantic partner Middle adolescence 1415 0 Boys look for I Physical attraction 0 Girls look for I Interpersonal qualities we feel connected supportive he loves me he s kind he ll be there for me Late adolescence 18 0 Boys AND girls look for I Interpersonal qualities Social Scripts There are dating scripts Boys and girls typically don t learn the same scripts BOYS tend to learn PROACTIVE dating script 0 Boys supposed to ask girl out say where we re gonna go what we re gonna do initiate sex Girls tend to learn REACTIVE dating script 0 Girls are the ones that are supposed to go along with what the guy says go along with his advances submit to his proactive script Media 0 Portrays girls as submissive 0 Sexy to be yielding and submissive People who do have romantic relationships Dating early middle school 6th 7th grade tends to lead to popularity Different ndings for boys and girls in terms of serious romantic relationships Young adolescent girls 0 Having a serious romantic relationship is related to problems 0 Increased risk of I Depression I Substance use I Delinquent behavior 0 Thought that young adolescent girls are NOT ready for this relationship I You don t know that much yet I Go along with what other people do Dating Scripts Dating scripts are still highly in uenced by GENDER with the power mostly on the side of the boys 0 Males proactive script 0 Females reactive script Romantic experiences are associated with positive and negative outcomes in adolescence ampdepends on age 0 Have a romantic relationship tend to be more popular 0 Early adolescent girls serious love relationship related to negative outcomes eg depressed mood 0 Longitudinal amount of romantic experience associated with I Social acceptance friendship competence romantic competence I Greater substance use more delinquent behavior Sternberg s Theory of Love Different types of love involve combining 3 fundamental qualities of love in different ways 1 Passion 2 Intimacy 3 Commitment 7 Forms of love Liking intimacy only Infatuation passion only Empty love commitment only Romantic love intimacy and passion Companionate love intimacy and commitment I Ex couple married for a long time not a lot of passion anymore Fatuous passion and commitment I Ex people fall madly in love and get married a week later 0 Consummate love passion intimacy AND commitment Applying Stemberg to Adolescence Typically no longterm commitment in adolescence 2 principal types of adolescent love infatuation and romantic love The prominence of intimacy in romantic relationships tends to grow through adolescence and emerging adulthood 00000 O Keep in mind 0 In industrialized countries people are not likely to get married until they are in at least their mid to late twenties Adolescent Passion in NonWestem Cultures Feelings of passion appear to be a universal characteristic of young people However romantic love as the basis for marriage is a new cultural idea Marriages arranged by parents have been the norm Falling in Love How to choose romantic partners Similarity eg intelligence social class ethnicity religious beliefs personality physical attractiveness Attachments to romantic partners may be similar to attachments to parents 0 Maintain proximity seek comfort psychological security etc 0 Secure attachments 9 seek emotional support and have concern for the partner s wellbeing o Insecure attachments 9 either an excess of dependence or an excess of distance When Love Goes Bad Breaking Up Adolescent egocentrism may contribute to the intense emotions after a breakup 0 Can t understand situation from another s point of view 0 Personal Fable idea of uniqueness no one has EVER felt this way before College students breakups 0 Lower levels of intimacy amp love Less similar in personal characteristics attitudes Less balanced e g unequal levels of commitment A lack of common interests Rejected men tend to be lonelier and more depressed than rejected women I Women are more likely to get support from others and more OK to talk about feelings 0000 Choosing a Marriage Partner Study on the importance of traits in mate selection over 10000 young people in 37 countries impressive consistencies across countries and across genders 1 Mutual attraction love 2 Dependable character includes emotional stability can count on them 3 Emotional stability and maturity 4 Pleasing disposition physically attractive Sharpest crosscultural division the issue of chastity 0 Western cultures rate chastity low 0 Nonwesternmiddle eastern countries rate chastity as extremely important Arranged Marriages Marriage an alliance between two families Economic considerations family s status religion wealth Much less is demanded of marriage 0 A lot less divorce in traditional cultures I Because less is expected of marriage I Develop emotional intimacy with friends AND family you don t HAVE to find that in a spouse People expect to nd intimacy mainly with their family of origin Increasingly young people in these cultures believe they should have at least have some say in a marriage partner 0 Semiarranged marriage Cohabitation US and northern European countries cohabitation before marriage is experienced by at least twothirds of emerging adults Tends to be brief and unstable for young Americans Cohabit partly because they want to make it more likely that the marriage will last 0 Need to try it out and see if it will work BEFORE we get married Cohabitation before marriage is related to higher likelihood of divorce 0 Those who cohabit tend to be different from those who do not in ways that are related to higher risk for divorce I Less religious more skeptical of the institution of marriage more accepting of divorce Sexuality Biological sexual development sexual values beliefs thoughts feelings relationships amp behavior Hormones DO NOT drive sexual behavior Usually progression of sexual behavior is o Masturbation o Necking amp petting 0 Sexual intercourse 0 Oral sex Boys report higher rates of masturbation than girls Social desirability effects could affect reporting Kissing amp necking above waist are usually the rst sexual experiences with a partner 0 By age 16 more than half reported kissing amp necking Followed by petting below waist o By age 18 more than half reported petting Sexual Intercourse Percent of high school students reported having sex at least once 19251965 0 10 of females 25 of males 2012 o 46 of students Average age of rst intercourse 17 Percent of college students reported having sex at least once Before 1960 0 About 40 1980K 0 About 80 and has remained stable Ethnic differences high school students who have had sex Lowest to highest 0 Asian American White Latino African American Pornography Most popular intemet sites Increased use from early adolescence to emerging adulthood More common among boys Viewing pornography is correlated with delinquency substance use more favorable attitudes toward premarital sex greater likelihood of reported sexual activity Degrading ways of depicting women Separation of sex from intimacy Desensitization 0 When you become desensitized to something you get used to it o The more porn you are exposed to the less attractive your partner is and the less exciting your own sex life is 0 Come to believe the rape myth women enjoy being coerced into sex 0 As exposure to porn goes up the more likely males are to hurt women and to devalue their own partners
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