BSC 101 Helms Exam 2 Study Guide
BSC 101 Helms Exam 2 Study Guide BSC 101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 4 Habitat All of the biotic living and abiotic nonliving factors that surround and influence an organism Life zones Biome Broad geographical areas with similar physical characteristics and have comparable plants and animals found there Terrestrial life zones are characterized by the type of vegetation found there The type of vegetation is influenced by moisture rainfall and temperature Type of vegetation is determined by Latitude Altitude Moisture The smallscale view of habitat is to examine microhabitat features might include Biotic Factors Food access Predators Mates Competition for Disease Parasites Soil Other species competing for something Abiotic environmental Factors Sunlight Water Temperature Soil Moisture Oxygen Gravity Resources necessary substances required by organisms in that habitat that are provided by are provided by that habitat All organisms have a minimum set of required resources Changes over life cycle of all organisms Time limiting resources Different species have different resource requirements How well adapted they are adapted to that environment Resources limit or promote growth and reproduction Constraint resource at suboptimal levels that brings out a change in an organism that it needs to survive Tradeoff specific behavioral or metabolic shift that is coming up as a result of a constraint Dormancy True suspension of growth reproduction development Seek temporary environmental changes Survival Strategy Can be reversed when conditions improve Hibernation Patterns that are repeated seasonally metabolic processes are slowed Survival strategy Chapter 12 Growth form a plant s shape structure and appearance Woody Plant Grow by adding wood 1 Trees large main vertical trunk supporting multiple branches 2 Shrubs many small branches near base 3 Succulents all about storing large amounts of water in roots and stem Herbaceous plants photo on L is an example of an herbaceous that doesn t follow quotgrasslike or quotvinequot 4 Grasslike slender stems narrow leaves wind pollinated Examples wheat rice grass 5 Vines use ground or other structures for support Examples Pumpkins Life history of plants Annuals seed to seed in one growing period herbaceous Example Pumpkin broccoli cucumber corn Biennials Every two years seed gt adult gt dormant gt reproduction Example Parsley Perennials Live for more than 2 years can be herbaceous or woody repeated episodes of reproduction Be able to identify plant cells in a leaf and label and state the functions Cell Wall Cellulose Structure Blockiness Vacuole Organelle of storage Takes up large part of it Interact with cell wall Support of cell wall to help shape Recycling other organelles Examples water minerals starch Chloroplasts Organelle of photosynthesis Chlorophyll makes them appear green Aerobic Cellular Respiration ATP Photosynthesis convert energy from light into sugars Mitochondria convert sugar and oxygen to C02 water and ATP Plant growth occurs at specific locations in the plant body called meristems Meristems rapid cell division via mitosis increase in the number of cells Apical Meristem Tip of shoot or root lengthwidth Lateral buds meristematic on side of stem where flowers develop Herbaceous plants grow only from apical meristems Woody plants on the other hand also have two additional meristems called vascular cambium and cork cambium Vascular Cambium Produces wood xylem phloem Cork Cambium Divide to make outer protective layer Inside produces living storage cells Bark everything outside the vascular cambium Vascular system moving nutrients around Xylem Water and minerals PhloemSugar Two types of systems Taproot Relatively thick rots usually 1 really big root specialized in storage mainly starch Fibrous root system generally all the same size many stringy roots Both types of root systems have Root cap Dome of epidermal cells at the tip of the root protective layer Root hairs Extensions of the epidermal cells of that root For absorption Absorb 90 of the plant s water Cortex Specialized cells for starch storage Endodermis Controlling passage of things into the vascular cylinder Leaves Major photosynthetic organ of most plants Have openings for gas exchange Stomata Stomata openings in leaf and some stems major area of gas exchange Mesophyll space between upper and lower middle region of leaf Dominated by parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts Plants have evolved defensive strategies Structural Barriers Thorns Spikes Thick waxy leaves Chemical Weapons Alkaloidsexamples morphine caffeine Terpenoidsexamples cedar oil nutmeg ginger oregano Cyanogensexample Cyanide Chapter 14 Asexual Reproduction offspring genetically identical to the parent process of mitosis Also call vegetative reproduction reproduction by any part of the plant that is a vegetative organ roots stems or leaves Results from Mitosis Results in Clone genetically identical to parental organism Sexual reproduction creation of genetically different offspring than parents via gametes fertilization Five basic steps of sexual reproduction in flowering plants 1 Sexual organs produce gametes 2 Pollination Delivering male gamete to female part 3 Fertilization Union of egg and sperm 4 Embryo must grow and develop create seed 5 Dispersal getting the seed away from the parent Floral Anatomy Sepal Outer most portion of a flower protective Mirrors the number of petals in most plants Petal modified leaf can help attract pollinators Stamen Anther and Filament Male part Filament Holds up the Anther Anther Where pollen is produced Pollen Grains Structure that carries male gamete to female part of the flower Carpel Female part Stigma pollen must stick to it for pollination to occur Style Positioning of the stigma Ovary Ovules Pollination Transfer of pollen grains from male anther to female stigma Various means Animals wind When a pollen grain lands on a stigma there is growth of a pollen tubes Inside of pollen two sperm cells are created The eyes on a coconut quotscarsquot where pollen tubes grew into the ovary Pollen provides sperm cell to ovule which contains the egg cell Fertilization 1 sperm cell unites with egg Zygote Egg Ovule matures into seed Ovary matures into fruit Double fertilization two sperm nuclei from the pollen grain unite with two cells in the ovule The first sperm Egg fertilization gt zygote gt embryotic plant The second sperm fuses with central cell endosperm Endosperm nutrition embryo needs to grow and develop Fruits grow and develop from flowers ovaries specifically Fruit ripened ovary develops from flowers contains seeds aids in dispersal Seed everything that surrounds the embryo Vegetable from vegetative structure not part of reproductive structure Ethylene Dispersal Animal dispersal Fleshy Taste good Brightly colored Stick to animal Wind dispersal Light weight and small Water dispersal Must float Chapter 17 Why should we care about preservation of predator species Play important roles in ecosystems Vast majority are Keystone Species Example Take wolf away wolf s primary food source is elk keeping the population in check if wolves are gone the elk population will increase a lot elk eat vegetation and bark trees and other vegetation will suffer birds and beavers will be impacted because of this Preserving biodiversity conserves healthy ecosystems Biodiversityincludes Having lots of different species in an area Within a species lots of genetic variation Diversity of ecosystems as well Why do healthy ecosystems matter Ecosystem services Processes that are performed or things we get from functional healthy ecosystems The Endangered Species Act 1973 Legal protection of endangered and threatened organisms Helps prevent extinctions Categorizes species as endangered or threatened Endangered Near extinction of all or part of their range Threatened Likely to become endangered Habitat fragmentation can be ameliorated by Providing wildlife corridors Global hotspots small areas with huge biodiversity Equatorial regions The Amazon Rainforest 50 of remaining rainforests Largest most species rich set of lands on Earth High amounts of biodiversity Warm moisture rich water is never limited high amounts of rainfall Threatened by deforestation Deforestation clear of forests by humans for humans Primary cause of habitat destruction and fragmentation Chapter 16 Corals as a result of producing calcium carbonate skeletons are an important for storing C02 Corals Keystone species of a reef Colonies of asexually reproducing polyps Secrete hard calcium carbonate exoskeleton and this provides a habitat for the rest of the ecosystem 95 of energy is received from photosynthetic symbiotic algae The algae are sensitive To temperature To acidity In the last 30 years 95 of coral in the Caribbean and the Florida Keys has died In all nutrient cycles there are reservoirs of the stored nutrient 1 Biological reservoirs all living things 2 Nonliving reservoirs quotAbioticquot atmosphere soil aquifers ice of glacier oceans Water cycle continual movement of water on above or below Earth s surface The sun is the provider of energy for the movement of water Water changes states in various stages of the water cycle Most water is not salt free clean or available to us Freshwater naturally occurring water from ice lakes rivers and groundwater aquifers Excludes all real salt water Can have very small amounts of dissolved salt 97 of Earth s water is found in the ocean Of the remaining 3 68 of that is not readily available Residence time the average amount of time that a molecule stays in a reservoir Carbon Primarily makes up mass of all living things Most important in living things organic Stored in inorganic reservoirs 5 major reservoirs Sedimentary rock Oceans Oil and gas Soil Atmospheric COZ Human activities impact the carbon cycle Use of oil has increased greatly Changing residence time of carbon in abiotic reservoirs Increasing amount of Carbon that is going into the atmosphere Rhizobium bacteria live in root nodules of legume plants Capable of taking in atmospheric N2 Converts NZ to N3 Human effects on the nitrogen cycle Increase the amount of nitrogen globally through the production of chemical fertilizers Polluted water with high levels of nitrogen leading to eutrophication High nitrogen levels cause alga blooms Algae dies Bacteria decompose them The bacteria use up the oxygen in the water Dead zones are created due to the lack of oxygen Nothing can survive because of the low oxygen levels Gulf of Mexico dead zone due to runoff of chemicals from agricultural fields Climate Weather describes daytoday measures of conditions Climate refers to long term statistical averages of weather patterns over large areas over large periods of time Global climate change global changes of long term statistical averages of weather patterns over the world over long periods of time In modern times it refers to those human activities that have had a direct impact on global factors such as temperature Evidence for changing climate ce cores Tree rings Carbon concentrations Greenhouse effect Light energy enters the atmosphere and some of that sunlight is absorbed by the surface and heats the Earth Some is radiated back off the surface Some of the energy is trapped by the greenhouse gases and warms the Earth like a blanket Greenhouse gases absorb and trap heat energy A portion of the energy radiated goes through the atmosphere and back into space Global warming long term increase in average temperature near Earth s surface Global warming is strongly correlated with C02 levels in the atmosphere quotClimate change more descriptive of what is happening on a more local scale because some regions are only experiencing an increase in temperature Consequences of climate change Ecosystem and species extinctions Sealevel se More severe and unpredictable storms Acidification of oceans Shifting of seasons Coral bleaching Shifting of distributions of crops away from the poles
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