Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ENGL 221
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 221 at Towson University taught by Christopher Cain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see British Lit in Foreign Language at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
British Literature to 1798 Midterm Study Guide ConceptsImportant Information from PrimarySecondary Readings WEEK 12 English formed circa 450 CE 0 Written form not developmentrecorded until circa 800 CE Novel as the main form of literature developed at the end of the 17th centuryturn of 18th 0 Previously the main form was poetry 0 Poetry is a nuemonic device worked well with stories being told orally Middle Ages 0 Collapse of Rome to the Renaissance 0 Middle Ages is the inbetween Dark Ages I Vast culturalsocialhistorical emptiness I 1000 years 0 Still high levels of social organization ex Centralized government and high culture 0 Literature I Past time and leisure activity I Also used to better one s own status obtaining rich patrons to commission work 0 Alterity 9 different alternative I Literature is radically alternative 0 Need to think of the Middle Ages on its own rather than as the Dark Ages 0 Fall of Rome 9 410 CE I First time Rome was sacked by Outsiders o Alaric Goth 9 Germanic Tribe 0 Had been a constant existential threat for centuries o Germanic Tribes were tribal kinship based with a semblance of a common culture 0 Led to the shrinkage of Rome 0 Began pulling back from the Frontier left Northern territory England open for invasionsettlements o 476 CE was the split of Rome between East and West 0 Created Byzantium 0 West was overrun by invaders and effectively ended 0 England colonized by Rome I Rome s most Northern Point at height of empire 9 ended at Hadrian s wall designed to keep out Northern tribes o 55 CE until 410 CE 0 After Rome abandoned this in 410 the land was populated by Celts 0 They had lost Roman protection so increase in invasions 0 End of RomanoCeltic Britain driven into Wales in 450 I Invaded by Germanic tribes in 450 0 Was a multigenerational angry migration 0 3 main tribesdialects settled in England 0 Angles o Saxons o Jutes 0 Date is given by Bede retrieved from legends 0 These tribes were pagan polytheisticritualistic 0 Conversion to Christianity was when they began to form one identity I At an intervention by Pope Gregory the Great who sent St Augustine 597 to Kent to convert I Tribes were then given literacy money coinage written law a central leader PopeRoman Emperor became part of a larger world Introduction to the Middle Ages pg 123 Time span collapse of Roman Empire to Renaissance and Reformation ca 400 ca 0 1500 Period of historical social and linguistic change Divided into 3 sections 0 AngloSaxon Literature Old English 0 AngloNorman Literature Early Middle English o Middle English Literature Middle English 914th 15th Century AngloSaxon Literature Developed after withdrawal of Roman legions in 5th century Conversion from Paganism to Christianity heavily started in 597 St Augustine led to increase in book production 0 Bede written story of English conversion to Christianity in 731 Christian AngloSaxons suffered Germanic invasions 0 Old English preserved with Saxon dialect 9th century Earliest records in English are religious think Bede 0 Previously all had been oral Poetry was inspired heavily by the Germanic heroic poetry think Beowulf 0 Christian stories written in this format Language is used to formalize and elevate speech 0 Lots of irony AngloNorman Literature Started in 1066 with the invasion of the Normans In uence of the French language 0 Increased linguistic and cultural exchanges 4 Primary Languages Latin French English and Celtic Attraction to Celtic Oral legends Development of Romance Genre 0 Love and psychological interiority were focal 0 French based genre Middle English Literature 14th Century 9 war and disease were devastatingly prevalent o Hundred Years War England and France 1337 o Bubonic Plague 1348 Major Figures 0 Marie de France Chr tien de Troyes Dante Chaucer John Gower Julian of Norwich I 15th Century 0 Crowning of Henry V11 1485 after death of Richard III in the War of the Roses for more see 922015 class notes 0 Monk John Lydgate 0 Most prolific poet 0 Selfstyled imitator of Chaucer 0 Religious work under greater surveillance 0 Sir Thomas Malory d 1471 o Definitive form to legend of King Arthur 0 Printing Press 0 Extended literacy booksliterature became a business 0 Medieval English I Weakened in ection system I In uenced increasingly by French I Spelling is mainly phonetic I Vowels are long when doubled or terminal 0 Short when followed by two consonants Middle Ages cont d from previous class 0 313 CE began the unwinding of Rome earliest start of Middle Ages I Edict of Milan by Constantine which allowed Christianity to become a tolerated religion 0 Previously it had been Roman duty to persecute nontolerated religions I Rome was highly apotropaic rituals play a large part in real world events I Beginning of The New World 0 476 CE was the last Western Emperor of Rome future rulers were Eastern or Germanic EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES CIRCA 400 CE CIRCA 1500 0 1450s invention of the printing press 0 1519 Protestant Reformation Martin Luther ENGLISH MIDDLE AGES CIRCA 450 CE CIRCA 1485 CE 0 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field I Part of the War of the Roses 14001485 0 At the death of Edward III s son there was the question of who was going to be next in line 0 Became war of the Yorkish Branch and Lancaster Branch I Death of Richard III 0 The last Lancaster King I At Richard s death the Tudors took over and crowned Henry VII 0 Start of Modern England English Middle Ages 0 Anglo Saxon Period language Old English circa 450 circa 1100 I Bones of the English language are Germanic I First to adopt Christianity in the North after Ireland 0 5 97 St Augustine s mission to convert and develop institutions associated with the conversion 0 Recording of English coincidental to the recording of Latin Church language I Largest recording of language other than Latin 0 Progressive in terms of women I Able to sue for divorce and inherit property King Alfred s Preface to the Pastoral Cave 0 King Alfred King of Wessex subkingdom in England I At Alfred s time it was the only powerful subkingdom left others were invaded by Vikings in 798 0 See map of subkingdoms on Blackboard o Held Vikings off with a peace agreement where they agreed to stop expansion and convert to Christianity I Alfred was the 4th Son and so was training to be a member of the clergy 0 Why he could readwrite Latin 0 Pastoral Cave bishop handbook 0 Letters to various Bishops telling them why it was necessary to translate books into English I So the next generation could still understand they weren t learning Latin I Somewhat of an Educational Reform wants to bring back the informal wealthy tutoring and Religious education 0 Odd because medieval Kings primary concern was always to provide a male heir Bede and Caedmon s Hymn o Caedmon first English poet 0 Bede d 732 most famous scholar of the day I From Northumbrian thought to be the hotspot for scholars I Must have had access to impressive library he never travelled to experience the things he wrote about 0 150200 volumes Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Hero Blackboara Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Hero 0 Translated for NAEL by Seamus Heaney I Focuses on memory and the relation between past and present The Heroic Ideal o The Battle of Maldon 9 movingforceful statement of heroic ethic 0 Christianity converted Germanic heroic poetry and transformed it I Christ becomes modeled as a young hero I Cruci xion great struggle I Language and motifs are applied to teaching a new doctrine wants to teach those to sufferendure rather than seek vengeance 0 Judith blending of Biblical history with AngloSaxon tradition Beowulf and the AngloSaxon Epic Tradition o Finnsburg episode of Beowulf is in the classic tradition short works celebrating deeds of heroes in warrior society 0 Previously all were oral by bards singers who drew on traditional verse formulas 0 Author of Beowulf portrays the preChristian world as awed and vulnerable I Threats not only by monsters but by blood vengeance and never ending feuds I Hints at limitations of the heroic ideal Norton Anthology of English Literature Beowulf lines 11250 Written anywhere from first half of 8th century10th century Originally composed in Mercia dialect Reviving heroic language style and paganism of Germanic oral poetry Deals with Germanic tribes South Scandinavian I The Danes I The Geats I Takes place Mid5th centuryEnd of AngloSaxon Migration 0 Author Christian man 0 Holds to Germanic values I Loyalty of warrior I Lord s oath of protection 0 Soberdignified elegiac mood I Bookended by funerals OOOO WEEK 3 Caedmon s Hymn o Caedmon agricultural laborer common at many ChurchesMonasteries I His miracle he always left the song circle of other laborers before his turn because he was embarrassed He then has a dream vision and remembered the dream song to preform 0 First instance of verse in English on Religion 0 Bede wrote Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum Ecclesiastical History of the English People I Uses fantasticalmiraculous 9 subconscious doing ex Miracles The Dream of the Rood 0 About Reliquary I Shrine that houses Biblical relics authentic ones 0 Shroud of Turin Thorn of the Crown pieces of the Cross pieces of Saints bodies Holy Prepuce J esus foreskin I Was highly important in the Middle Ages 0 Poem 9 in verse 0 Dream about a talking tree 9 says it s the tree of Jesus cross I Medieval Dream Vision 9 very standard I Large importancesignificance placed on dreams I 5 Gems 9 Jesus wounds I No felons gallows 9 Jesus was crucified with two thieves o Inconsistent with the Bible I Portrays Jesus as more of a Beowulfesque character 0 The tree needs to be recovered because it s the true cross 9 reliquary Beowulf 0 Nothing about England I All eventscharacters take place in Scandinavia WEEK 4 I PlaceName Recognition places in charters property tradespapers were related to names of CharactersPlaces from Beowulf 0 Reference to Beowulf in a sermon I The description of Hell is very similar to that of Grendal s lair 0 One surviving manuscript of the text 0 Marshall exploits are highly valued 0 Why does it begin with so I Not because of In Media Res I Related to the word Hwaet original opening which signals a change in directiontopic o Begins with genealogy because lineage was very important I Explains alliances and ties between characters I Placed large emphasis on one s lineage and parentage o Kenning tightly packed metaphor I whaleroad 9 ocean hronrade in Old English I battlelight 9 sword o Mention to religion I Reference to the Flood of Noah I Cain v Abel o Beowulf is related to Hygelac his King maternally I Makes relation unquestionable I Hygelac 9 Chailocus o Hygelac was a real person I Mentioned in Geoffrey of Tor s history I Puts the earliest form of Beowulf possible at 560 CE 0 Most likely written between 775 and 825 CE with the form of the language Beowulf 0 Why does Beowulf begin with lineage I Genealogy is very important to culture I Creates a Biblical Model the Bible begins with description of lineage 0 Hrothgar is to build a meadhall Heorot to certify rule I Physical center of the community I Show prosperity of his rule I Hall building is designated for people with wealth and leisure o Meditation on what makes a good king I Central theme of Beowulf I Kings give gifts to people generous gift givers I Part of the Speculum principi Mirror of Princes genre which deals with the differences between good and bad rulers 0 Very popular in medieval literature 0 In following the Speculum principi Beowulf fails at the central duty of being a king because he does not provide a heir to his throne I A legitimate male heir is needed to prevent Civil War 0 Consequently with Beowulf 3 death it is likely that the Geats were overrun by the Swedes Recurrent themes of gloom and darkness I The fate of Heorot I Compared to moments of heroism fit for a heroic epic Widsith 9 fragmented pieces of an Old English Poem which mentions the burning of Heorot I Show expanse of the Beowulf tale throughout the AngloSaxon culture Hrothgar s characteristics 9 generous long ruling bragswealth mentality not able to defend his people physicallymentally frail ashamed because of his actions with Grendel Wergild means manpayment I Legal structure for shortcircuiting of blood feuds I Families would pay one another to stop a blood feud so it doesn t continue indefinitely I GrendelGrendel s mother don t recognize this because they are not human Kings were meant to possess Sopientia et fortitudo wisdom and strength I Hrothgar is not physically strong he is only wise and that is questionable Grendel s origins I Descendent of Cain I Survived Noah s ood from the Book of Enoch Grendel 9 I Nonhuman I Humanoid I Protected by spells shows some level of intelligence I Lives underwater with mother 9 scales Amphibian I Destroys Heorot because of jealously o Insider v outsider o Grendel is not one of them the Danes There is a need for modern readers to contextualize I Especially for motivation I The individual was not a thing 0 Community valued above everything 0 Individuals only make sense in context of a community I Grendel was motivated by extemality Loose similarity between Beowulf and Paradise Lost I Grendel as a Satanesque character I He has no motivation he is just evil Beowulf s motivation9 pride glory I Wants to test his strength against Grendel I Historical alliance between Hrothgar and Ecgtheow line 311 Beowulf possesses some animalistic qualities all positive I He is not semihuman like Grendel I He has superhuman bearlike strength BraggingPraising of Deeds was an expectation I Flyting ritualized bragging Proper burials were sacred and highly important I Beowulf specifics what happens to him in case of death 0 Send belongsarmor back to Hygelac because Beowulf is a servantretainer of Hygelac o Loyalty is the most important thing between a King and his retainers o Hrothgar paid off a Wergild for Ecgtheow Beowulf s father I One of the reasons why Beowulf comes to help him 9 to pay off a debt 0 At the feast Unferth is jealous and calls out Beowulf on his swimming competition line 500 I Beowulf dismisses him by saying he is a brotherkiller I Beowulf s actions are distinctly unheroic unseemly 0 There are only 3 women in the live action of the poem I Wealhtheow Hrothgar s Queen is the most prominent Beowulf 0 Line 1158 Hrothgar s wife I Beings by talking to Hrothgar about his plan to adopt Beowulf instead of his nephew Hruthulf 0 Rule is not parental just to the oldest male I Awards Beowulf with gifts from the Danes o Beowulf gives these to Hygelac o Hygelac is slain wearing the necklace from B eowulfWealtheow I She announces the gift giving to the public line 1215 o Ends with a warning to Beowulf to make sure he doesn t overstep his bounds 0 Warning him against trying to invade Denmark 0 One of the few times in Medieval Literature 0 Women taking control and occupying a powerful voice and center stage presence in a poem 0 Separates Beowulf from other medieval literature 0 Related to Scandinavian Viking age treatment of women I Both them and AngloSaxons had elevated treatment of women 0 Vanished in 1066 with invasion from Normans o Digressions are mini stories within the text I Often displayed in alternate text I Include asides to other medieval textslegends I Digression of Modthryth as a Wicked Women is a medieval trope in comparison with the treatment of Wealtheow 0 Fight with Grendel I Grendel shows up at Heorot one Dane gets eaten so that Beowulf can measure Grendel out the ght where Beowulf rips Grendel s arm offmortally wounds him Grendel retreats to his underwater lair to die Beowulf returns to Heorot for celebrations 0 That celebration is where Wealtheow s speech to Beowulf takes place 0 Grendel s mother line 1251 I Retrieves Grendel s arm turned into a trophy I Seeking revenge for her son s death she s duty bound 0 Mother s protectiveness over children 0 Doesn t honor Wergild because she is not human 0 Furthers the insideroutsider dynamic 0 She is not as strong as a man the strongest woman Amazon warrior is not as strong as a man 0 Kills Hrothgar s best friend Aeschere o Beowulf is not in the hall when she attacks 0 Ingwins 9 Danes I Hrothgar winds up in hysterics 0 Not displaying strength his strength is a symbol for the Kingdom 0 Maybe he is too frail mentally to rule as well as physically line 1345 o Begins to tell Beowulf this new information about Grendel that should have been made clear earlier there is more than one where they live etc 0 Doing exactly what he is not supposed to do 0 The description of Grendel s home Line 1408 is very similar to the description of hell in a medieval homily 9 The Blickling Homilies I Language is too similar to not be related I The homilist must have been familiar with Beowulf familiar with the copy of Beowulf that was passed won and survives today 0 Beowulf arrives at a drychamber and gains a sword I He was given Unferth s sword but it breaks down to the hilt I Finds a huge sword treasure Grendel s body and fire in Grendel s lair 0 Weapons have names 9 early medieval Germanic tradition I Unferth s sword is name so it has a narrative o The myth of Giants preceding humanity is a very common AngloSaxon idea I Because of finding the remains of Roman engineeringarchitecture o Explanatory narrative 0 Line 1560 Beowulf receives his new sword I Beowulf settling score for all of Grendel s deaths Mutilating remains 0 Out of tune with proper behavior 0 Caring for the dead is a sacred duty 0 Remains are honored o Disrespect of remains is one of the heaviest penalized crimes 0 Soldiers leave when they see blood coming out of the cave and filling the lake because they believe that Beowulf was killed I Never have enough faith in hero 0 Beowulf gives all of his new treasure to Hygelac I Beowulf at the height of his power he is both wise and strong I Because of KingRetainer relationship I Tells Hygelac that Denmark is in dispute with HeathoBards o Hrothgar plans on fixing it by marrying off his daughter I After the marriage history won t dissolve the bad blood 0 Peace won t be fully achieved 0 Critique of marriage alliances o Beowulf King of Geats because Hygelac dies and son is too young so Beowulf agrees to be his mentor until he comes of age I Hygelac s son also dies I Beowulf is the 5th in line I Hygelac s brothers 0 One kills one and father dies of grief so the other can t become king out of shame WEEK 5 End of Beowulf After killing of Grendel s mother 0 Beowulf is at his height 0 A critique of marriage alliances the Danes and the HethoBards Using the Outline of Events of Beowulf on BB 0 Unusual by modern standards I Main narrative is pretty standard but there are dozens of verses to create more narratives o The story of how Beowulf becomes King of Geatland Beowulf is a meditation of good kingship 9 does not exempt Beowulf from criticism There is a gap of 50 years between the death of Grendel s mother and the Dragon How Beowulf becomes King family tree 1 Haethcyn kills Herebeald accident 2 Hrethel dies of grief he has no one to take vengeance on 3 Ongetheow attacks the Geats 4 Haethcyn is killed in Swedish war 9 Hygelac becomes King 5 Hygelac killed on Frisian raid 6 Heardred become King 9 too young to properly rule a He harbors Eanmund and Eadglis in Geatland even though they re Swedes 7 Onela attacks Geatland and kills Heardred and Eanmund 8 Beowulf becomes King of a very diminished Geatland a Onela on orders of Ongentheow lets Beowulf rule The Swedes are the main rival of the Geats o Ruled by Ongetheow I Has two sons Ohthere and Onela marries Halfdane s daughter 0 Relation to the Danes I Ohthere has two sons Eanmund and Eadglis Beowulf surviving all of the Kingship changes is very suspicious because retainers should not survive their kings in battle 0 Should not have become King 0 And should not have not left a heir The dragon has always been around but became angered by a slavebonded servant stealing a goblet from the dragon s hoard to gain favor with his master Line 2240 Dragon s wrath story 0 Dragon s hoard come to be a city where all but one had died and he put all the treasure in one place because he had no use for it 0 There are two dimensions to treasure tribes used it as a large piece of value Legacy building Social relations 9 pass treasure to honorobey structure of society Wergild I Reputation of treasure is con icted I When these dimensions are broken it causes issues 0 Dragon goes insane when his treasure is taken 9 ignoring social relations Slave s story against social relations a gift cannot repair his favor The tone of the last third of the poem is hopelessness The Fight with the Dragon 0 Beowulf takes 11 men with him Jesus and the Disciples I One comes to Beowulf s aid during the ght 0 The dragon serpentlike o Beowulf is bitten in the neck I Can t use his sword because the dragon is armored I Guts dragon from underneath while being bitten 9 mortally wounded o Dracne Wyrm inspired serpentlike qualities 0 Wiglaf comes to Beowulf s aid I A loyal retainer Jr t Line 2794 0 After dragon s death 0 Beowulf instructions Wiglaf on what to do after his death I Give the dragon s treasure to his people I Directions for funeral build a barrow I The Geats bury the treasure exactly what Beowulf said not to do 0 More useless treasure ignoring social relations Doesn t hit religious messaging in Beowulf 3 death 0 Left with no one to rule and no treasure 0 Under heavy pressure from Swedes 0 Future of Geatland is at stake and doesn t look good 0 Beowulf basically died for nothing AngloSaxon Chronicle Not a single text Came from the Court of King Alfred Wessex Regional summary of events 7 different versions Alfred relied on Bishops to carry out reforms and maintain them 0 Areas can develop different traditions o Regionalized after year 950 Called annals yearly history Uniformed up until 950 then easy to identify location Viking Age AngloSaxon England is ground zero 0 7981066 0 Linguistic importance continued to record English after 1066 Analytic Selection on William the Conqueror 0 William was a good ruler 0 Not straight history but analytic 0 Edward the Confessor last AngloSaxon King I Lived a very Saintly life I Celibate never consummated marriage left no heir o 3 Claimed the Throne after Edward s death 1 Harold Godwinson slight blood relative a Natural person for the throne b Rules for a very short time 2 Harald of Norway believes he has a better claim a Invades England with an army b Battle at Stanford Bridge c Every single Norwegian person killed 3 William Duke of Normandy no ties Edward promised him the throne a Has a passable standing army b Army with advantages AS army had just fought c Convinced Pope to invent him with papal authority to rule d Battle of Hastings i AS nearly win ii Harold dies arrow to eye and dies instantly unusual l AS army quit William rules 2 Medieval wars are not normally fatal 0 AS holdings are given to Normans creates Barony class I Structure of Church changed replaced by Normans 0 French linguistic elements in uenced England linguistic elements 0 Norman conquest 1066 0 English lost in History for 200250 years I Turns to French and Latin I English is not used by importantpowerful people 0 Old English Lit AngloNorman lit after 1066 0 Very little was written in English 0 Normans were very interested in Arthurian legends I Most popular thing in culture I RomanoCeltic Britain 0 Arthur linked with a Roman past I Las legitimacy to rule because of Roman blood 0 Early Arthur writings were origin stories 0 Constantine accepted Christianity in Rome British by Birth born in Roman Britain AngloNorman Literature The AngloNorman Chronicle annual recording summary of events written in English 0 Started in 891 0 Distributed to centers of learning Church where they were carried on independently I Seven manuscripts have survived I Because highly regionalized I One surviving one is the Peterborough Chronicle 0 Named after the monastery where it was held and continued until 1 154 Peterborough Chronicle 0 English perspective on the rule of the Normans after the conquest o Talks about the Death of William the Conqueror The AngoNorman Chronicle from 1087 o Obituary for William the Conqueror Wace 0 Le Roman de Brut 1155 o Wace 11101180 Norman Cleric 0 Works written in French verse for a layperson audience I Included Marie de France drew on Wace s work 0 Le Roman de Brut 9 free translation 8syllable couplets of Geoffrey of Monmouth s Latin prose History of the Kings of Britain Layamon o Brut 0 English priest I Adapted Le Roman de Brut into Middle English alliterative verse c 1190 0 16095 lines 9 expands on Wace and adds new material 0 In the selection in the NAEL it is added material by Layamon pg 124127 I Arthur s dream of Mordred s treachery usurped throne and queen forcing Arthur to return to Britain 0 Uses long alliterative line 9 Old English Poetry I Two halves of the line linked by rhyme as well as alliteration o Ties to Germanic literary tradition I In Arthur s nightmare he and Gawain are sitting on a building similar to Heorot I Below Mordred is cutting at the foundation like the gigantic rodent in Norse Mythology which gnaws at roots of Yggdrasil 9 holds together heaven earth and hell Legendary Histories of Britain 0 12th century I 3 authors created legendary history of Britain for Norman overlords 0 History was set in remote past 9 beginning with a foundation myth and ending with the AngloSaxon conquest of the native islanders RomanoCeltic settlements in the 5th6th century I The Authors 0 Geoffrey of Monmouth Latin 9 113638 0 History of the Kings of Britain 0 Wace AngloNorman French 9 1155 0 Le Roman de Brut o Layamon Middle English 9 1190 o Brut I Geoffrey and Wace wrote primarily for an audience of noblemen who were descendants of the Norman conquerors of the AngloSaxon Arthur Roots in history o A military figure who rejected AngloSaxon rule and migration 5070 years after Rome abandoned Britain 56th century 0 Resistance fighter who represented RomanoCeltic against Germanic migration 0 Embellished throughout the Middle Ages Arthur s return Once and Future King 0 Geoffrey of Monmouth History of the Kings of Britain 0 Wace Avalon fairy otherworld kingdom Eschatology study of endtime o In MA very common because they always thought the world was going to end especially coming up to the year 1000 think Y2K Similar to a Jesus figure a returning savior Brutus Trojan who escapes Troy and establishes Kingdom in Britain legend 0 Basis for Britain Roman de Brut starts there Britons 9 Welsh outliner 9 not part of AngloSaxons Merlin 9 out of tune for Medieval Age Christianity 0 Not problematic though 0 Witchcraft was not punished until the end of MAbeginning of Modern Period 0 Witchcraft hysteria 0 Book Mcllevs Maleficarvm Hammer of Witches I Punishingcontaining women Arthur left the realm to Constantine son of Cador of Cornwall 0 Layamon Uther Arthur s father Uther Pendragon Once and Future King is in earliest legends The main Arthur Legend 0 Arthur 9 GuinevereLancelot Arthur loses is a cuckold 9 man whose wife is unfaithful Doesn t follow heroic narrative o Celebrated through incorporation into Courtly Love genre Marie de France Forbidden love is the only love that matters Marie de France Genre crossed languages and classes Ca 1100 at court of Marie de Champagne fascination for the leisure class 0 Parlor game Not having full control over romantic love 0 From France lived in England AngloNorman Works are in AngloNorman Literary works are generic only surviving form of Breton lay o Lays Arthurian material 0 Songlike poetic text 0 7 surviving Breton lays Lanval nobler than the Kings of the Round Table foreigner in Court Largesse generosity of spirit lovescares for humanity 0 Strong importance in Courtly Love 0 Animals sensitive to magic WEEK 6 Marie de France Courtly Love 9 Andreas Cappelanus De Amore ca 1185 o Heavily gendered Male purification Marriage is no impediment to love Forbidden love Individual thoughtinterior thought 9 move away from community thought 12th Century Parlor Game 9 unbridled passion Ex Abelard and Heloise I Abelard tutors her and they fall in love I Abelard 9 Parisian scholar clergyman I Heloise 9 niece of Bishop of Paris 000000 I Huge scandal Courtly Love came to life I Discovered and Abelard is castrated I Heloise sent to a nunnery I Carry out love through letters 0 J ealouslyanger 9 good for love and increases passion I Keeps passiondesire at highest level 0 Paradox in romantic love 9 want to be with lover but familiarity decreases love Origins of Courtly Love theories 0 Roman Literature elaborating on Ovid 0 Muslim East Romantic love prominent in Islamic literature I Because of the Crusades 9 increasing communication between Western Europe and Arabic States sharing of knowledge Principles of Courtly Love 0 Outlet because of the restrictions of marriage 0 Celestial love 9 love of chastity 0 Natural love 9 maymay not contain physical consummation I St Paul 9 better to marry than burn with passion rather than burn in hell 0 Sex is still a sin after marriage Lanval Reversal of standards of Courtly Love 0 Gender bending woman pursues man 0 Redeeming suffering Fairy queen 9 we can be together no one can ever know line 140 o Gives Lanval richestreasures 9 Bestows it on comrades at Arthur s court Queen pursues Lanval line 235 Theory of humurs o Balancing of bodily uid for behaviors 0 When you re angry 9 over excess of spleen I The Queen expressed her spleen Chevrefoil Line 310 9 Queen says Lanval attacked her 0 Goes to trial 9 Courtly Love 0 Lanval doesn t defend himself I No friendkin at court needed to act at witnesses I Medieval trials 9 witnesses mean more than evidence 0 The fairy queen come and takes Lanval with her on her horse I Role reversal Playing with Courtly Love conventions Goatleaf in English Tristran and Ysolt King Mark 9 always angry similar to Arthur Tintagel 9 castile in Cornwall 0 Where Arthur was conceivedborn according to legend Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ca 13751400 Alliterative Revival o Acquainted with international culture of high Middle Ages and ancient traditions o Alliterative verse 9 continued into Early Middle English Texts ex Layamon s Brut Audience 9 o Familiar with French Arthurian romances o Faithful to an older tradition poet 9 Gawain as Arthur s nephew Arthur is still in his youth 0 Sir Gawain 9 first blooming of Arthurian chivalry reputation of the Court on his shoulders Main Plot 9 Beheading Game 0 a supernatural challenger offers to let his head be cut off in exchange for a return blow 0 Link between beheading and Gawain s truth I truth in Middle English 9 faith pledged by one s word and owed to a lordspouse I Gawain measured against moralChristian ideal of chivalry Written in stanzas with a group of alliterative line 0 Lines are longer with no fixed number or pattern of stresses 0 Each stanza ends with a 5 short line rhyming ababa Botanical Imagery Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 1 375 1400 0 Same time as Chaucer but very different language 0 Single manuscript with 3 other texts survives I The Pearl PatiencePurity 0 Second two are very religious Alliteration 0 14th century alliterative revival 9 I Original died out after 1066 comes back in later half of 14th century End of each stanza has 5 lined rhyming section end rhyme o Comeintroduced with the Normans 0 bob and wheel Chivalric romance 0 Storynarrative 0 Means it s about knights Contrasting image axe V holly bob 9 obvious planning went into the narrative The Beheading Game 9 test of heroism 0 Old Irish gamefolklore trope Begins with story of Trojan War 0 Arthur has Roman heritage Not the same gift giving culture as AngloSaxons line 65 o SGGK at Christmastime so the gifts are traditions Early in Arthur s reign him and the Knights are very young 0 Young and immature o GK line 280 calls them beardless children 9 direct attack on masculinity Gawain accepts the GK s challenge rather than Arthur and says it s not t for a king 0 Arthur acts out of pride 9 gets him into trouble I Meditation on good kingship I There is no one to hold him accountable Gawain 9 humble and humility line 350355 0 Expression of noblesse 9 chivalric values I Acting with nobility o Gawain has all the qualities of a medieval knight 9 noblesse largesse gentlesse Cousin used as a term of affection not family relations WEEK 7 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Description of armor 9 shield Pentangle and Mary 0 Duality of images 0 Pentangle 5 virtues of Knights 0 Mary 5 Wounds of Jesus Rosary has 5 Decades o Marian Worship at the height during SGGK composition I Declined after the Protestant Reformation Expression of duality through Gawain imagery 5 virtues of Knights 9 friendship generosity chastity courtesy piety 0 Poem examines Gawain s virtue as well as if heavenly virtue can exist in a fallen world I Chivalric value v religious value I Examination of Chivalric system Isles of Anglesey 9 Island off of the NW coast of Wales Interchange between host and Gawain 0 Host goes hunting and Gawain stays game and the exchange winnings o Gawain is being hunted by the host s wife Names 0 Host Bertilack Green Knight 0 Host s Wife NA 0 Old Hag Morgan le Fay I Arthur s halfsister his foil I Always testing the virtue of Arthur s knights I Set up to scare Guinevere and test character of court especially for pride Female Characters 0 Little Guinevere I Uncommon in legends 9 normally loud and malicious 0 Morgan le Fay 9 foil to Arthur 0 Hostess of Castle I Modern temptress I Clever debater I Con ict between courtly love Hostess and Spiritual Love Virgin Mary in Bedroom 0 No positive images for women all cunning devious manipulative petty Demands of courtesy and chastity 0 Play along without offending and not sleeping with her Gawain 0 She challenges Gawain on courtesy puts him in an impossible situation by him not bending to her will I Kisses her courteously Duality of Images 0 Day 1 deer 9 1 kiss 0 Day 2 bear 9 2 kisses 0 Day 3 fox 9 1 kiss Gawain hides the girdle I Fox Sir Reynard 9 conventional name for a sly fox I Descent hunted 9 aggressive 9 deception o Gawain violates his promise to the host Finds the Green Chapel by hearing the sharpening of GK s sword line 2200 Line 2259 9 blows mirror Gawain s promise to host 0 Examination of contradictions of chivalric values I Questioning of religious virtue as well Honi Soil Qui Mal Pense 9 Shame be to the man who has evil in his mind 0 Tension between doing the right thing and doing the natural thing Interiority of Character 9 o Gawain s internal con ict weighing choices shown through actions 0 Literature becoming modern 14th Century SGGK 13751400 Incredible social and cultural change moving to modernity Factors Shifting Dynamics 9 o The Plague 0 Serious Warfare 9 Hundred Years War EnglandFrance 0 Religious Disarray 9 seeds of Reformation new ways of thinking Great Schism 13781417 Period of 2 Popes 9 one in Rome one in France I Hard to maintain order I Diminishes prestige of Church The Plague lasts for hundreds of years 0 Begins in NE Italy 0 1347 in Italy is the earliest recording 0 Bubonic plague buboes pus sacks on sites of lymph glands o Beccamorti 9 people who disposed of plague victims I Could claim insane prices I Most hated people Geoffrey Chaucer ca 13431400 Medieval Social Theory 3 estates layered into complex and unstable social strata by late 14th Century 0 Birth wealth profession and personal ability all helped determine status 0 Estates 1 The Nobility small hereditary aristocracy to rule and defend body politic 2 The Church look after the spiritual wellbeing of body politic 3 Commoners work to provide for the body politics physical needs Rapid economic political and social change9 greatly in uenced Chaucer Growing middle class with increasingly important roles o Blurring of class boundaries 0 Chaucer born into the upper middle class Chaucer son of prosperous wine merchant 0 Exposure to all sorts of people9 learned French and Latin 0 Became page to Countess of Ulster and Prince Lionel great aristocratic household of England 0 Captured by France and ransomed during Hundred Years War 1359 0 Member of King Edward s personal household 1367 o Served as Justice of the Peace and Knight of the Shire In association with the ruling nobility o Bridged the gap between commoners and aristocracy No documents of Chaucer writing poetry 0 Would write in French 0 Inspirations Guilllaime de Machaut 13001377 and Jean Froissart 13331400 I Courtly Love poets Diplomatic mission to Italy 1372 9 milestone in literary development 0 Exposure to Italian Renaissance new material 9 Dante Petrarch Boccaccio Wrote moralreligious works 9 mainly translations View nobility and commoners lived at intersection of social worlds The Canterbury Tales First conceived in 1386 Take of pilgrims going to Canterbury and sharing stories 0 Only completed 22 out of 120 planned Fictitious pilgrimage 9 framing device Pilgrims represent a wide range of ranksoccupations and diversity of tales 0 Not realism 0 Estate satire Stories respond to each other 9 dramatic interest More than 80 surviving manuscripts none from Chaucer s lifetime 0 9 or 10 fragments blocks of tales 14th Century Turning Point in Western History Literary authorship o Modernity v medieval I Modernity originality in content I Medieval tradition recycled narrative originality not needed 0 Canterbury Tales is modeled after Boccaccio s The Decameron Chaucer 9 Spoke English French Italian with working knowledge of Latin Authorship emerges as a vocation 9 print capitalism 0 With advent of printing press 1450 o Rising literacy rates 0 Before were mainly on a patronage basis 0 Bubonic v Pneumonic Plague I Bubonic 4050 fatal buboes I Pneumonic 100 fatal coughing up blood 0 Norway Black Rats 9 very heavy in Europe I In cities as urban class develops 13th century cities 0 Made progress of plague by mass graves plague goes from trade routes from city to city 0 Fleas 9 carry plague abundant in Europe Died from blood poisoning from the infection Beccamorti 9 death watcher I Economics price in ation o Chaucer survived the plague I Never spoke on it I No report of his family I He was wealthy enough to leave infected areas 0 Municipal services has origin in plague crisis Geoffrey Chaucer 13431400 Buried in Westminster Poet s Corner Family 0 Father venter wine trader lucrative business I Best value for trading financial commodity I Chaucer did this for a short time he was interested in money Occupied circles higher than his class he was upper middle class with good connections Soldier in Hundred Years War At the court of King Edward 111 o Captured by French in Hundred Years War and ransomed Partial documentation of a judicial charge of Chaucer of raptus 0 Either kidnapping false imprisonment rape o No record of him being tried Canteer Tales 0 Unfinished fragmented o 120 stories intended 9 Leave from Tabard 0 14th century in miniature 9 estate satire when all classes are together and make gentle fun of them in relation to their class 0 29 stories completed 0 Preprint no set printing or order of tales I No uniformity WEEK 8 The Canterbury Tales General Prologue frame narrative o Fragmentary work 0 Series of tensions 9 high V low heaven v earth 0 Satire characters reveal themselves give their failuresfaults away I Estatesatire common medieval trope 9 no overt attack on characters The Miller s Tale genre fabliau offcolor jokey stories with a moral 14th Century disaster enhancedstronger middle class 0 The Plague strengthened the middle class less humanlabor resources so those left are able to charger higher wages and better conditions 0 Middle ages becoming modern Line 118 The Prioress Below abbess in a convent nonelected installed position Unmarried welltodo seminoble daughter Madame Eglantine Speaks school French Outward appearance of courtesy Given a physical description even though she s a nun sensual description of a non 000000 I Contrast between living a religious life and enjoying materiality I Contrast between Amor Romantic Love and Caritas Spiritual Love The Miller Job is to cheat people Wrestling games 9 occupationfunsport for lower class Ugly J angaleur street musician OOOOO Goliard roving educated songwritersperformers I Been to university but didn t want to be a clergyman The Miller live down to expectation of a miller Very drunk in the Miller s Tale I Osewold Parson o Tale I John old carpenter can t read I Alisoun young beautiful wife of John I Nicholas clerk who lives with them puts on a show to convince John that it is going to ood I Absolon Parish priest o Myster playsmiracle plays about Biblical tales commoners very familiar with Biblical narratives I The Flood narrative Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales Miller s Tale low class character dirty emphasis on earthlybodily in contemporary 0 Nicholas is of the highest social class in the tale student to become clergyman 0 Characters abused due to lack of educationunderstanding o Subversive not celebrating ideals of past focus on present Knight not a good character always in places of bad wars 0 Early modern period conceptualized individual Chaucer establishes contrast between tales 0 Knight v Miller Wife of Bath 0 Prologue is longer than her tale 9 background is vital to the tale I Married 5 times 0 Misquotes authorities scripture 0 Has moneyselfmade woman 9 professional pilgrim I Money from marriages and textiles seamstresstailor Disclosure lots of experience using rhetoric of man preemptive defense of self Virginity 9 she s a student of marriage and schooling of husbands I Where did God command virginity 0 Logic is awed disjointed thought process 0 Childish logic if god commanded virginity then marriage is a sin but need people need to have sex to populate In the same class as the Miller Husbands 13 good submissive rich and died Husband 4 drunk had a mistress she convinced him that she was cheating on him Husband 5 J anekin young only one she loved he gave love so ungenerously abusive he has a book of Wicked Wives which he reads aloud o Con icted portrayal of Wife of Bath 9 Chaucer contrast I Conditioned mentalities v Individual ideals 0000 I Was Chaucer really in control of the contrast in his text 0 Chaucer s wife was most likely the lover of John of Gaunt married because it would save her reputation 0 Tales Marriage Group concerning marriageromantic love 0 Tale Arthurian I Can be genderregressive women loses power in relationship 0 Ending is malecentrality I Sovereignty what woman want 0 Marriage sphere of negotiation politicizes it as more than romantic love WEEK 9 William LanglandPiers Plowman Composed 13631385 60 Manuscript versions survive 9 incredibly popular 0 Incomplete fragmented Seems to attack religion 9 controversial and reformist o Socialreligious reforms 0 Seeds of Protestant Reformation o Upending of social structure result of Plague Contemporaries with Chaucer Langland 9 may have been a Priest defrocked 1381 Rebellion Peasant s Revolt 0 Almost completely remade English Society 0 Wat Tyler 9 leader 0 John Ball 9 leaderpriest executed Allegory form 9 symbolic Unrhymed verse with alliteration o Alliterative revival Passus step 0 Passus 1 Field of Folk I Humanity in between heaven and hell I Entire sweep of society connection between Chaucer and Langland Infuses Latin 0 Hints at Langland being a lowlevel clergyman Palmers professional pilgrims Friar Mendicant group of Clergy 0 Professional beggars committed to life of poverty Pardoner not ordained 0 Can t execute the rights of the Church ie sacraments Priestly rights Langland only spares the plowman from critique 0 He s the only virtuous figure Passus l 0 Woman is the Holy Church not the performance of religion I Invested in social reform I Truth most valuable commodity Passus 5 Biblical Latin 0 Good treatment fair pay work 9 Plowman s Themes Morals as geography Allegory William Langland 13301387 Piers Plowman 9 long religious allegory in alliterative verse 0 3 Versions A B C texts I A 2400 Lines I B extension of A with 4000 more lines I C revision of B Text Little to none is known about his life o What is known is gathered from Piers Plowman Probably was from the West of England probably native to the Malvern Hills area 0 Where Piers Plowman opens Inferred through poem that poet was trained to enter into the Church but ended up in poverty 0 Because of marriage and lack of preferment Piers Plowman 9 form of a dream vision 0 Theme history of Christianity I Both in world of the OldNew Testament and life of an individual 14th Century Christian In Prologue narrator falls asleep and witnesses vision of 14th century England 0 Estate satire heaven v hell activemobile earthly life is concentrated into a eld full of folk 0 Save greatest anger for abuse of ecclesiastical authority and wealthy pitiless laity Poem divided into Passus step 0 Passus l promises intellectualmoral perchance to the prologue Truthe justice that ows from God 0 Recognizes the force of Church s sermon but needs to be known by an interior form of knowledge I Poem devoted to discovery of internalized truth Margery Kempe 13731438 Spiritual autobiography of medieval laywoman o Struggles to carry out a Holy Life 0 Receives visions from ChristVirgin Mary Daughter of John Burnham Mother to 14 children 0 Took a vow of celibacy with her husband Unable to readwrite Highly emotional style of religious expression Piers Plowman Reformist Passus 6 ideal social organization in terms of estates 0 2 main needs for humanity food male and clothing female I Gendered because a woman s place is the home 0 Divisions of class but classes willingly help each other I Inversion of normal hierarchy I There is the expectation of a contract the help goes both ways I Don t compete with one another I Famine hunger is what has the potential to disrupt everything because everyone needs to eat 0 Also can restore order paradox Plague Culture accepting death as a part of daily life 0 Humor associated with death Pg 352 CText 0 May be autobiographical o Lollardy 9 Religious Reform spoke in tongues others called them lollards I Possible that Langland was one I Wanted to make the BibleReligion readableunderstood by all translate it into English I John Wycliffe 9 first complete English translation of the Bible 14th Century Margery Kempe The Book of Margery Kempe Ecstatic religion 9 ecstatic religious piety o Outward visions expression of belief 0 Trans gressive moves beyond the boundaries of the Church I Feature of female religious faith I Gets ride of the middle man people shouldn t have direct contact with God I There was little outlet for female religious expression within the boundaries of the Church 0 Female mystics developed out of the reforms 0 Julian or Norwich Catherine of Emmerich Margery Kempe o Sensual visions of Jesus body Considered to be the first autobiography in English language Margery was from the emergent middle class 0 Leisure standing had disposable wealth 0 Father was mayor of King s Lynn Had 14 kids Illiterate Tension regarding sex 9 reality V vision sensuality Quotation Identification Caedmon s Hymn Bede The Dream of the Rood Anonymous Beowulf Anonymous Preface to the Pastoral Care King Alfred The AngloSaxon Chronicle Anonymous The History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouth Le Roman de Brut Wace Lanval Marie de France Chevrefoil Marie de France Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Pearl PoetAnonymous Canterbury Tales General Prologue Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales The Miller s Tale Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales The Wife of Bath s Tale Geoffrey Chaucer The Vision of Piers Plowman William Langland The Book of Margery Kempe Margery Kempe Everyman Anonymous
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